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english POV - XII g iA7 TAM1XE ASu ITS ItESULTS 0 The great...
XII g iA7 TAM1XE ASu ITS ItESULTS 0 The great Irish Famine of 1S1G - 7 fills a elooiny p i oit national annals. This wide - spreadm calumny was marked bv scenes of aooallin ii::ernjL - . ana wilt ercr stand out as a tramc pasHse in a loii history of many iiimfortunea. As alays happens, too, in jnvat social crises, it brought out in its most striking aspects the good and eil of human nature, and it exhibited in a pathetic drama contemplated ly ihe civilizt - i world the extremes of endurance and resignation, immense liief oleticx - anl far - reschin sympathy, alternating with mere callous sellishnea and in - ditlerence to moral claims and duties. Yet, memorable memorable as Uie visitation was, its results bare been even more important, and the lessons it teaches country iwarmin; with a paaper peasantry, and was ' In numerons instances, too, doubtless no record the Cabinet was right in interfering with trade si actually opponoo by Irish agitators, and even as ate as exists of what wi endured ; the nnrisited glen, little as possible, and in refusing to make the Stat J. - 4J it was inereiy in its immature intancy and was tne sectQced hut became the grave of many an Uie principal agency lor too procuring ol loou. lr wholly unequal to meet an emergency. Ly thu unknown sullerer ; and even regards the iniUicns I eraerp - jxaes such as 1846 - 7 private enterprise is t time tho state of aifatrs vhxti had been in progress who survive I, the lean, tadarerou,andaad aspect of for years in Ireland bad, at last, reached iu com - ! Ue multitudes who sought and obtained relief told Govern men t etfort what the eontinnotu tvow of the silent dew is to a sudden and wasting shower ir reviving the face of languid nature, and neves ' plete proportions, an l experience was aouii to show u plainly what in many p'acas was the misery of how tern tile weie ti.e eoi whicn lay concealed the tamuhed population, witnin it. In ln44 the uoiiuUtioa had aojuired an u t,,i - r, t mn.,Har tK. Asiauc density ; it numbered more than f,UUV,UUU ; the eheets of this awful calamity, h can hardly be thl crisis. As for tha demands urged by souls, and though the country had increase! n ,Aid that the Irish gentry illor ie 1 the Government short - st - hted ignorance that corn should not bt wealth an 1 numerous siois ot pro - sTeiu were seen aas stance b. - subacr.rjui iunds, or employing , siiowed to leaTe Ireland, this would have enriched especially in L uicr and paru ot Leinster, stul the Ubour, and throuahout the famine the national few speculators, made the SUte responsible fo immense majority of the o.er - crowded pjosantry ; undeocy to make the State do everything was very ! the supply of food, in all probability aggravated were mere struLn and impoverished serrs ; and aJ( arent. It mi, however, be borne in mind that i wnt, and certainly ooe enormous injustice ; an.' lb uu uiru llttai tttl Ul Ol me cuiumuilllj , I - li; .H th fn lr.in , - ir ruvnirr nf tM elUallT miSCAieTOOS WSS Ul SPeClOUS CTT : . " .7 cukAi ere grievously reiluced. and that hundreds ol ""'"mutni uepuu su over mo cwuiiuy. rerhars. was the power of commerce) in allcnatmj We turn to consider the means adopted in lessen ' d removing the ills of dearth so exemplified as a' fot Even even more instructive. Like ihestorni which clears i the brui. of starvation, pryinB - on the country like Uudiords were simply bewared, and extraordinary ! the aiUUon for what was called reprodactivf and acts free while it rarauns, the liesolaun trial of 'M years aijo imote at once the whole social fabric of Ireland, and oeUed it to improving intlueuces ; and a bnrf season of cruel atlliction has been a turuin )oint in the national life from which we y trace new growth and advancement. The events of ls - li - , relieved Ireland from a deadweight of misery that w.vmovt almoit to forbid her i.ro - t;reas ; ti.ey produced a train ot noble reiorins ly concentrating the attention of stateamm on the peccant p;irt of her distempered frame ; and, in a ord, the felicitous clianwe which, in our dav. trade, with etlec's extending throughout the clobe : and tho emigration of the Irish millions which has goue on during this generation haa had a direct and most potent influence on the fortunes of the American Commonwealth, and of other divisions ot the humsn family. Looking at the subject, too. from aiother point of view, impartial history will, believe, record that the eiiorts maue by the lintish (iovernment to mitigate and cooe with Uie tul calamity unuer which Ireland, tor a time, col - ot 14." the notato was attacked bv a mysterious lapsed, were on the whole worthy ot a reat State ; I utsuase, anil before Jon a cry rose troru Ireland d it signally attests the enormous difficulties ot that the people were iu