The Persian Religions, by, Wolf von Schierbrand (otherwise unsourced)

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The Persian Religions, by, Wolf von Schierbrand (otherwise unsourced) - avrrvr TVnTtf'T t-t tlTsrVri vvr. . I I II a...
avrrvr TVnTtf'T t-t tlTsrVri vvr. . I I II a VUSI0SIITE8 OF CREEDS AND D001UB. t IICW THAT HAVE BITTEE ' PECPS OTEB teiixxko DirrEHESCEi xr opijtiox . -THK BACKED DERVISI1 FRAUD. " . Tbere are many things about the theory Ml preetlee of .the prevailing religion la Mt which are, U m a mild term, queer. The Per-tiMJ are Sheeltes, whfls tU Turk and mint of the ether 140,000.000 of Mohammedan are annul me. Between theee twe principal aeeto of latem there t fierce contention, implacable hatred, end unquenchable contempt each for lbs thervery much ae Catholics and Protest-tots need la feel toward each other 300 rears ego. The Sheeite considers the BaanUe nAdu flmpwe) tad hi touch M MM, (denting,) put ae if be had eeme iu contact wtth aa nnelean thing or animal, such u a nog and the feeling to reciprocated or the Buaalte. They hate each other wtth a cordial ad enduring hatred, and while each Bunnite considers himself aa the ealt of the earth, he deem the Ebeeite no better titan the dost at hU feet and vice versa. Vow It might 1e snjtposed that there are many and radical rarlaoeee In the dogma and creed of their faith. But such U eot the truth. The real difference In their belief u Terr alight One of the essential proofs that lamps a Moslem as belonging to the " eaate tl Vert dt Vers," or, to be more exact, to the Bonn! or dominant sect. Is how he performs his ablutions. The Sunnite tDl begin at his elbow, and from there, gradually working down, will rob the last rub at Ins tips of his fingers. This, be tar. In strict accordance with Mohammed's leeching and practice. The Bheelte, on the other bead, will proceed In an Inverse manner In ae-oooipiiahlna- the task, and be thus, of course, literally " gives himself ewny" In the operation. A few of theee grave distinctions, inolndlng precepts about food and drink, are really svery-Uing of any account oa which the two leading sets ef Islam differ, ret they have been enough s( a rocs oa which to build them op. The original point of dlrergenee, of course, was the soeoessorshlp to the caliphate, M disputed between All and Abu-Bear, decided by the majority of those earljvArab believers against Mohammed's nephew and la favor of wise, old Aho-Aekr. Then cams the slaughter of the la-aoneoU at Kerbelah In which fiaasea and Hussein, the sons and heirs of All. perished. Now, the Persians were at that time still pagans and followers of Zerdusht (Zoroaster) ana had nothing at all to do with tola internal strife of the Arabs and didn't ears a button about either fa Susan or Hussein, and w nut her these two roan fellows were In reality entitled to become the successors of Mohammed or not was a matter of utter Indifference to them. Vt sddly Is our human nature constructed that these same unbelievers afterward, when they Aid adopt Islam and forsook their ancient and much purer and better belief, were not satisfied with what they got but wanted to out-Herod Herod, and, going backward, modify In their minds the hierarchical line of rulers whose creed they had Just adopted at the point of the sword. Thus ' they gradually and by dint of Incessant teaching and reiteration became firmly convinced that All reailr onght to have been the Oellph, and that therefore, all those who followed the usurpers Abu-Bekr, Osman, and Omar, were likewise Intruders and bogus vicars of God. They've stuck to this belief, which did them no good either spiritually or materially through thick and thin, and for a number of centuries, giving and taking many hard blows In maintaining it, and laying down their lives under cruel tortures by the thousand and thousand for Itand there they are to-day, still comparatively happy in this belief and cer-talnly Just aa rooted in It as ever- That, then, was the original point ef divergence, and it is an odd fact that the Persians who bad no earthly concern in the matter should stand up with such self -sacrificing persistence for the possible rights of a man who never did anything for them, who belonged to a different nation and religion, and who lived and died a long while before the time when they chose to take np his supposed rights. The true explanation of this phenomenon, one might soy, in, however, I think, quite simple. Islam was fort d down the Persian's throat; be swallowed it after a bitter and hard struggle, under protest. Under these etrvusastanoea. therefore, 1 think it was quite natural that even after accepting sis conqueror's faith, he should still cherish an