Communism and Socialism 1852

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Communism and Socialism 1852 - -Therefore ! be. :ss throng, Democratic Banner....
-Therefore ! be. :ss throng, Democratic Banner. [For the Democrat'c Bnnne-.] Commuuisiii aud Socialism. Tl.a principal causes of tho recent ercnts in Franbe, 'arc to be found in tho ideas of Communism and Sociulism, diffused among the lower classes oE tho French people. You ftre struck with- astonishment by the announcement announcement that Napoleon--an inglorious adveBturer, a man without virtua or talent- could deitroy the French Constitution, ami rule an intelligent iin-1 gall.mt people of thir- ty-sii million*, with arbitrary power. 2fo man would think it possible that a President of the UniteJ States could imprison tho most distinguished Senitors and Representatives, Representatives, and annihilate the Constitution of the United States, and that such a criminal would meet with the approbation of the people people for his violent measures. Yon would regard regard such a supposition us nini!ne.i3. Why can a French President successfully perform that which it wouU be insanity to attempt, in the United States? I tind the princip.il cause of this striking result in France, in the ideas of Communism and Socialism. Franco is thickly peopled: 30,000,000 living on 205,000 square miles, making an average of 180 persons on each square uiilu; while in the United States, on about 3,750,003 square miles, live 25,000,000; 8 or 9 persona on each square mile. There bein», in France a large amount of property accumulated in the bands of a few persons, landlords, bankers bankers and merchants, a great part oE the pco- pli must ba very poor. You find there more hands th.-tn labor, and of course lo.v w.iges, and a great many persons who can obtain no work nt all. Therefore, the condition of the lower classes of the French people is verv bad, having hard work, narrow, unhealthy dwellings, scanty and bad food, wretched clothes, and no means f"r the education of their children, and the cultivation of their minds. The condition of the slaves in tho United Suites, is, in many respects, preferable preferable to the miserable stale of the laboring classes in Europe ; because the proprietor of the slaves takes care of the children, the ·ick, and the old, while the European laborer, laborer, finding no work, or becoming old or sick, is tortured by insupportable distress. The miseries of the wretched laborers, living in the great cities of Paris, Lyons, and Marseille*, Marseille*, are depicted in glowing language by eloquent French writers--*y Eugene Sue, in hU " Mysteries of Paris,'! by Louis Bianc, in his " History of Fninoe frum 1830 to 1840," and by n Catholic 1'riest, of great abilities, the Abbe Lcmenais, in a book entitled entitled "Modern Slavery," showing the condition condition of the laborer to be worse than even (lavery. Are'all these evils unavoidable ?' Are rail- lions of human beinsrs condemned, by the laws of nature, tu siiflT«r tho pangs of es- treme poverty V or is the wretched condition of the laborer the consequence of a wrong system of legislation? Are there not. to be found any remedies against the growing evil of. indigence in Kurope--tho object of sorrow, sorrow, anxiety, and horror, and dangerous to the very foundations of human society? These questions are often canvassed by European European writers, in books and newspapers. A set of authors believe they have found remedies for the evils above delineated. A part of them profess Communism, another . part, Association. The doctrine of the Communists is as fol- Ka'e, name free, estate-; *hnmed, . ' .wait i lows : Property, say they, as we find it since ! the records of history, is against reason and natural law. UoJ having given the world to nil mankind, what rigitit has a single man to take away what belongs to all ? i'roper- ty. aa we find it. is founded on occupation. The firet occupant conveys it to others. But what right has the first occupant to appro- I priate any spot of land ? By the closest scrutiny of this naked occupation, of this simple fact, you can detect nothing consistent consistent with right or justice. And wh.it is the consequence of this assumed right of occupation? occupation? You see, on the one side, a small ! portion of citizens very rich, having One houses, elegant furniture, coaches and horses, horses, sn-j many servants to obey their caprices- These rich.and idle men in aristocratic Europe Europe