1932 John J ONeill Chester W Rice Cosmic Ray Detector for GE Brooklyn Daily Eagle June 17
en-Joys ( Make Super-Sensitive Super-Sensitive Super-Sensitive Cosmic Ray Detector General Electric Research Scientists Have Taken First Step Toward Putting to Work Mysterious Mysterious Radiation From the Skies By JOHN J. A. O'NEILL Science Editor of The Eagle A simple super-sensitive super-sensitive super-sensitive detector of cosmic rays Has been developed in the General Electric Research Laboratories as the first step toward Investigating the properties of these mysterious rays to ascertain if they can be put to work. The detector, which is In the same general class as the Geiger-Muller Geiger-Muller Geiger-Muller counters used in detecting traveling electrons, electrons, was developed by Dr. Chester W. Rice. It Is en closed in a glass tube two inches long and three-quarters three-quarters three-quarters three-quarters of an Inch in diameter. In Partial Vaoanm In the glass tube is a cylinder of nickel and along the axis of this tube extends a tungsten wire. Some of the air is withdrawn from the tube, leaving a partial vacuum. An electrical potential is maintained maintained between the nickel tube and the tungsten wire which keeps the Inclosed air in a very sensitive condition. condition. It is always just about ready to spill over, electrically. When a cosmic ray comes along it excites the air in the tube. When there are no cosmic rays passing this air is practically a non-conductor non-conductor non-conductor non-conductor and there is no apparent activity in the tube. . The inclosed air, however. Is in an electrical state which can be compared with that of a person just on the verge of hysterics the least provocation brings Immediate and very apparent results. The cosmic ray breaks down the resistance of the air between the tube and the wire and there, is a corona discharge between the two element. The corona discharge manifests Itself as a bluish colored brush or halo and can sometimes be seen in radio tubes that have become become defective. It is caused by the air becoming highly ionized. When the corona discharge takes place the ionized air becomes a conductor conductor and electrical Impulses pass between the cylinder and the wire. These electrical impulses are picked up by a wire and led to a radio amplifier. The impulses are weak, but after they have been amplified each impulse, corresponding to a cosmic ray, produces a sound in the loudspeaker like the crack of a rifle. By counting these Impulses a count is made of the cosmic rays. With this small tube the count averages about eight per minute. . In using this counter It la inclosed inclosed in protective lead covering four inches thick. The purpose of the lead covering, states Dr. Rice, is to shut out the effects that might be due to radioactive material. The only known radiation that can get through the lead is the cosmic ray and this radiation gets through without the least difficulty. The source of the cosmic rays is unknown. There are two schools of thought on the subject. According to one these rays are the birth cries accompanying the creation of new atoms in outer space, and according to the other they are the death rattle of atoms that are being annihilated annihilated In the stars. Comparatively immense amounts of energy would be released in either process and the cosmic rays, because of thair great penetrating power, are believed to be possessed of tremendous tremendous energy. Neither U it known whether the cosmic rays are a form of radiation similar to ordinary .light but of an extremely high frequency, or whether they are electrons traveling traveling at enormous velocities. Either of the facta that are known about ; these rays ' The impression one gets from j listening to the cosmic ray counter ls that they are electrons that shoot ' through the tube of the counter like j a bullet going through a glass bottle and Immediately healing the hole made in going through the glass. I A little packet of radiation would produce the same effect. i We usually think of radiation as I a rantinuoim Drocesa. like lisht ! emitted from lamp, but when one j quanta of the radiation passes about ; every 12 seconds it is not so easy to "To deny employment to women vlsualir.e it as a form of light. on the ground of marriage places a At the present time the General j penalty upon marriage, and, there-Electric there-Electric there-Electric scientists are shooting in fore. Is opposed to good public the dark In the matter of utilizing the cosmic ravs. They will pass through more than 10 feet of lead, so It will be no simple job to reflect or refract them like light rays, perhaps perhaps impossible. This may prove to be their most useful property. Dr. Michael Osnato Is Dead in Germany Word was reelved here yesterday of the death by heart disease of Dr. Michael Osnato. 45, noted neurologist, neurologist, on a Berlin-bound Berlin-bound Berlin-bound train in Germany. Dr. Osnato was director of the neurological department at the Post-Graduate Post-Graduate Post-Graduate Hospital and was consulting consulting psychiatrist for the Central Islip State Hospital at Central Islip, L. I. He resided in Pelham Manor and leaves his wife and three sons. Sex In Public U. Civil Service Attack Tendency to MenQuestions Bitterly denouncing the women with men In the business Service Commissioner Jessie M. "purely and simply sex She charged further that the "to-do "to-do "to-do about married women" is Just an excuse to strike a blow at women generally, generally, and she attacked current current "protective" labor laws for women as measures to lower the standard of women In employment. Commissioner Dell addressed the American Alliance of Civil Service Women at the American Women's Association Clubhouse, 361 W. 57th St.. Manhattan. Dr. Anna Hoch-felder Hoch-felder Hoch-felder of Brooklyn, assistant corporation corporation counsel and head of the Alliance, presided. "I believe that all this to-do to-do to-do about married women is just an excuse excuse to strike blow at women generally," generally," Commissioner Dell said. "I believe that labor laws said to be for the protection of women do not really protect but lower the standard standard of women in employment. "Why should women want, to be 'protected' by labor standards different different from those for men? Why should women want anything but equality? In fact, they don't. 'Real Protection' "A real protection would be a recognition recognition of the right of women to an equal chance for the higher jobs which they do not have either in government or private business. And to say that a married woman shall not be employed by government government If her husband is so employed Is nothipg short of absurd. "It would be as sensible to say that two brothers, or two sisters, or father and son shall not be employed employed by government. The right of the individual to open competition competition is altogether lost sight of. "I believe that no government, Federal, State or local, has a right PJ ,or f""c"'" Job wnich can be done N1'4" we" by man or a woman and I believe '''rth" that qu't0'0" of ri (hs ntnin whatever to do wllh Ule maHr' 'As Easal Chance' "I do not ask for any special .iH-,fin .iH-,fin .iH-,fin wnmon but I do , , i ln" women oe given au wi opportunity with men and that if , conditions arise under which dis- dis- missals must be made, the loss fall i upon men and women alike. policy Fights Ralinf . Commissioner Dell questoned the legality of the Federal Civil Service ruling which allows the head of a department office to specify whether whether he wants men or women employes. p fol-I.