1875 Grasshopper Swarms article. Tom Malmay

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1875 Grasshopper Swarms article. Tom Malmay - THE DAILY HOPPERS AND HARVEST. How to...
THE DAILY HOPPERS AND HARVEST. How to Exterminate the Grasshopper The Insect Ravaging Minnesota and Dakota. Tie The Crop Outlook U'Trtoo" State Oats and Cora la Illinois Injured by Recent Storms. Farmers la Kansas, Wisconsin, and Michigan Reasonably Happy Favorable Cotton Reports. HOW TO DESTEOY THS GRASSHOPPER.' To the Editor ol the Inter-Ocea. The migratory grasshoppers mrt indigenous in the elevated, dry, arid plains of New Mexico and Arizona, and perhaps also in the British Possessions north of the Red River settlements. They are migratory in their habits, and are frequent! y found in the countries contiguous to the places of their maturity, quite too . often as far away from their desert borne as Oreaon ' and California in the West, and Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, Dakota, and Minnesota in the East, and have been found as far East as Maine. In all this extreme territory TI1SY PROPAGATE ASD MULTIPLY at a fearful rate, and go on increasing in number until checked by influences detrimental to their existence. In their native homes the climate is dry and hot, and is in all respects suited to their perfect development, but is not so well suited to the insect enemies that are found to infest them when in lands of civilization. It has been said that all countries have their drawbacks, .so has this grasshopper paradise. Vegetation is very scant there. VVe find them great, greedy feeders wbea among us, but tbey can subsist and attain to perfection on very scant diet, where climatic conditions are favorable. W should perhaps never be troubled with their presence but for their extraordinary increase of number in their places of nativity. They often become b crowded tout tuey are COMPELLED TO MIGEATB , and seek greener pastures. The wind being favorable, they rise in dense clouds, obscuring the light of day by their numbers, spreading themselves out into an army ef 100 miles or more in width, and it is said the moving mass is a mile in height and. as their flight is continuous for days over the same place, calculations of their extent fail us. The bulk of this vast army must far exceed that of the largest herds of buffaloes of the plains, with a hundred fold their reeding capacitv. 1 his awful army, after it has sun dered the ties of nativity, sets out to conquer and take possession of the fertile lands East and West. How a season's labor of the husbandman may be eaten in an hour, before his tyes,'by this devouring scourge -thousands can bear testimony.. After the pest has carried devastation far and wide they settle down, take possession of the land, and make preparation to slay, . ana injury. We must protect quails and prairie chickens oil of the Northwestern States must have statutory provisions against killing them for ten years, at least, and railroad companies mnst refuse, and by law must be prohibited from carrying tbem over their roads for tbeMmepfriod We roust ait and put in operation the knowledge we poaiess. or permit ourselves to be overcome , by our insect enemies. It is for us to cuoose. Ckib Ririci ' nopprs rKTrirrv ;i minneota. To lhe Editor of the liter Orva,, I lhw iii the third ?eo i that we have had hoppers. The first year they rum on the 12th of June and deposited their egg?, and went away in four davs, leav ing; me country almost totally cropless. The next season, 1874, they hatched in the last part of May. and stayed here until about the 4th of July. They left the connty totally stripped of all domestic vegetation, with the exception of about a tenth part of a crop of potatoes. The State furnished the county with seed beat this spring, and our 'land was all sown and planted arain. Until the 4th of Julr crops bid fair for one of the largest yields ever known in the Stat. But on that day about noon the grasshoppers began to come down in such numbers that in some places tbev destroved the crops in two days. i ney were very large ones, ana leu in two or tnree days, but bad no sooner erone than other hordes of smaller ones came, and in double the number, and be gan to lav then eggs and leave. More came ana took; their places and laid more eggs, and passed on south west, rolling over the prairie use heavy clonus oi qui on a foggy day. And still they come ana go. Another man and myself selectea an average spot in a field and dug from a foot square 300 cones, each cone containing an average, of thirty eggs, which would make 392,040,000 eggs to the acre. P We then caught a pint of the grown hoppers and found it to contain 320 insects, which would make 0.460 ta the bushel. And calculating each egg a hopper, we found that next spring, when they batch out, we will have 19,000 bushels to the acre, and 3.200,000 to the quarter section, or 14 quarts to the square foot. And still they are laying their eggs. Bui u (hey will go away to-day or to-morrow they will leave os enough to live on. I can't describe the