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Australian troops charging near a Turkish trench during the Gallipoli Campaign, circa 1915

Gallipoli Campaign

The Gallipoli Campaign (also called the Dardanelles Campaign) was a World War I Allied offensive on the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey. It lasted February 17, 1915, through January 9, 1916, and was ultimately unsuccessful, ending in high casualties and evacuation. Background With trench warfare causing stagnation on the Western Front, the British and French decided …Read More

Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton (born January 11, 1755/57; died July 12, 1804) was one of America’s Founding Fathers. A proponent of a strong central government, Hamilton shaped the early economic infrastructure and policies of the United States. Revolutionary War Born in the British West Indies, Alexander Hamilton moved to the United States in 1772. During the American …Read More

Jackie Robinson, 1954

Jackie Robinson

Jack Roosevelt Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) was born in Cairo, Georgia, but grew up in southern California. He attended UCLA, where he participated in football, basketball, track, and baseball. From 1942 to 1944, during World War II, Robinson served with the U.S. Army. Afterward, he briefly played baseball for the Negro …Read More

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Lake Nyos, 1986

Lake Nyos Disaster

On August 21, 1986, a rare natural disaster occurred in the West African country of Cameroon when a large cloud of carbon dioxide gas erupted from Lake Nyos (Nios), a deep volcanic crater lake.  Background The event, known as a limnic eruption, occurs when carbon dioxide (CO2) builds in colder, deep lake water, creating a …Read More

A street view following the Halifax Explosion in 1917

Halifax Explosion

On the morning of December 6, 1917, two ships collided in Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia, resulting in a massive blast that ultimately killed 2,000 people in the largest man-made explosion prior to the atomic age. Background Halifax was a wartime boomtown during World War I, and ships loaded with troops, munitions, and supplies sailed in …Read More

Opening of the League of Nations, 1920

League of Nations

The League of Nations (1920-1946) was an international organization headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, created after World War I to establish world peace and prevent another global war. Creation of the League The onset and escalation of World War I built support in many countries for the creation of a multinational body to ensure world peace. One …Read More

Electoral College map from 1896

U.S. Electoral College

The president and vice president of the United States are elected through the U.S. Electoral College, which is outlined in Article II, Section 1, of the U.S. Constitution. The Electoral College is composed of “electors” chosen by the voters of each state (plus Washington DC) to cast their state’s electoral votes in a presidential election. …Read More

St. Louis Giants, 1916 - Negro Leagues Baseball

“Negro Leagues” Baseball

The “Negro leagues” were organized circuits for professional Black baseball teams, functioning most successfully between 1920 through the 1940s in the United States’ East, Midwest, and South. Early History After the American Civil War, baseball became increasingly popular in the United States, and professional teams and leagues began to emerge. Initially, there were some instances …Read More

USS Indianapolis (CA-35) off the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, 10 July 1945. US Navy photo 19-N-86911.

USS Indianapolis

The USS Indianapolis was a U.S. Navy cruiser that was torpedoed and sunk on July 30, 1945, shortly after delivering components of the atomic bomb. The sinking and aftermath led to the deaths of 880 men.  Construction The Indianapolis was a Portland-class cruiser constructed in 1931 and commissioned by the U.S. Navy the following year. …Read More

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