aversion for It and should try to modify It With the Oriental's peculiar turn of - mind. mess mooincauona ao not refer so much to mind as to form, and hence the Persian's advocacy of All's heirship and of all manner of small external differences. The Bheeites are f tea called toe Protestants among the Mohammedans, but If a oomparlHon was ever odious It was In that Instance. The Christian Protestants stood np for liberty of thought and Investigation, as well as for divesting- forms of worship from all not la strict eonaonaooe with Biblical teachings. Mow take the Bheeites. They have, it is true, discarded some of the Bunnite traditions; bat they have added largely to the religious legendary lore and further complicated the already sufficiently burdensome ritual. Like the Protestants of Europe they deny deny the righteous Oaliphate of Abu-Bekr, Omar, and Osman t deny the chastity of Ayeslin, Mohammed's favorite wife, and a good many other things but they do not aiUrm anything. Theirs is not a positive belief, a far aa It goes, but a negative one. The hatred of the One sect for the other Is as unabated and as fierce to-day aa It ever was. One reason, and the chief one. for the furious ani-atosity of the Turcoman, the Koord, the Afghan and the Beloochee against the Persian Is religious difference, ther being Bannltee. When the Turcoman prepares tor another raid into Persian territory, be never fails to push his lanes into the ground beside his soul (tent) and to proclaim In a loud voice that he is ready to go to war1 against the Infidels, having primarily in his secret thoughts, however, an eye to the main chanoe.-Bnt plunder, much as he loves It, Is not so dear to his heart as the cutting of Infidel Persian throats, for like reasons tbe ether tribes la the border lands ef Persia despise as maoh as the detest the Persians. a professing 8heetto believes above all in the form his prayers with promptness and dispatch, kneeling en his prayer rug camel fashion, the (aoe turned -In the direction of Mecca, bumping his forehead against the ground at regular Intervals, and mumbling the requisite phrases, whose meaning even la. In most eases, wholly or partially unknown to him. lie will attend to his ablutions with equal regularity, wetting (one cannot eall it washing) his face, feet, .and hands. When praying the e heel is will divest himself of all wraps and of every kind of ornament and Jewelry, so as to ap- pear In humble garb before Allah. It Is not In cumbent on any Blieeite to pray In a moeqave, and, aa a matter of fact, Persian mosques are not so well attended aa a rule, nor are they as numerous, as are those in Turkey. Almsgiving Is still as much la vogue among Bheeites as In the days of rote, although charity to not now bestowed aa lavishly aa of old. The usual largess given to the everlasting and ubiquitous dervish and baerar varies from five denar to two sbabi. tone-hall to one oant and a half J even when the donor to wealthy. For all, that the amount of money annually wasted In thus encouraging pre-tessional hagKardont and vagabondism is, for aa Impoverished, thinly-populated oountry like Persia, something stupendous running Into millions. With the whole people almsgiving Is a religious auty, not wnouy neglected even By tne worst - It beoomee thus explicable how swarms and swarms of paupers born and bred In indi genes and Idleness Infest the whole wide coun- try, and bow In harvest time, whan hands are scares, theee same beggarly creatures will stand with palms opened at the threshold of the very poverty-ridden peasant whose fruit and gram lie rotting In the field for want of ttaee same hand to help him garner them in. Pilgrimage Is another of their religions duties still faithfully performed. These pilgrimages niaret) are made to Mooes aeroeia, (near ug-oad.) koum. Meshed, and Bhah Abdul Axlm. Only those pilgrims who have made the far and ftetigeroua journey to Mecca are properly styled badjee. But by courtesy and as a. term of flattery the hadjee Is given to those fee who hare merely prayed at the shrines ef Inferior sanctity. The Journey to Meeca takes six months to perform, and that it Is fraught with eonaldera-bis danger to life and Umb Is proved by the fact that out of the S.OOO who Started on the trip eme few years ago leas than 8,000 returned, the rest having been made away with by pestilence, dysentery, robbers, hunger, thirst, and fatigue on the road. Meehed. however, eeoaplea the first-place In this connection ss tar as the number of worshipers It attract It con-ernsd. The average number of pilgrims to the .shrine of the great Parses prophet Imaum Been la computed at XO.O(M a year, and this aaesent reaUesnan Is still held in such high