feelings of the people. We think that if the Slate and General Government would help us to protect the grass on the prairies until next J one, the hoppers might be exterminated by tire. J. L. Cabot. UOI'PtaS L1QUTINU IS DAKOTA. St. Pack. July 24. Advices from Fort Thornton D. T report immense swarms of grasshoppers tlviiisr over mere,, going soutn aua north west. Large num bers of those going south were lighting, while those going northwest were flying high. It is feared thai all the crops of that section will be destroyed. DEPOSIT THUS EGGS. In the spring following we may have the pleasure of raising grasshoppers enough to devour all the ric products of the soil long before harvest time. They may also stay with us year after year, and keep on increasing and extending their dominions until they cover the whole country from tbe mouth of the Si. Lawrence to the golden sands of the Pacific. While such an unprecedented increase and spread are not very probable, it is still possible. Entomologists tell us why tbe desert regions of the elevated -plains have tbe climate suitable to their perfect development, and why tbe climate that is suitable for the cultivation and raising of grasses and grains is not favorable to the existence and propagation of that pest. And yet might not a combination of causes arise and exist for a series of years throughout the greater extent of the land unfavorable to tbe crops, but favorable to the grasshopper plague. We read that the sources of the Nile roa skves loso yiabs failed to furnish fertility to Egypt, and history does repeat itself sometimes. A combination of circumstances, tbe result of natural causes, may then be favorable to the extension of the migratory grasshop per over the whole land, unless interfered with and ' counteracted by the influences of man. "neir disappearance may be the result of various cau.es, and most generally of a comoination of causes. The moist climate, suitable to the purposes of the iiirnier. was at one time supposed to be suuictent in itself to destroy tbe vitality and fecundity of the sec ond generation sway from their desert homes. We have learned to our sorrow that it is not so. We are grieved to learn also that tbe winged scourges are becoming acclimated very fast. It is said: "Tnebv teol survive. Then again their insect enemies, . TBS PARASITES, were supposed to complete tbe work of destruction. but it is by no means certain that many are being destroyed by them. What, then, will rid us of tbe rest? The matured insect will not be destroved in time to avert the damage, if visited by them, neither by insect enemies, by climatic influences, by the birds oi. the air, nor through the ingenuity of man. But toey may oe destroyed in me eggs, or the young as iiiey are oeing natcnea ana oetor mey can ny; and to tell bow this can be done this article is penned. I will first state that we need not fear very frequent visitations from them from tneir ueseri Domes. seven years ago tome came, but the season was far advanced when they made their appearance" among us. and corn was nearly matured, and tbe damage done by them was tntiing. Thev deposited their eggs with us that falL Uuce before within tbe lost nineteen years 1 remember tu.it a tew appeared in Nebraska, late in the fall, also. and no apparent damage was done at that time. Tber always deposit their eggs in bard, compact soil, in Vatbas. along roads, on drr. sand v slopes, en the saaa-cars of shifting streams; among litter and mulch- I ing, etc., and, so far as my observation goes, never in cultivated fields or in tbe unbroken prairies. Preparatory to depositing the eggs THEY PERFORATE THS 6R0UJD, emit an insoluble mucus, impervious to moisture, but pervious to air, line the cells therewith, then deposit their eggs therein, and cover or seal up the cells with the same kind of slime. Now if the ground is plowed up where tbe eggs are deposited, and well turned under, no young grasshoppers will ever be hatched out of those eggs, or, if hatched, none can ever reach the surface, ior fear tbat some of tbe egg cells should - not be covered up sufficiently deep by the plow, go over with tbe harrow, and roll it well also, in order to break tbe egg cells, if possible, so as to let the water of the snows and rains in, when the-vitality1 of the eggs will be destroyed. With tbe closest observation many places where eggs are deposited will not be discovered until the grasshoppers are hatched out; and here again we must be prepared to meet them,whether we see them at all ourselves or not. . QCA1L8, PRAIRIE CHICKENS, ABD GROUSE if sufficiently numerous, alone are sufficient to pick np every embryo grasshopper long beore be can have wings. This I know from actual observation. Seven years ago large areas of -eggs were deposited on my farm, - near Omaha. 