the grasp ot famine. The lers iu sucu a lioaition ol atlairs, and the expedi - great .Mui.ter who was then iu power acted with ency, in times of nations! dearth, ot keeping steadily remarkable promptitude and vigour, iiaviug ascer - in signt me maxims ot sound sense and political tamed that a laro part of the potato crop was science, ami dev.ating from them as Little as poa - ; unit for food, hu made bp his mind to repeal the sibic. For all these reasons we shall briefly retrace Corn Lavs ; and, in order to secure thj iuans of the vicissitudes of the Irish Famine ; but if we I existence in the most remote and distressed districts, select this woiit as a text, our commentary will he purchased a supply of Indian corn, which was secretly stored in Ooverunieut depots, and set on foot a system of public works sustained wholly by grants from the treasury. Whether these last - of in ia la re 40, 33, 35, of air , - - 3 287 aa iy. - th - In the - U a devour.n mcuLua. S.iet7, in thu condition of svmi.athv coui.i not i.t Unn th ortfer as a ; works ou a prudisiou scale wa protrly di thiiig wm, it was said with e - pial tersenen and : nnoie, and the peopie. by the winter of l4o - 7 the countenanced by the Administration. thi plausible: truth, 1 - T.4C.I ou the potato and noUun, else , it o jrua norkhouse more than ovexdowe.i, and the j eauu in voived a sy stem of forced labour to anincorv this, in lact, alone whidi enaOU - d niilUons of petty ! gigantic mass of deutution caused by the failure ceirable extent, which would have proved fatal tu ocwupiers u maintain life on mnnitely sub - divided G the crop was Hun on the system of Public natural industry ; nor was much to be said fot patches of Una ; it was this alone which fed an worki, which had been lmprovued a few months fanciful schemes, such as the reclamation ofbogv enormous uia of vagrant be - ary, to be seen be; ore - the last plank of sate'ty in the treat ' b7 SUte, or Lord Ge. BentuKk's project of everywhere ; and it tormed, so to speak, tho ai shipwreck. Day after day despairing Relief promoting railways. We incline to think that the main element of rent, of wages, and eveu of I Committee sent fresh numbers to the tale of the I alt which can in fairness be found with the currency, lo complete the picture it must be t employed ; week after week the otbciaU ot the government was that it did not summon Parlia, added that Ire'and a as, to a lare exUnt, possessed lird of Works saw witi alarm new swarms of ! nent in the autumn of 1346 and terminate ths by needy and bankrupt landlord, in race and taith , Lun?rv tiur n,l to tne m.ie h,rh in .r.rr ? labour rate system sooner : and certainly ' Lord has naesed over the country mut. in a irreat mea - cut oil Irom the iuole. divided from them in !, art of th untrr mere tK meln.hnl wne, t Htusell wss not ahye to tha Deculiar imnortance of ure, be ascribed to them. Nor ere the conae - thousand of cases by the intricacies of a barbarous ! their f. r - d labour : and at last full v 3.UU0.WW ime connnea to tne lana i"""" "u oiieu wuuuut mo inuiumuu were uireeuv or indirectly austainad on ei - ri Inch, in the hrs: lustance, was the theatre of its or tha means to improve their estate or to raise i furnished and controlled by the State. Meanwhde most woetul incidents. The fcmpire owes to the their dependant. lhus,uotwithstandmg some marks ' the tiovernment stores were thrown open in the distress of Ireland the rapid accomplishment of free j of advancement, the island, eveu iu iu normal j remote district of the south and west ; magniticent condition, was ever, so to sptak, on the border ot au abyss ; and the frame of society, disordered throughout, throughout, exhibited its ills in widespread wretchedness, in division of class, and in chronic disturbance. What would be the issuh should a sudden calamity destroy the frail and treacherous root on which this whole order of things was based 1 This consummation was now at hand, with far - spreading and permanent results. In the Autumn dltter wulnlv In.m it nor ran a in imr rnrur I commend it. He do not say, indeed, that Air. O Rourke is not a laborious and patient compiler, and he has put together a varieiy of details, which, though not etlectively grouped and arranged, are of real use to a student of the time.juid throw a yxuni deal of light on hu subject, iiut his book is pervaded trom tirst to last with what we can only describe as a spirit of passionate hatred, of England ; and he u so ignorant of the elementary knowledge required even to comprehend his theme, and so bunJe j by the false behet too common, we rret to say, in Ireland that the State must be looked to to do everything, that his conclusions are almost always unsound, and his views too often absurd or distorted. W hat, in fact, can be said in behalf of a writer who insinuates that British law and government were the cause of the