esteem by ft beeltes that they attribute all kinds of national disasters and miracles to his restless spirit Say, more than that, the ignorant majority of the Persians believe him still in the neah today, altlMagh biatory tells us that aa has lain buried there la hie magnlfloent stiver tomb for several centuries. Koum to a small town a few hundred - tvtllaa friim Imh Ik. h W & Persian SronkiiteuMftniiihM In Biaal mlimAnv konm to the spruce in reality the moat national of the Persian holy elUes, TbeBuahand the Princes have never darkened the door ef a mosque, but the . Shah baa made several pllfrrlmac to Meshed and the Princes have made regular trips to . Konnv The people of this town are so alive to the Importance of these ro al visits that they pay the Princes 6,000 toniana each time ther i shew themselves within their walls. Meshed U noastaered such a place of religions importance (hat the Bhah has steadily refused to cede It to the Russians, although he once wan offered aa nnsinsas price (or it and Its environs. Kerbela "the great burial place for Perslaa believers, vary rear several large caravans carry the dies at ptoos Persians who have' died elsewhere, to that hot and fever-Infested town near the' fnrMeh border to lie there within trumpet eall ft the Archangel Gabriel when he blew a blast f? nke P Hassan and Hnsaetn. who nave slept toere these lew 1.300 years, so as to cling to their Skins anlla tvanareeand ts PmTiu tm ether words, believe that any one burled la Ktrbel has a first claim on naavan Ian tombs la and around Kerbela aravcrvn. nieronsvto be urn, out It is (for ths Bneelte'i enke) a regrettable fact to learn that now and then, at long Intervals, tbe molderlng bon of the pious of 2st generations are dug out of tbe pound and carted away to make room for the bones of those who coroe after them and who par tost tbh Abdul Axlm 1 a small town Bear Teheran whim attracts likewise a great many of tbe piously Inclined, mora oa account of its central location and easy approach than because of a transcendent reputation. it wui ne seen, inererore, mat tne Bhedta form of Islam consists mainly of an elaborate system of cercniony and outward evidences of coher ency. The spirit which once animated this great corpse of Islam baa long atone fled; the spirit which once threw down before It every nation that attempted to withstand It has oozed out but the corpse retains a semblance of life by thewe outward observances, and to galvanised into fitful action now and again by some powerful current. It ought alas to be mentioned that most educated Moslems la Persia are believers for revenue only. Thev find it to their ad vantage to simulate belief In aoctnnss which they have long slnceoutgrowa. Kobody will become better aware of this fact than tbe European. sojournins-In Persia. In conversation with a Ferenghi unbeliever the educated Moslem will readllv admit his unbelief and Jeer at tbe bigotry of the ignorant masses, while, when In the street be will nreet his nelrhbor with the saJamnt, (Praise Ood and the Prophet.) In curious contrast with this state of affairs to the undoubted bigotry of the Bheeite aw when token as a whole, and the religious frenzy Into which they can work themselves on the slightest pretext Yet this to not so much a proof of their unwavering faith aa of the soundness of the saying that orthodoxy is my doxy and heterodoxy the other man's doxy. Interference with old established customs based on religion teaching is bitterly resented, whertma tnm twmtioi 3. yerenoes are made llrht of SO ions' aa nA .ttMnnt vis made to nut them Into pracUoe. The Xohar- iciu, iiiiuuiu oevotea to tne Dewalllng of the ssd death of Hassan and HnauiTn i ariiii di . moaning and sighing and beating of breasts ana cianung ef chains, is leas an evidence of vigorous religious belief than of the need of the Oriental nature to be stirred nn at intj-ria t expend its energies, at other times creeplnr alons; at a sluggish pace In volcanic action. There are, of course, fanatics in Persia as well as elsewhere, and they will, by fasting, unusual exertion, and noise, gradually brace their flag- r,uim mrmi up to suon a pitcn as to become abeo-utelr dangerous to others less aealous but more sensible than they. Mankind, great and small, does like noise and excitement, and tha vattiin of chains and beating of drams and similar ex-traraganoes arc due more to that Innate love of uproar toan to musnoua ierver. The moharrem Is still mmmrmli-r ii ad throughout Persia. Everybody goes about the streets clad in black, and bands of specially pious folks raise an almost continual din night and day. Many of these bare their breasta and heads to the fierce glare of the sun or the icy