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IVU Wrn - tT - m HORTICULTURE 1 tft s HC - - - T Xvl t - Q - - l - l IV IV irnAxmsirmk riTrnrtVTriTiJ HTurniv m - xttmrS H itAV T - mvw vwiv uuill ivu v wv - A WMbtarton dlapatob stetee that - th time - honored Congressional cut torn of Winstar th voters approval ay - generous donations or fro seed huag trembllngjn the balance reqenl - ly when th irrepressible Congressman Congressman Blsntoo of Tnu opened fir on the 100000 seed Item In the aixloulT turn appropriation bill The gentleman from Texa charted that ills honorable - colleagues vera numbugtlng their constituents by endlnr them the seed aa a lift when In reality they were being paid for by taxes and the Increased cost of ivwc Tho farmers of this country ha Shouted would rather have their taxes out than to receive a It - cent package of seed that they dont went and cant uae from meir aenaior pri Congressmen t BITT THKY STUCK FOR SEEUS Tor a few minutes It looked as though the seeds were doomed but When the roll call was taken at Blan - tons request enough votes were mus - tared to defeat the amendment atrlk lac the Item from the appropriation bill The vote stood HO to 71 some 70 moved lr a imill weliht such as that of a few clover eed But a balance balance of his kind designed to rest on the edge of a knife - blade can be madb from two lead peijojla two cardboard cardboard disks two plajr wire some rubber bands a damn - needle s common brass pin and two bits of board The only equipment needed eonsletsef a few BS ehols flattened to be4isd as weight With talk balance balance If the purs sead from a sample balances ten shots and the ImDurltlea balance fn het the sample Is shown to be per cent pure some shots M Wa - nam lut - 11 - aa - - lmf wvjwuv lliw a - la ituailVfa eighths and sixteenths for fractional weights - - - - - 1ARM TNANCV INCREASING The - amouat of farm tenancy In state of the corn belt has become aermtni and the Illinois Constitutional Constitutional Conventloatsprepirlns to take effort to solve the trouble It lapos - Sl1e that some michiolutlon as that Settlement Board at Durham will be surfeited In a bulletin prepared tor the Illinois convention the legislative Bureau of that State estimates that the present census will show to pel cent land tenancy In the State and as high aa tO per cent In Jhe richest part - Mh iia tll tllUAMYimNihn f Blantona follow Congressmen vol - v v got the land cheap have madetheir tnc with h m probab y for the first time In their lives Colleagues of the Texas Congress - man declare In rebuttal of his argument argument that thefsrmers are not the nes most benefited by the seed dls - trlbutlon the greater number of the packages rolns to the backyard gar - liener who cannot purchase his seed In the bulk the farmer Indo necessary necessary and at the price at which the farmer Is able to obtain them They declare that the seeds only post the United States Government a trifle over JH cents a package irtclui - Jng tbe cost of purchasing them putting putting tbem In packages and mailing them to various points throughout the sounry excluding only the cost of the xtra clerks the Senator or Congreas - auia must employ to address the franks The same grade of eediif purchased by the gardener or small farmer would cost him about 26 cenfsj a package and oven men ne wouia tot be sure that he was securing the same grade of seed furnished by tie Government IMPROPRIATION FOR CROP ESTIMATES CUT 3The agricultural appropriation bill passed by the present national House f Representatives shows a material tut in Hie appropriation for the work of the Bureau of Crop Estimates of the Department of Agriculture The Tedval Department of Agriculture has been planning a material enlargement enlargement of the work of Its Bureau of Crop Estimates to include end cover Very much more complete service than heretofore and this bureau asked for tin Increased appropriation of over 1600000 for the next fiscal year beginning beginning July 1 next to be spent along the lines of thu Incrossed programme recently approved by the department ffloials The agricultural appropriation appropriation bill recently passed by the Uouse carries a reduction of over S0O0000 as compared with last year which Is ver t7900000 less than the amount asked for by the Secretary of Agriculture Agriculture This Is In accordance doubtless doubtless with the present programme of urtallment of Governmental ex - peases The bill as Anally passes uy the House calls for a reduction of about t34O00 under last years appor - ttohment for Hie Bureau of Crop Es - tlmalca pVrl of the appropriation ratber than an iucrease of over 00100 00100 as asked for The Bureau of Crop tslmate will of course It this IS Pot amended In the Senste find the aeoestlty of somewhat curtailing Its work rather than expanding Its pro - ajramme - yVu all cry for reduction of Oovern - itnt expenses snd yet not