misery of 164, ; who contends that i arlianient had the power of turning want into ease and plenty ; who thinks legislative quackery a surer means of supplying the needs of a distressed people than the energies of unrestricted commerce ; and who alike makes no allowance for the trying position of an Administration Administration at a tremendous crisis, and persistently represents represents iu uutiring eilorU to assuage suflering and avert famine as pedantic blundering or selfish indifference i The Famine of 1846 - 7 was only tho last of many calamities of a similar kind that had na&sed over Ireland. The goiveoua cloudland of mythic tradi tion high - piled by the imagination of the Celt is diversified by numerous sputa of gloom denoting seasons of extreme dearth ; and the earliest authentic records show that the aboriginal Irish we're often exposed to scarcity and its attendant vils. racn century of Gorman rule in Ireland u marked by the traces of cruel famines, and tho sullerings ot the people must have been terrible in land convulsed by the strife of races, where Feudalism wore iU most repulsive aspect. Tho horrors of the years of want and wretchedness. hich followed the close of the Desmond wars, are commemorated by the pen ol Spenser ; and his vivid picture ot the " anatomies ot death, eatirtz carrion and crying lute ghosu from their graves," brings home to the mind a fearful im pression ot the state of the peasautry at this period. The invasion of Cromwell inaugurated an era of appallinz dearth, in which " tha people.'' it was said, " lived like brute bessu : and the father of medicine gsve the name of the Irish dyseutery" to the consuming disease which soon afterwards swept over the country, snd made its destructive way into England. The effect of the wars of William 111., seem to have been in many respects similar ; and famine and pestilence, it u thought, struck down nearly a third of the native Irish race in the second half of the 17th century, The lirst really trustworthy account, however, of a period of general want la Ireland, in an age of anything like order, ia that of the great Famine of li oJ - 41, which presented scenes in many parucu lars resembling thoan of 1 840 - 7. At this time the land system of Ireland had begun to assume the peculiar form which it anally took many years after wards, though it had nut attained iu full develop ment. An increasing population spread over the soil, eking out life ou a precarious root, and ruled over by an alien caste ; and tha great body of the Ueltio peasantry were continually on the verge of extreme scarcity. In this state of things, it is said the potato was blighted in a week by a severe frost ; and before long want and iU companion, disease, were doing their deadly work through the affrighted country. The misery of the two suc ceeding years u attested in many publications of the day, and as a Poor Law for Ireland wa not yet dreamt of, and no attempt wss made to organize relief, we can readily believe that of a population then numbering about 2,000,000 persons, not less a broad distinction between this famine and that of our age. The Irish Parliament made no effort to mitigate distress even by taxing property ; and, as a necessary result, the visitatiorr of 1740 was infinitely infinitely more destructive than that of 1847. though the last was a much more searching trial. During the 80 years that followed 1740 there were many seasons of dearth in Ireland, and, in all these instances, the cause was the same, the partial failure of the untrustworthy root, which fed the swelling millions of the Irish peasantry, and placed them at the lowest level ot existence. let during this period no earnest attempt was made to improve this state ot society, and, in tact, au tnat was worst in it had eone on increasing with dread rapidity, A variety of causes had promoted to an ex traordinary degree the growth of the popula tion of Ireland, and the evil resulte, perhaps, more than balanced all the eood effected in the meantime by liberal reforms and improved eovernmeut. By 1820 Protestant ascendency and landlordism had been in part restrained ; but the 2.000.000 of three generations before bad muiti plied into nearly ,uuu,iaaj, ana two - imras oi tms mass of humanity depended for life upon the potato, and was rapidly gravitating towards want and wretchedness. It is but fair to say that this state of fixings wss a legacy of the Irish Parliament Parliament ; but it is to be regretted that 20 years after the Union, it had continued unchanged or perhaps had gradually changed tor uie worse ; and the cruet reproach that can be justly urged against our Irish rule in those days was that statesmen were not sufficiently alive to the immensity and the immi nence of the peril. In 1822 a faint prelude was seen in Ireland of the catastrophe of the next generation. In the preceding harvest