expend, every year, many thonsand dollars, dollars, by revelling and extravagant' luxury, without being useful to mankind. On the other aide, are' thc'grent mass of the people, the poor laborers, useful member? of society, society, who, by the hardest work, sc.ircelv acquire acquire sufficient means to sustain their wretch: ad existence. These are the bad consequences of the as' as' sumed right of occupation. Take away this · right, and the laws of inheritance; give 'ho fruits of: the toil .to the laborer who produc- I es them, and let the idle hanger; in such a I way you will restore justice. No person should have a right on the soil for himself and hi* heirs, lie may use a small portion of. the fruits produced by his labor, but the I soil is, and shall be, common; The right of property, as we find it in tho world, is robbery. robbery. Appropriation by occupation, is mere violence.. i Hence the famous sentence of the" French ·writef,'Proudhoii: " The property is theft;" or, in French, '· la proptrle dest la vole." Proudhon attacks the usual-theory of the-or- igintof property; by occupation, with" great ·mbtlelT. If the occupation, aayi he, giv»s, , aad UMOODTeyance of the oooapitat transfers, : a right of property, you can have no limita- 1 tinot of action for recovering property. You ·an la; at taiet upon property without the ', eoomt of all theoitiz«o«,femalesand males, i bwaoM tb« majority has na right to take I away tU property ol tb« dimotiag minori: minori: ty. Even tho. Legislature is not entitled, against the will of the owner, f or compensa- sation, to appropriatp property for highways, railroads, fortresses, and other public uses. You see, nt the first glance, says Proudhon that the usual foundation of property on occupation, occupation, is full of contradictions, bringing insupportable miseries to the laborer, the greatest and most useful class of humau society, society, and only profitable to u few men--the aristocracy of birth and riches. Therefore; you must alter the system' of legislation, founded orf this absurd and baneful theory. The idea of Communism is not new. The first Christians, moved by the strong spiritual spiritual power of the new faith and of brotherly !or~e, lived for some tiine'in a community of all their goods. And in the State built up bv the rich imagination of the ancient Grecian Grecian philosopher, Plato, you find also a communion communion of all the goods of the citizen?. But Plato's state is only a work of fancy. And if, among some unnjreds of persons united by strong feeling,- there may be some cora- munitv of goods, certainlv millions, the citizens citizens of a whole State, never will concede such a communion, because the useful and industrious man will use, for himself ami his children, what he has acquired by labor, speculation, and good fortuue, and will nut divide it with the idle, weak, and unfortunate. unfortunate. The ideas of Communism are impracticable impracticable and nonsensical, in such a high degree, degree, that we are surprised to find, in tho intelligent intelligent French nation, the opinions of Communists Communists and Socialists so widely spread and diffused among the Inboring classes. The Socialists have the same purposes as the C'linmunists, it being their intention to' dtwtroy the sway of capital over l.ibor, which they hope to attain by association. The schemes adopted for this purpose ar« muni- fold. A manufacturer, for irntanco, having a large capital and great skill for directing and managing his busings, receives, by employing employing 400 laborers, a considerable proSt frum each of them, because he gives, pur- hps, in Europe, each workman a quarter of a dollar, whiit thy labor of every person cni- plovyd by him id worth half a dollar. In this way the employer makes every day one hundred dollars, and the poor laborer a quarter quarter of a dollar. The capitalist, of course, takes a great deal of fruit from the swea: of the workman, who, besides, depends entirely entirely upon the arbitrary *wiil- of the -manufacturer; -manufacturer; because it is nlways very difficult, and often impossible, for a laborer, ...having offended offended th.ti manufacturer or.the overseer, by ref using subjection, to find.