one of us will consorit tu tbe reduction of any jaxpense which we think Is of sdvan - tatfo to us And yet unless sll will forego something which we have hUherts enjoyed there can be ho re - auction but rslher an Increase of f edersl taxation Until recently those itoncerncd msde their own crop csl - rnates and aa a rule they were pretty accurate We like to have the Government Government do It for us and In this State at any rate we have exceedingly com - tnt and reliable Government estl - pislea But wo cannot expect to have verythlng we want without giving sutlers the same advantage e li WHAT WEIGHT TELLS Only by uslna a weighed quantity f seed can one determine the relative quantities of pure and of Impure Seeds In the sample This requires t balance suftlclently sensitive to be money and retired to California and Florida 40 enjoy the Income from their tenant - farmed lanas A note from the legislative bulletin Is jtlven herewith The proportion of farm tenants to farm owners has shown a steady In crease In Illinois for - forty yesrs The United states censas for 1110 gate some attontlon to questions at land owftarahip and farm tenancy in the dlltereut btates and the data collected collected at that time gave s higher per centage of tenants In Illinois than In any other northern state In this - sectionsection sectionsection of the United States In 1110 there were twenty - three tenants for every 100 farmers In the United States In 1110 this percent age ksd Increased at 371 per cent for the entire country In Illinois 41 proportion of tenants reached 314 percent In - lttO and 414 per cent In 1110 At the present time conservative estimates plsce the number of tenants above to pier cent ifor the entire State and from 0 to 80 per cent for the rich lands In the corn bill Thisvlljslaereaslng In California I M - wcrt leleWhre and In Ita most nssirumive rorsn wnicn is tenaniry from year to year Under tenure of that kind It is the desire of the tenant to get everything possible out of tho land and put as llttls possible into it Th - re 1 something tdbe ssld for the Old World form of - teaanUhlp wnere long lessee afd taken under covenants for protectlaK and improving tne son and where the farm la oftsn cultivated by the aamo family for generations That makes for a substantial cltisen - ship rooted o the soil It gives a peimtnentbome tohe family unable to pay fof Jhe land and allows tho family ef the owner to degenersle In the nStiral way But tenantry from year toVJear Is destructive of both land and cltlsenshlp fll have about the wotftrforra there Is as so msny of the tenants are Orientals - t A Proposal o Grow More Flax A big future for a flax Industry In California Is hinted at by the American American KldxTlber and Linen Corporation Corporation of New Tork In a Uttr - rl Charles WPalne aeoretary of tba California Agricultural Society The letter Is from William Jay Rdblnson president of the corporation and reads In part The downfall of Russia which had supplied Hi per cent of the worlds ftas and the consequent utter demor - alluatlon - of the linen industry abroad for lackatof raw materials offers to tho American - farmer a most unusual opportunity Flax can be grown successfully andj profitably for fiber and seed an any land which will produce good corn wheat oats rye barley or cotton and this fact has been fully demonatrstsd America tbe days of its beginnings was a llnenypuntry and even as lata as ItIO thirty - three states grsw 841 - 010000 pounds of flax straw However the method necessary to extract the flax fiber from the flax straw was so tedious and disagreeable that the American farmer abandoned the growing of fiber flax and the Industry was lost to America A newly discovered process produces produces th flfat Aber from the flax straw In a few hours ready for the spinner where heretofore the same result wss achieved In from five to sixteen weeks and with 70 per cent more labor This discovery not only mesns millions millions of dollars 10 the American farmer Ip the growth of fiber flax far seed andsflber but It will give America an airport crop of flax liber to substitute the Russian crop and will evantuallywnean the re - establish - ment and development of a linen Industry Industry In America When this time comes American linen bids fair to share 9e laurels with ths cotton Industry Industry This corporation Is starting In on an educational propaganda among the farmers la the various statee A board of advisers Is bslng chosen from - among the leading men of the Nation and It gives me great pleasure te Invite you to become a member of this advisory board T fie Farmer on ihe High Cost of Living 3 r Dargtta In Roclne Rural JTraas I havs been muoh Interested In ywur strioturss 00 otter people attempting to do the farmers business for blnv people who know noising about farming farming Especially Is this true as to the economics of farming The people who work tight