the potato had failed in several parts of Minister and Coo - nauzht, and considerable districts in the South and West were plunged for some months into very great misery. The 'lis tress, however, was only partial ; and though no Poor Laws as yet existed, it was lessened by charity and Government grants, the Imperial Legislature haying in this resciect acted very differently from its Irish proto type. Fourteen years having passed, the frightful evils ot insn poverty, in its exteoaing growut, attracted the attention of tho heads of the State, n, I the Government of Lord Melbourne made real attemDt to deal with the worst of Irish difficulties by the inauguration of the Irish Poor Law. This system, however, was only developed very sjowly iu introduction was, xu lacs, oxmcuii in The History of th Great Irish Fasain of 1&4Z." th Bws. Joaa 0aark. TJ. measures of Sir R. Peel were altogether politic admiU of queation ; but, though they involved a large expenditure, they were not put to a very aevere test, for as the failure of the potato in 1640 as not so general aa had been feared, and the yield of cereals was very prolific, waut in Ireland in that year was not excessive. What, however, was in 1845 but the foreshadowing ot approaching evd becama iu a few months a tremendous reality. Iu the secoud week of August, 184ii, tha potato was blighted throughout Ireland ; and tha effect equalled all that has ever been heard of the devastating march ot the tropical blast or tha ravages ot the locust tempest. The plant seemed struck by soma malign inllueuce; in a few hours iU gay summer blossoms blossoms and rich leaves shrivelled up and putrihed, and far and near, in all parte of the island, the vast green spaces which marked its presence became desolate breadths of noisome decay, staudin out ominously in tha bright harvest landscape. Those who beheld the sight will never forget it ; and the aspect of the peasantry, who almost everywhere showed Vliey felt a dread visitation was near, gave the spectacle touching human interest, by this time Sir It. Peel had resiirned, and tho (Iovernment oi Lord liussell addressed itself to meet an evidently impending crisis. The measures of tha Cabinet were, in some reipecU, most wise : and, even if misled by recent experience it possibly underrated the approaching peril, it u most unjust to jude too severely the actsot statesmen at such acouiuncture. As it was at least doubtful whether the late purchase of Indian corn by Sir R. Peel was not contrary to sound principle, the Government of Lord Kussell . properly resolved to trust in the main to the powers of commerce ttr the general relief of Irish distress ; and it declared that it would not interfere with trade in tho importation of food into Ireland. and that, even as regard the internal trade, it would interfere as little as possible. At the same time, as whole tracU of the island were almost devoid of retail trathc,and estcialiy of that in corn and provisions the potato having beau tha whole support of lifo it determined to establish State aepote in certain place with supplies of food, directing, however, that these resources should be distributed only where want wa extreme, and that they ahould not be sold under tha market price, in order to avoid the great mischief of banishing or keeping away the ordinary dealer. The question, however, was one not of food only but of finding means for an unknown number of impoverished human beings to procure it, for destitution, it was known, would bo itreat, and the Poor Law system was not yet sufficiently developed to rely wholly on it. in this position Lord lluaaeU turned to the expedient adopted by his predecessor, providing. however, lor its extension, and at least taking some obvious precautions. Public Works, presented by .Local Hoards, were to be executed in distressed dia - axul world wide chanty poured its contributions into tne afflicted land, and aa the executive adhered to iU rule not to interfere with the retail trade, food, though necessarily at an excessive price, wss more abundant than could be expected. Condemn it as we may in the abstract, thu system of relief E reserved Ireland from a catastrophe at which umanity shudders ; aad if Famine made its thousands of victims, the Labour Kate Act, as must not, however, scan too closely doubtful errors like these : aad the sentence ot history, we are convinced, convinced, will be that England and her rulers at this trying period were not unequal to their arduous duties. A quarter of a century has since passed away. How different now is the state of Ireland front what it was before 1816 ! Political trouble, indeed, survive ; a few signs of agrarian disturbance disturbance exist, and in all that constitutes material well - beimr there is still room for no little improve ment. The progress of Ireland has not been so rapid in the last ten years as it