breath of tbe wind, (for aa the Persians still have lunar months the moharrem as well as the other months fall every year at a different time, changing about from midsummer to midwinter In the course of timek howl discordant wails of AJ i ossein, ai Hassan!" and behave themselves generally like lunatics or members of the salvation Army. The great features of this month are the theatxteal representations of the sufferings uf these two early martyra. Hnasefn and Hassan. and the noirular eom- memoretlons of their alanghter, such as endless readings and recitations and the tales of the professional a ton- tellers and mnllaha m kept up constantly. These passion plays are calico Huseelnia. and are performed in almost svery town of any size In Persia. There Is generally a building with a stage and an amphitheatre, built as a rule with the money left by special bequests, devoted to the purpose of theee representations. The largest of their kind may be found In Teheran, Shires, Kermanshah, Tabrle, Ispahan, and Meshed. The one in Teheran was erected by tbe present Bhah and adjoins his palace. It to not by any means a beautiful or imposing structure, but holds a good many people, and may, by means of a sail-clotb roof, many rugs and ourtalna, and other devices, temporarily be transformed into a serviceable place. Very much In tbe style of the Passion Play at Oberammergau, ths performance lasts a number of days, and Introduces every person of more or less prominence who played a part in the actual tragedy and what preceded and followed It 1,200 years ago. Judged from an artlstlo and literary standpoint these performances are quite ridiculous.- The shifts made by the players to supply lacking scenery and decorations were not even equaled in Shakespeare's days, and a roaring lion or a slender palm tree of the species used on these occasions are anything but terror-lnr piring or shade-vouchsafing. The desert near Kerbelah where the two young grandnephews of Mohammed were finally dispatched Is represented very much in the same fashion as Bottom, the great dramatic manager In uuuauiuoitu- AiEuti jrsmm, woma nave arrangea it. nut mere is, ror ail that some genuine pathos and some Interest to this passion play, ana It moves the large audiences, composed of men, veiled women, and children, who know of no better perform an oea nor any where the illusion is kept np better, quite frequently to an extraordinary pitch. One may see the sea of human faces, ail turned toward the stage, swaying to and fro in the strong wind of passion, pity, wrath, or sympathy, and the whole thing is a veritable godsend to these people, lifting them from their unworthy, narrow, mean life Into a higher sphere for at least a few days every year. Tbe strict observers of Moslem sw, however, despise these representations, which they consider to be against the spirit and teaching of Islam. They will countenance nothing but readings and recitations, and but few mollahs (priests) will therefore attend the performances. Great Importance, on the other hand, la attached by the rigid believers to dreams and visions, (shab dlden,) which they believe to be Divine Inspirations fraught with deep meaning. As the Persians make their principal meal in the evening, and generally eat a great deal at that time, such dreams are of frequent occurrence, and men who are the heaviest feeders or who are troubled with indigestion are generally the ones held In the highest esteem as visionaries. Beligious preaching does not amount to much, as tbe mollahs themselves rarely get beyond ths slavish observance of what has been taught them, and hardly ever have digested the slender amount of knowledge uf the Koran and the traditions and legends they possess. There are manr liberal-minded Persians, though, and even a great manr' freethinkers and agnostics among them, and these though hardly ever proteasing their unbelief openly have no scruple against discussing religious topics with persons from whom they do not tear treachery. The stock of Persian religious legends to a much larger and varied one than that of the Turks, ind a good deal of It dates from their pagan ays, mixed up with Mohammedan later teachings, and transformed Into a senseless Jumble. A few of these legends. It to true, are poetically very fine and manr contain a grain of sense. The 6 on nl tee look upon these legends (ha bis) as another evidence of Sheeite heresy, but ther hsve for the most part very little to an with re ligion proper. The Bheeites aarve accorded All such a high place in their worship that he ranks side by side With Mohammed, and but one step below Allah himself. They call upon him tor aid and guidance more than upon tbe founder. In "their