1 then was fortunate enough to have about fifty quails on " my place. As soon ax the hoppers were hatched, and while vet al most microscopic in size, I venture to say that each one of the quails picked up, every day, enough of them to fill a bushel measure, if grown to full size. i ney aevourea an my grasshoppers long before their wings had developed; but tbe grasshoppers devoured no one s crops that year, and very few escaped to mi grate, it seems, however, that that spring the young grassnoppers wer destroyed everywhere wnere ineir eggs were deposited among us, and iu u jmi mat toe eoia spring rams killed them otf. This is possible, where the rains .1 were heavy enough to carrv them off and drown mem. cut at mai urn quails, prairie chickens, and grouse wwe pieniy everywhere, and I suspect f viwn 4UI- wuai id DlTut did. jean we bava baa sport in " " w.iw, mum, ana villages, and very few birds survive the skill of tbe sportsman. Should - any be tortunale enough to escana ih Bwrtim.. farmers- boys will trap and snare what are left during tbe winter, and send them off to market. Was it not - last winter that tbe report came hark fmm r.hir-.rm St, Louis, New York, and other large cities, that the mane was Xiuuu wua quails, prame chickens, and . grouse I . If my position is correct, is thera anv wonder that the grasshoppers that batched in Missouri, Kansas, and Aliiiuesota last -spring have done so much damage before aod after their migration? The wonder is that they did not more damage. If God in bis mercy had not sent deluging rains throughout Missouri and Kansas, that swept most of them down tbe waters of the Missouri, and if in Minnesota herculean efforts had not been put forth to destroy them in tbeir pupa state. the great Northwest might not to-day rejoice in the great harvest mat is now ready to take in. . ' THEM CAS BE HO BXCCSB . for us to be eaten out by grasshoppers, when hatched out among the settled parts of our country; and it we don't destroy tbem in their embryo stale we must lay the blame to ourselves if our iarms am rsvagea by tbem. Those hatched beyond the borders of civiliza- Uou are not ultis to rml tti Oaten, mt wu much CROPS ILLINOIS. DAMAGE BY FLOOP. 8pecial Telegram to the Inter-Ocean. 1 Cairo, 111- July 24. The Ohio River here has fallen four inches in the last twenty-four hours, an .11 our people breathe freer, although it has risen nearly four feet at Cincinnati, and the Cumberlan two feet at Nashville in the same time. The weather is cloudy and warm, and indications are favorable for rain. No less than fifty farms of corn were ruined this week in Slassac County by the rain. The loss is estimated at $100,000. Special Correspondence of the Inter-Ocean. I Goodiko's Grove, ilL, July 24. This region of country was visited reoently by a rain shower from the north, and accompanied by a very strong northeast wind amounting almost to a tornado pros traw ing corn, oats, and bay. Corn bad been growing very rapidly and being tender was easily broken. Oats have made a great growth of straw, and this morning fully nine-tenths of all the oats in the country Uv utterly prostrate. It is the opinion of farmers thai few of them will rise. Much of the bay crop, too, is down. Some of the farmers are looking blue because of tbe additional expense and labor to secure our crops. The season so far has been very fine, and larmers were hopeful. Ibe main question now is. can the oats mature in their present condition? If tbe weather should be favorable, the fallen grass can be secured, Potatoes will be abundaut if the balance of the season is favorable. Some small fruits, but apples will be scarce. Peotoue, Wia Co.. IlL, July 23. to trie Editor oi tn inter-uoeau. We had a great deal of rain on Thursday nisrbt ac companied by a high wind, which has done niuh damage to the oats and corn, especially to tbe oats. Most of tbem are laid U.tt down, so much so that they cannot be cut with a reapet. n llVm V an n bat- Ion, and Kankakee County oats are badly damaged, and a great many fields ruined. In some fields one- lourtn oi tbe corn is broken on. 1 am sorry to ear our prospect for half a crop of oats is very poor. Will write yon again. MACOCPIS COfSTY. 8 pedal Telegram t tbe Inter-Ocean. 1 tASLisviLLB, IlL, July 24. vt beat about all bar- vested; yield is about bait a crop; quality goJ, but badly mixed with cheat in most localities, (tats splen did, and badly lodged in some cases, but if weather is favorable can be saved; a greater number of acres sown than usual. Corn on upland good, bnt weedy; on low and Hat lands much injured by water, and in many nelds a total la:lure on account ot tbe long-continued rains. Rve and barley are fine, and the yield excellent, but not a large ares sown this reason b mi coumy. pounds of that I have pedal IBattlb in this section that the of wheat only two-thirds nas been not yet been neighborhood, this section. are J. M. fair Yield section, and many years apples. County are Special LaCbossb, tion and making full blast etcept com wheat Minnesota ordinary cannot ready for COTTON Nashville, formation Exchange to-day. is composed Lawrence, Jackson, DeKalo, all of and west committee have bearing the rams, with the weather vear up to "reported very welC favorably -tinue to wheat in In but the w the stand aud balling so well. than Int. As to aired and and ten lookinti Yield Since have fallen great cotton rain too deficient of insect cite any WISCONSIN. BEW WHEAT FROM SEW LAND. Special Telegram to the Inter-Ocean. 