promised to bo ; it was called, the Treasury, and the i noble bene - her agriculture is still backward ; the mud cabin volence of ringland, were tho means of saving 'uu too often marks the presence on tne soil oi tne millions of live, ihe expedieut, however, of sup - pauper occupier ; the peasantry in Minuter and porting a people on Public Works with the money Connaaght still rely too mnch upon the potato. Iiut, of the staie and under the check of a Central t'oard compared with the period before the famine, only was inevitably franght with enormous abuses, 1 Ireland is a land ol plenty and happiness ; ari and when it had become evident that the employer I there is abundant evidence that this prosperity of labour were not likely to give much aid tho ' w& steadily advance "vith tha march of time. Society Government liad to devise other means of dealing In the island no longer rests on, foundations utterly with the fearful questiou before it, Ixule - ' f&le and unstable ; it no longer depends oa a pendeutly ot the com pit to removal of the last treacherous root ; it is not now ever on the verge restraints on the lmiort of lood. the chief of these, i of n abyss, removed only a step from ruin. The with sons lesser measures, was the introduction of a new plan of relief, which came into operation in the spring of 1847. Under this schema the existing system system of forced Public Works wss almost abandoned ; relief wa to consist of food only, the practice of giving relief in money having proved, as may be supposed, most wasteful ; destitution was subjected to better tests than that of willingness to work on roads, and the authority of the lioard of Works, which previously, had controlled everything, and which, though iu eliorte had been admirable, had been unable to prevent frauds and jobbing on an enormous scale, was distributed within certain limits, and subject to a general supervision among local committee, chosen in the main from the classes liable to the charge of poverty. The Exchequer, a hitherto, was to lend iu sssiitance to Ireland iu the hour of distress, and to make the advances that might be required, but half of the cost was to fall, ultimately, as under the Labour ltale Act, upon Irish property. Under this sj stem Ireland struggled with fsmine during the spring and summer of 1847. The sufferings of the want - stricken districts continued terrible in the extreme, and though deaths by starvation starvation were comparatively few, the rargrj of fever and disease were appalling. The pressure, too, upon all cb'saea throughout the island was beyond example ; whole tracts, abandoned, by their occupiers, occupiers, became dreary and barren solitudes ; and every town wore a look of penury and gloom. Tne destitution wa so enormous that, notwithstanding notwithstanding the precautions of the law, the number of persons in receipt of relief varied from 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 for months, and tha whole structure of landed relations in msny places completely collapsed. collapsed. Yet, owing in a great degree at least to l,u tfnrt. ..f 111, St, to .nil rxt nniwer.,1 nn.n.tkw the nation passed through the fearful ordeal, and the later measures ot relief were, in every respect. more successful than those of the earlier period. Relief in food was found more effectual to mitigate distress than relief in money, and much leas liable to fraud and wrong ; the labours of the local com mittees were, sneaking generally, worthy of praise. and necessarily involved less charge and waste than the cumbrous operations of the Hoard of Works. and the ultimate cost of the new system was not nearly a half of that of the old. So the summer of 1847 paeaed, and as prodigious supplies ot food continued to flow in from abroad and the harvest promised an abundant yield, the tremendous strain by degrees slackened, and tha portentous mass of the recipienu oi relief in some measure declined in numbers. " Land," in a word, as seen through the breaking storm,and Parliament very rightly decided that, it tha State should still aid Ireland, securities should be taken if possible against the recurrence) of what had happened. The Poor Law was extended and made effective by a necessary licence for out - legislation of 1847 - 60 has borne great and beneScent fruit ; the Poor Law system has developed its results, and while property is compelled to support poverty, it keeps down its perilous growth. The) discipline of the Encumbered Estate) Court has made the upper rinses frugal and prudent, and the Land Ait of 1870 will, we hopemprove landed relations atxl encourage husbandry. Ihese reforms hare done much to control pauperism, to augment wealth, and to promote industry ; yt their aiiecu would have boen little without the removal of the redundant population from tha land through the immense emigration of the last, 20 years. This, wa