religion and Is their daily conversation. In their diseusalona. writings, and poetry, the mention of All recurs constantly. The axolamatton " Tab All " to aa common with tbem aa By Ksh " with a Hoosier Granger. Tbe Koran ows no third commandment, and tbe names of the deity and of his principal co-workers, and lieutenants, Mohammed and All, are therefore constantly in the Sheeite'a mouth, generally Invoked separately, together with the description of the particular prerogative accorded to each member of this Moslem trinity. Thus the camel driver in Administering suocessfve whacks with a big club to his patient brutea, the fisherman la hauling In his nets, the boatman la pulling a steady stroke, the mason In toying sun-dried bricks upon each other all repeat endlessly the refrain, " Tan. Allah I Tan, Mohammed I Yah, All !' with an awfulpun on tbe last syllable and long-drawn yah r (oh 1) Where tbere are men working together they will ssy this In abortus in ben of the barcarole of the Venetian gondolier the boatman on the Lake of EnseU will screech at the top of his vole his " Yah, All 1" till the welkin rings again. The Kneel te theology, It is true, has not accorded All any definite place, and their commentators vary greatly in supplying tnls detest, according to their idiosyncrasies and Ideas. But the vast majority of the Persians look upon All as the vicar of Allah, and of equal might and Influence with the prophet himself, while a goodly number of tbem go even further and believe All to have beam tbe rncamatioa of the Godhead Itself. The veneration felt for All to not by any means on tbe wane: quite the contrary, ft seem on tbe increase. Of lass the Bhah has created a new rellsnoas holiday eou-memorating the birth of All and this to quite generally kept At this occasion, aa well as on the birthday of ths prophet mar be observed a curious ceremony, styled tne King at Commemoration. ' The one I attendee: was held at the noose of a sheik and doctor of dlvlnltr. A circle was formed of about 80 men holding hands, the sheik In the centra. Outside ths ring were Instrumental performers. There were 18 Immense tambourines, about S or A feet In diameter, 8 smaller ones. pairs of cymbals, and a big drum. Tbe hwm struck up a asrw and measured rhythm In double mas sura. A man sang, in a clear, plaintive voice, verses descriptive of the personal enarms of the prophet. The words were of such an erotic nature and attributed such perfection of form and fans ta their aobjeot that ther seemed - in reality mart applicable to Tonus Anadyemens than to Ms-hammed, the gaunt but muscular Arab, who beside his fine 'teeth and eyes, had Utile to recommend htm in the way ol bodily beauty. At the words ths grout of dancers began to swsy back and forth, keep lug time with the rhythm. As they threw theii beads back ther ald " Allah." and aa the; Jerked them forward they brought out tbe won "AH." with a kind of grunt The ntotton bet came raster ana faster ana toe masie Joaaer ana loudetv faster and loader, faster IMU1.J bodies and beads, tarn bo urines, drums, ermbalal nqueaka, and grunta, the human voices b ten ding with the deafening elaah ef the Instruments la one Infernal rear the verv aisienaa of all Moei lean fanatical ferocity. , Tbe laces ware aorrlblA to look at as they rose and fail, with eyes etar lng out f their sockets and months frothing al and sou gasta, ana notaing isn. nn frekxicd glare tna brute ' ready for anr deed ef blood or hut. so arrears iesuvai fnoo root) to Mnr erroneously mrmoaa, la any sense word a religious holidsyTlt is purely of i nature and to, la point ef fact, a ramai j ns new years festival (nooarooxl to not as of tas j a etvto nunmuit ef P-fn Umea Like other pagan notions of eld. tbi aaw lent Persians eekabratMl van aitenafw-lv awakening of nature, and that to what ther 1 ds with their noon raw, which means, raUy, new day, symbolical of tbe return of none ana new life. It mew for 18 days and the only festival nnrversaOlr and popularly rved by the Persian af nan kind, mi trr Guebres. Everrbodv bnva nw nlntnaa nf liant shades and tne finest texture hto purse I allow, makes presents, receives rsesta. and oys. himself -generally. The fehah gives aeries of reception, of which one I salaam-s-anmk la fa tKa hMt "fjth forelga Ministers. The Queen mother (vaildehl also aoourds a popular reception to the Persian women and one to the wives and daughters of the European residents and diplomats. Irtng the whole li days Jugglers, luti, (quack, agabonds, Ac.,) story tellers, street Tenders, partormer, beggars, anfl dervishes reap a gold-en harvest. The annual races (asp dewanl) come' off generally on tbe twelfth day of the festival. The thousands of