Sept. 17, 1974--Ron's Newspaper Column
Ron Cornwell's Column Disease Control Essential This Fall the By Ron Cornwell U of I Extension Adviser It will be very important for Madison County farmers to do what they can this fall to control control wheat diseases. This past Â·winter's wheat crop in Illinois was reduced by 20 to 25 pel- cent because of disease. There are several things you can do: (1) plant clean, high test weight, fungicide treated seed; (2) delay planting until at least the fly-free date, which is Oct. 7 to 9 in Madison County; County; (3) do not plant this year's crop on last year's wheat or corn ground, and (4) do not apply heavy rates of nitrogen this fall. Seed quality is of great importance. importance. Clean your seed thoroughly thoroughly to remove shriveled, scabby, lightweight kernels which are badly infected with scab. Also, plant seed with a high test weight to help insure high yields and lower losses to seedling blights. Seed - protectant chemicals should be applied after the seed has been thoroughly cleaned. Of- ten seed can be commercially treated at the elevator or seed- house where cleaning is done. You may apply some protectant chemicals in the planter box. Planting date also has an effect effect on the probability of damaging damaging disease. Planting before the fly-free dates generally favorable for the development of seedling blights, root rots, septoria leaf blotch, snow mold, powdery mildew, barley yellow dwarf and wheat streak mosaic. Early planting usually moans higher soil temperatures. And high temperatures are more favorable favorable to seedling blight and root rot fungi. You should delay heavy applications applications of nitrogen until the wheat starts to green up in the spring. Heavy nitrogen applications applications in the fall promote rank growth favorable for the development of septoria leaf blotch and powdery mildew. Leaing Meeting A program on farm leasing will be held at 7:30 p.m. Sept. 30 in the Farm Bureau auditorium auditorium at 900 Hillsboro Ave. Franklin Reiss, University of Illinois farm ' lease specialist, will be the featured speaker. The program will cover the types types of farm leases that might be used in Madison County. Drying Soybeans There has been interest by some farmers in Madison County County in drying soybeans this year. If a grower plans to store soybeans soybeans for a short period of time, they should be dried down to 13 per cent moisture. For soybeans soybeans to be stored over one year, is it necessary to drop the storage moisture content to 11 per cent. Low temperature or natural air drying appears to work well for drying soybeans. Air flow rates of 1 to 2 C.F.M. per bushel and sufficient heat to raise the air temperature from 3 to 5 degrees F can be expected to dry soybenas in less than three weeks with aminimum of seed coat cracking. The exact amount of time required will vary with initial moisture content content of the soybeans and the weather conditions. As higher temperatures are used in dring soybeans, the germination of the soybeans will drop rapidly and there will be increased seed coat cracking. For more information, request a copy of Circular 1094, "Harvesting "Harvesting and Drying Soybeans," from the cooperative extension office in Edw;irdsville. Fireplace Wood Although any kind of wood may be used as fuel, some woods make better firewood than others. The heating value of dry hardwood may be judged by its weight Generally the heavier heavier hardwoods are considered to be better fuel than the lighter ones. Midwestern homeowners rarely use softwoods, such as pine or fir, because they are not readily available. Some softwoods, softwoods, however, have a higher heat value than the hardwoods because of their high resin content. content. The best fireplace woods are apple, beech, black locust, osage-orangc. hickory, oak, pent- and sugar maple.