repeathas been the great gain of Ireland since 1840 - 7; it has relieved the country front a burden beyond the resources of a far richer nation ; it has freed society from a most serious danger ; it has made real agriculture possible, and liberated toe sou from a fatal mortmain ; and it has dona mora than anything else to raise the coudition of Irishmen abroad and at home. Wa' shall cot argue with those who eon - tend that tb Irish exodus was a calamity to which statesmen shuuld look with regret t and it is nothinz to the, purpose that in a different state ot society from Riat of 1844 - 3 Ireland might have s supported her teeming milium without unpenning the whole community. The general results ot this revolution have been gratifyinj in tha extreme), and they are visible, in every part of tha island ana in the relations of all rlssses. Tha wealth of Ireland has enormously increased since 1846 : her rental ha risen at least coe - fourth ; tha profits of farming hare probably doubled : tha wages of labour have, in places, trebled ; and, tried by every conceivable test, her history has been OQo of decisive progress, tha happiest change) of all, certainly, has been in tha aspect of tha peasantry ; tha misery of tho past has almost disappeared ; corn baa largely replaced tha potato as food ; sad yon meat loou of health and content where all had been degraded wretchedness. If tha famine wa a terrible visitation, visitation, it has been ultimately a souree of welfare and in this, as in other instances, Providence haw caused good to grow out of evil. , TKB W0RKLSQ 01 RAIL WATS. Oa Tuesday evening a aseetiag ef the tricts : and those considered entitled to relief by committees acting upon the spot were to be set to labour at these constructions and to be paid accordingly in money wages. The Treasury, which from the very outset was liberally opened to assist Ireland, was, m the nrst instance, to pay for everything everything ; but half the charge was ultimately to fall upon the land, in order to check mere waste and extravagance. The Irish Board of Works wss intrusted with the superintendence of this schema of relief, and the Cab.net entertained hopes that private enterprise would largely supplement and supersede in a great measure the immense system of artificial labour established to meat the sudden emergency. Meanwhile the shadows of an awful cloud had been gathering over the devoted land which had been the object ot this solicitude, rive - sixths of the potato crop at least perished ; the oats, too, tha crop next in importance to the Irish peasantry, largely tailed ; and, before Autumn had closed, it bad become too evident that a season of frightful dearth had; act in. For a few weeks the mass ol the poorer people contrived to eke out a precarious existence on what remained to it of the produce of the soil ; but, by the Winter of 184(1 - 7, this resource had, in the main, disappeared ; and iu the follow - ng Spnng the pressure ot want had reached a terrible and portentous climax, xvye - witnesses ot those woeful months still picture them vividly to their memories, and even now can be hardly trusted to consider them in an historical spirit, Though somewhat checked by the last bonds of Protection, the supplies of food that poured into Ireland were, without exaggeration, enormous, and no doubt can exist that, although depending on the interested efforts of private enterprise, they were inriuitely larger than they could have been under any system of State interference. But it was not in the power of man to meet the inevitable effects of tha general collapse of an entire community, and r amine, so to speak, for too long a period contended for the possession possession of Ireland, and in some places, unhappily, triumphed. The presence, however, of the fell invader invader was not universal throughout the country ; it was confined to certain well - marked limits. In Lein - ster and the colonized parts of Ulster, and even in Munster esst of the Gal tees, the potato waa the staple of the body of the people, but there was some capital saved, a retail trade, and a large admixture of English influences, and here accordingly there was but little starvation, though destitution spread far and wide and society waa rudely shaken and disorganized. West of this line, however, through tha vast region which extends from Lough Foyle to tha borders of Cork, the visitation was much more severe snd effectual in tha work of detraction. Except at a few cities and favoured spots this division division of Ireland had hardly any commerce. It was the poorest part of a poor country and was separated from Ensland by hundreds of miles ; and hence when that which had been tha sola support of its miHk" was suddenly swept away tha con - seanences were most appalling. For several months of 1846 - 7 considerable tracts in tha West of Inland weri laterally