1 Milwaukee. Wis July 24. As showing some of the points of a new portion of Wisconsin, some samples of wheat have just been exhibited on 'Change here by Mr. Webster, of the Wisconsin Central Railroad, that were taken from newly-cleared fields in the woods on the line of that road, 230 miles northwest of this city, being about ninety miles beyond the border of the settlements. Tbe stalks measure an average of five feet ten inches in height, and tbe heads from four to five inches in length. They were plucked on Tues day, and the beld was then nearly ready lor harvest. Grain dealers who examined it say that none equal to it has been shown on 'Change this year, and Mr. Webster reports that these samples were taken from the field without special search, and that acre after acre will show as good an average. EVERYTHING LOVELY. Special Telegram to the Inter-CVran.l fALMYRA, isn July 24. i our correspondent bas visited every town in Jefferson County within tbe a?t two weeks, and can report as follows of tbe crops: Barley very heavy in the vicinity of Waterloo: in many other portions of the county the chinch bug bas ivea tbe belds a sickly color. Many helds in tbe southern part were plowed up early in tbe season. Corn crop excellent wherever well worked and found upon good ground; although somewhat backward it is growing last, in the central part of tbe county spnng Wheat bas been much injured by the ravages ot the chinch bug; other localities bave suffered less. yet the last rain will check their work throughout tbe county. Kve, good. But little winter wheat sound; looks well, and, with rye, is. being harvested. In Christiana, Dane County, we found two farmers each cultivating fifteen acres of tobacco. Many others bave smaller acreage. The bay crop is the heaviest ever known, clover in particular. The strawberry and blackcap crop very large; apple and cherry crop very small. AT LARGE. Special Telecram to the luier-)cen.l Madisos. Wis-July 24. Reports from all over tbe State are highly encouraging for the crops. Directors of tbe Madison Mutual. Insurance Company, who are here attending the serai-annual meeting of that company, coming from the counties of Columbia, Jefler-son, Waukesha, Walworth, Uock, Green, Vernou, nd Pierce, stale that the crops in their localities are in nlendid condition. The hav cron was never hettr the wheat crop is good everywhere, in some counties being extremely heavy, uals, corn, potatoes, and barley promise a large yield. The Wisconsin farmers are likely to bave larger crops than ever before. The corn crop is rather backward, but with good weaihr will Drove a good yield. Special Telegram to tbe Inter-Ocean.' JABESviLLB, Wis July 24. Tbe rye crop in this vicinity is nearly all in the shock; also barley. The farmers bave finished cutting bay, and the yield of aa three is very large. KANSAS. COWLEY COCSTT. Lazettjl Kan, July 23. 1S7S. To tbe Editor of the Inter-Ocean.1 . The harvest is over, and not a bug or a hopper, or any lack of rain, has marred the fruits ef our countless fields. Rye, oats, and wheat have been harveLiL and the , yield is far beyond an average- v.. not given to axaroeration or eastln-hniM. ing estimate the . yield el wheat at thirty bushels to tbe acre, while others put it still high er, i ne oats are placed by good judges at from fifty to seventy bushels to tbe acre. Those wbo had wheat and oats last year had a fiae crop, but this year tber do still better. . The opinio of our leading farmers tends to the conclusion that, for small grain, wheat. rve, oats, this country cannot be beaten bv any seo- A . Special This monters, had a education. here, until Worshipers churches, village is Road, on shops in foods, aid one office, and heavily Among the candle factory Stebbins, Co. Tbe last Umber. factory the lasts, The half-year, of G. W. We Countr however, have a We booing from We have watch it keeps Our largely-to We soon manufactories generally for a white part of the watercourses." item, the fate foreign" Trrrinr 111-kla Tb largest Close's from beating force gangs, only at at 12 in the product ready tbe which It terprise six occurred 6,000 so bigh and It gang three gang some some pleasant while heels wheels Pjs post, unk GilmoT and near These room Monnu.ndi.tii.culturn of th L, uTt5TJ 'P Souther Kau- the sssta fixed beyond a doubt. .. down Tb copious and frequent rains extending into tht middloof July make our corn crop n certainty. Gar- north dens ar doing well, and th dearth f last year will jury. b mor than canceled by the abundance of tb pre- Tb ent season, td fact that our County Commissioners aad lUV 1U1 doomed aCOVVUmenl doilSUOu of 41.U-1 livers

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  1. The Inter Ocean,
  2. 26 Jul 1875, Mon,
  3. Page 2

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  • 1875 Grasshopper Swarms article. Tom Malmay

    Tom_Malmay – 13 Sep 2013

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