-any-other, employment. employment. The laborer, therefore, is the slave of the capitalist. lie must either starve or be submissive to the caprice and avarice of the itard-ltcartcd manufacturer and his ovflreers. By association,say the Socialists, yau can emancipateyoureuives from this hid eous thr:-.!dom. If 4JJ workiumi unite ihcir moans and forces, they can have the whole profit of their labor, doubling their wages in the instance aforesaid. But the objection to such a- scheme is ea- rily occn. In what way 'hiil! tho 4UO labor ci's get capital tjulScientfor the establishment of a great manufactory V \Vhere -ivill they find among them the faithful juuu to rnuaage such an enterprise? The friends, of the laborer have contrived other remedies. · The workmen, say they, must oblige themselves, mutually, not to work r.t all, liut for a certain amount of wa"- ges; because the capitalists want work, and ara unable to do work themselves. They must, therefore, depend on the will of the laborers, if united. Uut this is a chimerical project. For if it were possible, what never never wiil be clfeotejjih.lt, for instance at Lyons or Manchester, or any other great city, all laborers in the manufactories should agree not to work but for wages of a certain amount; pvcn such an agreement wonU not extort higher wages, but only stop all manufacturer manufacturer at those nlacft ; hecauso tlie manufacturers, manufacturers, unable to obtain labor fur e^ual wages with their rivals, connut successfully compete with them, and therefore will prefer prefer to "top work. Until the laborers of the whole world, or at least of a great nation; shall be unanimous, the expedient ot* stop-, ping work, for the purpose of extorting high^ er wages, can only inllict a deep injury on the poor laborer, who, by so doing and gaining gaining nothing, makes worse his bad condition. Cabet, a French writer, has established, ns a pattern, ntXauvoo, Illinois, a community, founded on principles of Socialism and Communism Communism ; all work for the community, and take in exchange from tae common stock, what they want." In the "pmtcdStates, whero land is plenty, a society of .this: kind, connected connected by the same views,- can, perhaps,'continue perhaps,'continue for a few yean?; but tho idea 'that the old French society can be dissolved, and that' the French people, will imitate the example of Cabet, is exceedingly absurd. delusive promises of imaginative', writers, newspapers'and pamphlets.', Tortured by pangs of indigence and misery, theydrcaro of happinessrand blessings if the whole power of the treasury of state and th'e should bo in.the Hands of the~friend» poor people, and, who would devote the of the soil, not'for the luxury bf'a'few, for the benefit of all. The Socialists already, (in June,;184S,) carried the!poorla- borers into a horrible battle, in which thonsand have lost their lives, and Cavaighac, a trno republican, supported the Parisian militia, ha« crushed the resistance of more than 100,000 armed who fought with the-rage- of desperation. The victory was very bloo.dj anSShe pointof European liberty; for all men were struck with horror; and have greater fear of tho government of ths leaders of the Communists and Socialists, are seeking with fire and sword to their chimerical theorie*, than even of arbitrary po-nrer of an inglorious and licentious adventurer, who keeps order,, property, and saves society. Taste. yriiat is Taste? This is a very difficult question to answer. It means something taken into the mouth, which convoys a pleasurable ur a disagreeable sensation to the this is physical taste, and yet, although have called it "a natural quality" or ihere is the strongest evidence on hand contrary. It is a very common saying, is no accounting for taste ;'·' this is wide senss, but it is no more true "there is no accounting for habits." fact is we can account for the manner which many tastes are required, but ami such tastes should be acquired--why pk have a disposition, and,as it wcre,a tv to acquire them--is more than we account for. Why is it that so many taste for chewing tobacco--a' taste, when acquired, or become a habit, is cutting olfu right hand tn par' with? We think it very singular to witness people in;r. lime, but thousands of Hindoos do The natives of the arctic regions with iciathing-but train oil, cundie3,:i.nd arc luxuries MI them. Our children like candies,the children in the interior of :rse rock salt for su-^ar sticks. The Frenchman likus frogd, and the Chinese dogs bird-nest .soup. Some acquire a morbid for clay and .slate stones, others for and brandy. One man has complete over his tastes, that is, if there; is any for which hehasa desire to eat or. he is convinced that ic would be injurious him in any