within tha jaws ot l amia, and. nntwiiiatanainir all that was done to avert and baffle hs cruel attacks, thousands became victims of tha dread destroyer and of its more fatal attendants rlinraiti and pestilence A silent enclosure near the Den marks tha resting place of a vast mass of mortality which pave a trairie name to Skibbereen : and week after week a fresh tale of prematur and sfflictisg ben of the lastitatioa of Civil aagineers wa held at th IeetlUitlea, Great Ueurgv - etreet, k eetiaiaater iU. Thataae JL Bar - riaoo, tb freakiest, ia th chair. air. a zona f isniar. Asm. Inst, CZ, read a paper a the Workleg ef Railway. aUtlc that the eawnsoo and eoetlniMd development of railway trsA dariag ta Uet 25 year he denemUd the greatest agrsariy aad, ability of asaleagetnnt, sad of engineering aad mechanical akilL to admit of It beiag eoaderted with order aad regularity. Th aataor wadwd to explain .th arrangement arrangement to enable tb trelB f tho ehlef line to be smat ea, such trait euaeiatieg of express aad snail peeienger trains, running at an aerag rate ef 40 sail aa hoar or mere, others at a lueeJ of frees 34 to 34 sail aa how. and th Parliamentary or f terming trains. Bailing at all etetioas, aad running at a speed ef front 19 to XI soil aa huw. Th goods traO of tb ewwntry is now eoodaoteel between all th one be portent towns by a systeaa ef express goods train, attaining a speed of 20 to 23 sail aa hour. Then there are th alow or stopping good train to sucolv th nweeseary service to leee unpuruat t lines. followed, in their tarn, by heavy usl tret, between Ah try aad every large eentre or door relief, on a lara and yet not an extravagant scale,and though grants from the Treasury were even now made, the principle was distinctly asserted that Irish property should support its poverty. Efforts were also made to attract capital to Ireland, and to quicken her industry, by loans for draining anil landed tmnmvemeiit and he the timntifipshnn i i t , . . .u. v' i i v... I rreat coal nelda of th oowatry and every 1 a - V i V , L , . rHHuatw. To carry oa thi. great traflU.ta atl! Art wss at last passed a reform which almost j EJTgood pennansea way, stTt aad pwrf al agia resettled the soil and freed it irom a race of 1 .j iUIiom stuck, twuper airaelline: arreaceaMnta. and the nominal owners, unable to perform their social J apeaking aad Uusk telegraph, together with a highly duties. These combined measures had admirable trained and thoroughly qualified te jf eerrent. These effects, and though from 168 , to lol, when the ". yTZS famine period may be said to have cloed, Warnl 1 a.pen - e to areure eod maintain. Thetotal aum - passed through a season of long distress, and the vref tk staff employed, for instance, by the Loodoa aad sutiering of thousands were still severe, destitution Nurtb - Waetera; Hallway Company U about 4Or00O,f whom waa effectually relieved and controlled, and society lsW are engaged in connexion with tb setual working ef emerged trom what,at one time.seemed su irren.edi - .v"" llvTSi.i . , n . . , ,, ' , , ., own and la jointly with other eomreai ZU miles, nod able and hopeleas ens is. Meanwhile the visitation fim motl moe - totl, l3miW The. train naa consequences wnicn were to prora tne ce' ; mtlimge for the Tear ending th 30th of June, IS?, wi and, indeed, me only real means ot solving the greatest of Irish difficulties. The circumstances ot 1840 - 7 had lilted literally in millions from the soil the dense masses ot Irish poverty, and aa the Poor Law and other measures ol relief had made the pos session of land a bar to State aid, this deadweight of wretchedness wss largely prevented from permanently permanently returning to the occupation of the soil on which it had hung aa a destructive burden. Ity degrees, and in a variety of ways, it was borne to other parts of tha world ; and thus began that immense emigration which haa ever since been in steady progress, snd has affected to such a remarkable remarkable extent the destinies of Ireland and other countries. That the exodus wss accompanied by much suffering and premature mortality is but too true, but moat certainly it was the first con dition ot s real change for the better in Ireland ; and, notwithstanding sentimental complaints, those who hare derived the greatest advantage from it have been, as was just, the Irish race. A few tizures wilL nerharja. strengthen our im pressions of the famine of 1846 - 7. The deaths by starvation have been estimated at 27,000 ; and 275,01)0 parsons are believed to have perished from disease or decay more or less traceable to the dread visitation. On the other band, from 1,UW,UUU to 3,00il,000 persons were supported almost wholly by the State trom 184d to the end of 1847, and, terri ble as the mortality was, it sinks into insignificance compared with that of 1740 - L The charge of sustaining sustaining this