office holders are either made happy with votes of honor (knalat) and a continuance of place, or else their successors are appointed at this time. Everybody or nearly as i made happy (or the time being except tbe poor fa rmer, (ryot) with whom the time for hardand p orly rewarded labor has come again, together w t the tax gatherer. mong ths religion institutions of Portia the dervish deserves mention. Prom among their ranks the noblest thinkers, teachers, and poets sgrsng In tbe days of old, but this is long past Tf-day the dervishes are a lot of conscience leax, ?"crnl,UJou. ragamuffins, beggars, intriguers, f atiatlcs, atheists, sensualists, and cynics by ttlrna. Thev are all hasheesh smokers fbhehghl) add lead a dissolute life, using religion as a cloak tojeover all their sins and passions, and nearly always In league with the lutis and robbers and tqievea. Many of them are' Hindus, and among their number may, be found people of all degrees, even some n the wealthiest and highest. The common beggar dervish is s fel- alow of pronounced depravity. Hia appearance enough. He wear rags, begrimed d filthy beyond belief. Hia beard and hair are lett growing and are unkempt and full of ver-nfin. Bis voice to cracked and hto ere is lurtre-"" from the constant use of the sotu benumbing bheng (hasheesh.) He carries a stick, the handle of which to carried so aa to describe the Persian characters for " Tab AH," and besides that he exhibits the kashkull (ooaeoanut shell to receive alms in) and often an old tiger skin thrown over bis shoulders, and the horn of an argatt, (nionntaln sheep, to produce the horrible noise witn wnion ne nnaerstanos with such perfection to make a nuisance of - himself. e site down at some shadv street raw and howls at everv naaawibHr hia Yah bakk," (Oh. eternal trnth.) without er taking the trouble to rise when soliciting ma. He will receive monev from anvhodv. ecn unbelieving Ferenghis, but will send curses arid strong vituperation after people tf they iatve not given him aa much as he expected. Manr of them will feign Insanity, the better to beguile tbe unwary Sheeite, who. Ilka the Turk, has a feeling of tender pity and reverence for the demented. Tbe higher grade dervishes style themselves Able asaad, (free people,) and are generally ' men of some education, but are. Ilka the other kind, arrant vagabonds, and worse if the opportunity Is favorable. They wear cleaner clothes and part ttieir hair la the middle, but smoke bheng. too. and generally have women companions, the lowest of their sex, along with them. While tbe wwer kind of dervishes are too Ignorant to know anything, this latter species of the genus are innrmea atheist, while at tbe same time lead-g a fife of idleness and vice on tbe strength of ieir pretended claim to holiness and piety. A w, a very few. of them, are still, however, men if learning ana austerity, and have pupils and mowers. There are a number of sects which came from le Sheeltea. Tbe most notable and nnmerona f these are the Daw ood res and the Baabttes. he former are more liberal than the orthodox heel tea. Ther discard the rifid rnlea abont i ating, drinking, and associating with strangers, 1 at follow in other respects the teachings of the Loran. They drink wine, eat hog's flash when hey can get it (It U very ssaroe in Persia,) and told It no sin to nave communion with nn hole vers. Prom their ranks tbe Europeans In rsia generally choose their servants. The Bash-tea have been styled tbe Nihilists of Persia, and here are really some points of similarity. Like be destructive Busslan sect ther have niiide ittempts against their sovereign's fife, and they relieve In community of goods and women. But iiere tbe resemblance ceases. Their founder ras a Beelde, (descendant of the prophet J and iras born In Klsen. He was a man of coneider-tble learning and accomplishments,' and soon acquired on that account tbe honorary title of iab-eddln, (Gate of Faith,) whence tbe name of he sect Baabltes. He wrote a species of creed n Arable, this being in the principal points f dogma in accordance with Moham-ned's doctrines, but differing from him n simplifying the code of ceremonies and the ritual and recommending eomnianity of prop--rty, wives and daughters included! He for-mde wine, but allowed hasheesh instead. Te the latter permission to probably due the rapid apread ef this sect Like most successful religions. It met with fierce persecution. Bab-rddln himself waa shot dead at the command of nusr-ea-lJeea Bhah at Tab til, in 1830. but the news of his martyrdom was generally disbelieved among bis follower, of whom many even (to-dsy think him living. The strict order of the (Bhah to detect and give up all Baabites. who