sunse, he can calmly., thrust temptation to the one side, and "feel tho sacrifice. Another man Jacr'ificc3£ea3im, interest, and conviction to the eratiltSttion of his appetite, and seems to ba led nbVe.'capLiyo byttViB.p"il»»iOn. -S^me? VtoiUlfl say. unon the system of'reasoning by Liobijr. in his Animal Chemistry, that this is easily accounted for, to support the equilibrium of the bo'dy, up^sj the principle that food is to the body what fuel the fire- The Esquimaux' at the North requires a grcst amount of carbon to the heat of his body in' that cold This reasoning may answer with some, although alcohol and tallow contain far oxygen, still sugar contains a great deal carbon, viz., 12C., 11H., 110., (carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen). It i:* aUo well that,-in tropical countries much olive oil used as food -in Lsrael "corn and oil" common fond, am) it i« so in Greece, and Spain,and other nations now. tn Africa the native.-! e.tt twice UK much t'ooJ Americans in jrenerul. When a p.-.ison is coavin^id tint any beverage or article of i'oo.i is' to the system--and certainly it is no matter to know this--he shouKl dpnv«himse!f the gratification or indulgence of his at once. lie should endeavor to make passion nubjuct to reason and moral he who dues not do this is not safe, never-can be a great mr a good man; .he be led away by thi; most absurd and taste for something useless, loathsome, destructive to health and happiness.--Scientific happiness.--Scientific American- ' . IloAiiso LEARXEH Boms:--The broadest and most laughable attempt of this Mathcw Carey, of Judge Brecfcenridge, elder. The Judge, it seems, hnd a, amipathv to philosuphical societies, which was the more remarkable from his-being-a scientific and well read man... B u t length explained the mystery, by stating be had been rejected' by the.American Philosophical Society, of which he. was a candidate for membership, iu revenge-for a democratic vote he had given in the^Legislature Pennsylvania-against wh.it 'was termed "province money"--and he resolved to revenged in turn. lie not only wrote his satirical work called "Modern Chivalryj" he palmed upon that body some'most ridiculous deceptions. Among'other-things, he took his grandmother's fan, 3 iuid having in-' geniously twisted, gummed, painted and prepare-.! it, sent it to the Society as the of : ab.U! -Mathen'Oaroy sajs-: ':..- '·""it was received wTth"d"u7 solemnitv. L vnn of thinlu tt-is msKod .tnihn t vott ot thank* was, p.is S e* -to. the 'was appointed to .ascertain vcttother it the wing of a Madagascar or Canada ·The committee sat. three weeks;, and oonsnlting BuBun's Natural -UisLory:. Goldsmith's Animated Nature, they ' that it uiust.have belonged to a'Madagaacar baC . It was pronounced the -greatest curiosity in the Museum, except a. lurpe nnij i-is(?uised with soot and dirt, and "PTM the So TMV ** P art of " a BTM«---n's . ., '" THE LORD'S' PRATER.-! rem'raiber.'on You see tbut every -eiperimentj made by 'brown paper which he hang in,the the Socialists, for the purpose 'of'subdumg i ~ ~ ' Jr ·--.'- -· the capitalist to tbc will of the laborer,.has failed. Every stranger, coming from Gurripe, and landing in New York^ or any otherlarge' citv. and seeing the wonderful progress- of commerce and improvement, is.nlled witb^.asr* tonUhment and admiration. What id '.the: .motive of the men who have wrought- »uch" wonders? The enterprising merchants/and'' farmers of the United Suites Iqistbemaelve* and their families. They irorfc for thorn-: ·elves, their wivei and childrnj. .'Take-; away thin motive, and,le." them work'only for the whole p'eo'pl« and you will'ftnd the decay, of the Uait«d'StatM:M rapid ai it* inmate is now. Men are not angelr, and the; lofty, theories of Socialiimaad Communism, which' miitake human naturt, mult fail. Bnt the poor pe»ple in FraooeliMao to tb«' we arrived at'S' 'door,' which-we'wer'e about, to pitch on' - :a.crowd of Arabs surrounded u§, .swearing at the ; rehellen My friend .elderlj .. prie«t,-rud-- : beiie»ers- for for : .vbin iterdV.prayer. tijl.the prjert ticli nejfever" prayer.ini mV:hTnr''beomTf"pTay^thM Xaiaren*, rflbeat that jpt»-yer^Skt'it maV "" ' * · · ' ...-TI. ... · .1. 'jjjjt^:b n t-- i

Clipped from Democratic Banner23 Jan 1852, FriPage 1

Democratic Banner (Davenport, Iowa)23 Jan 1852, FriPage 1
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  • Communism and Socialism 1852

    haloupek – 06 Dec 2014

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