mass of poverty considerabty exceeded 6,000,000 ; and, without taking into account tha enormous burden of the Poor Kate from 1343 to 1331, the Government advances in respect of the famine reached ultimately mora than 10,000,000, of which nearly half wss a free gift. The contributions of private chanty are supposed to have exceeded 2,000,000, and probably such efforts ware never made to rescue from want a sufferinz Deaole. As U0t the population, it certainly declined 1600,000 trom 104O to tool : out emigraBon accounts ior 900,000 of these, and, taking tha abnormal deaths at 300,000. tha residua is to be found in ordinary deaths and in an extraordinary diminution of births. In many ins ts now the effects of tha famm were to destroy and paralyze human affections, and to transform transform the nature of snan into brutishneas, as has always happened in similar trials ; bat tha conduct of tha people on the wnoie was admtrabte , model of patience and kindly sympathy. Tha measure of th Oorernmant were, in tha main, judicious, and if soma exceptions may be taken to usm. ws must recouect the frt pro; for paaaengere, 14,4Vio ; ior goods aad minerals,! 0,037.304 to. MJMJiCl utile. Ta aanxber passengers carried dnriag the earn period wa 4,811.7771 and th aamhar ot too of goods, coal, sad minerals. ZVVt Th revenue from all ourees wa for passenger traffla, 0,640,040; tor goods, , alZ7,v01 tesal. a,aU41. This Dumber ot trains running evtr th southern division, between Loodoa and Kogby, ia each direction was (exel siv of train run between Euatoa aad stanon short ot lUgby) 04 down and 63 np. Of to, 30 erprees sad nail train attain a speed ef show 40 mile aa bowr, ire ran at about 36 mile aa hour, and th remaining pessi nger train are ordinary local topptag train. Of express good t - aina there are 52, of ordinary goods trains 27, sad of stopping or leoal geods sad snincral train 2X A aa Illustration ot th growth la th length aad weight ef th express passenger train daring th last few year, it may be etstcd that la 5 i - .ni. erpres from Easton increased in kngth f rem 3t t, la 1WJ to 7CMt. in 1872, wall th weight of tn train, which la th former year wa 104 ton, had in In72 grown to 21Z too. This indicates ia th moat forcible manner th increased requirement of thetralno daring th period ia queetioa, in larger aad heavier carriage carriage aad more powerful engines ; the, in their turn, having seoeeeitated a better aad more rohstantial permanent way, aad th ue of steel reus. The four classes of engine eegegel In working th peeeinrvxrafl weighed ia work - log order z7 ton, juf too, ity tocs,ajxl X! tone. Th weight oa tb oe pair of a riving - wheels of the two ftrt - mentiooed engine ws 111 tons snd 13 ton respectively. On th two latter be ring two pair of drrring - whrela. th weignt oa tunt wa zig ton aad ZC ton reepectreeir. beea i alter weex a iretn taie oi pronsan ana srnitraeg to uxexn. wn most recouect ue immense ProPor' I the wrarere ef vTnnart - wJ tr - 1" - " - - - daaths oaane from llAra.laal. and Oala J tixTa? tha - eleWtw tMtJQTt - V afcirf j ytLT 7 Altnoaxh eipreee trains have hitherto beem worked mostly by aiail agines. It is new deemed expedient) te work tb aeavier expre i rains ey a ouptl engine, in goecr train had 15 waggon, aad weighed 2324 ton ; th mineral train had 35 warron. and wrfrhed 350 ton. The wed ef seal tram was limited, a far a praeticaM to 15 aule aa hoar. Ur. Webb and d feigned ail - wheeled eowpled engin far this das ef traffic, which had wtiae4 the most ferwuaU remits. Its weight la working order wss T tone, and th whole weight was oa the three pairs of drivtug - wbeels. Although additional brak power ha been rendered Ires Important by th urtrodortioa of th blek tergrapa than when th trafi w ae worked oa tb ten ryvtem. the eom - Ky hare adapted, for their principal spits and saber trains, a media cation of Clark' frietwa brak. which tt both pewrrful aad effective. They are, however, of opinion that so powerfsl an agent should no b employ - ! for ardinary stoppage e trarna, tad that, beyond eeerne that it ia in proper working rer, it abomld rJy b used iaeaeef ensergtney aad subject toeertaia specified re - gulateon. Tb ire retail emeat i to keep the ha free far tieeot nger train, aad. ta praetiee. rrwrrthrng meat rjv way to this aeeosrty. There can be ao aeubS that h i oa Meet of the tieekort ttnpeeSaao wpou a wU - rrgalred rauwsy to swsnre the anetuefity" ef the psnger service nothing add se maon to the eharacter of the Saw, or to the credit of th fiert and men, a a proparry appointed aad punetsel earrie 1 it please the nbh wawns tb h. eai is eXkre!itbi aad - ewatabl to tb ecnrT. Tarn bwwataasoawps - aw aha at it M the trVset of their dally thwught and aar but taongh awaca MaoWaed and

Clipped from
  1. The Times,
  2. 26 Feb 1875, Fri,
  3. Page 3

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