were then killed, waa quite extensively obeyed. To these cruelties was due the attempt of two fanatical Baabltes la 1653 to assassinate the Bhah. Their attempt miscarried, and they were put to death after horrible tortures. Thousands of Baabltes who had thus far escaped the execu tioner, wTtnm tne sueceeaing two or tnree yean were beheaded, walled np alive, soldered down In hollow columns, bio am treat the mouths of cannon, or starved to death. Still, there are to-day quite a large number of Baabltes In Persia, especially in the neighborhood of Kerbelah, (which Is since time immemorial a haven of refuge for the persecuted on ac count of its supposed sanctity and Its aylura privileges,) Manshur, and Kermaa. Ther r rec ti ea the peculiar precept of Baablam Under cover, ana nave to hide their light under a bushel, generally speaking, but executions of these occur out rareiy now, ana tneir number is said to be on tbe increase, even in the Immediate uragt or tbe reigning Bhah, whose fear of this sect had greatly abated within the past 80 years. WOLF TOK SCHXERBKAND. UmfAng.a) Isttsr to Ms Panama Afar tmd Berald. The important railway project referred to in my last communication tor the construction of a road from Lima to Plsoo and thence to the interior city of Ayaeueho has been followed by others of much interest to the public A proposal to before tbe Government to construct a narrow gauge 11ns from Tarma Into the fertile valley of the Gbancnamayo, where there is already large capital employed in the cultivation of sugar, cotton, coffee. An. Another refert to the rebuilding of the important railway connecting tbs port ef Ho in the south with ths city af Moqnegna. traversing the noted wtae-grow-tng districts of that department and Don Jnan U Thomdyka, the lasses of the Mouenao. Arequipe ana runo Ratlwaya pr poses to tbe Executive to carry out those lines to Maranganl, toward Cuaoo, and around the shore of the Lake Titieaca to the Peruvian boundary with Bolivia on the Deaaguadero, Ajid In addition to these projected undertaking we have toe preepeet la the near future of ths completion of the famous Oroya Railway to ths Cerro de Pasco and the thorough development of the famous silver mines at that place. The commission of mining experts sent out from Kew-Tork has arrived at the Oerro de Pasco, and within a month or tlx weeks will probably conclude their labora, waka conxiit in a careful examination of the ores extracted from the dMDMt of the shafts now inhmM-r tntoiii. gent mechanics have also arrived from California to snpenntena tne erection of the BO-etamp mill at tbe Oerro de Pasco, which waa brought here by the Oroya Company from California several years ago. The various propositions referred to are now ttndef consideration of the Executive, and have so far been favorably reported upon by the different Government offices through which they have passed. In no instance la tbs State called upon to disburse money, the concession or monopoly to asked, for a certain term of years at the expiration of which the works become national prupei ty. One of these roads alone, that from Lima to Ayaeueho would Involve an expenaiture of 80.000.000 ail soles, of which at least half would be dlstanr here, and the oAherproJecti aim promise benefits of a Ilka nature. The fact of inch Important proposition nemg maoa, ana tne readiness to employ capital ox saon maenrtaae goes to pro-re that confluence to reposed 1b the stability ef order in Peru, and in the Vast wealth aha holds awalttng aeveiopment OOlTGXEtSMZS MOJf OJTM COWTA.XY. Trass fas TueUrnapmllt ttmttmtl. Company K, Eizta Indiana Cavalry, may be eelled the Congressional Conrpany, harvthf fumishsd three of Its ex-members for Congres sional positions C C toeumbent and candidate for ra-sJeetten from tne rtfta ma tana iJiatnct, was uemtenaat; James T. Job nana, the present taeumbeat and candidate for re-slectioa la the Sixth District was a private, and Joseph B. Cheadla. aominatcd by the Hepoblirans la the 9 into District, waa also a pnvato la tine company. CBtXXSX COOZM CALLZV JUC2L :. Ffttm fas TlrytNia fJTsaJ JUto niton, Stpt 17, Much trouble coothxuea to exist at tbe hotels and restaurants at Carson by reason of the whits cooks artttng drunk and unreliable. The landlords find thstaselvas obliged to Us-rharge then and n sort to Cttaeae eeoks again. The a ban res are that all the '.atnaiaen driven away by the Anti-Chiaeae League will have to aa seat xor to

Clipped from
  1. The New York Times,
  2. 26 Sep 1886, Sun,
  3. Page 5

smkolins Member Photo
  • The Persian Religions, by, Wolf von Schierbrand (otherwise unsourced)

    smkolins – 27 Mar 2013

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