bears and say they cant live on a dollar an hour and thlsjc the war la to work only six hours aad ask tor a dollar and a half an boar think the farmer is the profiteer Other people think the wsy to overcome the high cost a living Is to speed up production aad it the farmer will only grow twloe as much - lie can MITsvr half tho present prices and tbua solve tho difficulty Other people think the easiest way Is to drift along adraaoe wagws demanded demanded whenever demanded and tbea pass It along to the pikjlflby - ddlng same to selling prices and not forgetting forgetting to also add a good percentage of profit for themselves at tbe same time The first group of course are the so - called laboring people who work with their hands and use their heads mostly to see how llttls they can do and hold their Jobs t The second croup are tbe well - meanlna theorists who really want to heln but have not yet found out how and who seem to IniBX tne irouDie must be with the farmer because pot enough Is being produced to go around and therefore they art sralag to work him Tho third group are ths manufacturers manufacturers and tradesmen who work chiefly by their wits and who have always considered tbe publlo or the consumers and ths producers la common common and mors especially the farmers as their dlvlrye heritage whom it Is their Inherent right to nse ferlhelr nwn ratna and none should bo daring enough to molest or make them afraid The first group raise wagts ana shorten hours aa a remedy The second second group urge the farmer to work harder The third group - - well they say lay on ana let mm si omnu who says enough Now all are wrong Tne nrsi group makes It necessary for tho farmer to charge more because he hat to pay continually Incr - eaaing wages tor 11s hired labor ana likewise weununj Increasing amounts ffr his supplies all he has to buy and therefore how can he sell for less or even the same and not go brokoT The second group are wrong because the farmer la now working twelvevto fifteen hours per May and cannot do mors except byl hired labor aqd cannot proouce wun ths unskilled iilgh - prleod Inefficient labor available without greatly In creasing the price of his products No one rarmer in ten is maxing one dollar an hour tor his labor If ho figures figures out Interest n his Investment and allows his wife r daughter union wages for their tabor In cooking and caring for hired laborers This Is true even at the pressnt time of high prices The third group Is doubly wrong because they are now attempting to deny the farmer the right to collective selling and preparing preparing for selling his products a right now generally granted te tbe first group If the farmer cannot make a reasonable reasonable profit for his labor and his Investment Investment he will have to quit and as production is stifled by Interfering with his right to get such a fair return return then prices will soar and no mistake for the hungry of all groups will bid sgainat each other for food The trouble as 1 see It is that ao many millions for ths last few years have been withdrawn from production lines to either fight prepare for fight Ing or to produce the means of lighting lighting that necessary production lines have suffered It cannot be remedied at once because many millions sre permanently out of ths race as producers producers and they were the most effi cient producers as a matter of fact 1 If the farmer la making money so rapidly ss some think would not people be leaving the other groups and tnlclfig up farmmn more rapidly Assuredly they would and the chief reason that men are crowding to cities and factories now is that they can maka mere money there than on the farm The only solution I ran see Is that prices Tor rood products snail Keep on rising until the fsrmer can place himself himself on s psr with Ihs city worker In whatever group Then snd not until then will the drift from farm to city slop How can the farmer bring this about By doing his own part In economic economic planhlng Tie cant do this Individually Individually because he now works from ten to twelve hours a day with bis hands and about three hours more lighting pests of the vegetable - kingdom kingdom the animal kingdom and tho twolegged kingdom Team work la the only solution Farmers must esso elide together Only In this way can they ever get a hearing In legislative matters Only by associated action can tbey determine market conditions and solve economic conditions aii other groups have tried solving tho high cost of living and other economlo problems and seem to have made wonderful mess or It Now suppose the farmer be given an opportunity and If not well then It Is up to the farmers te rise up and claim what la rightfully tnsirs aTJwMsaBBssssssaBaaBaBassaaaVMasBjsgBssBnaBnnxsisHew aJaHn atlJI JhV Vkanaflati iiM nnvii a 30ePf3C AlkliLlAA a - iT n mjr mmmmwmimwMm m mm m - dV W WamTT vjbjmiri c SBajsjaa SM iWTTVpaj sjn Bar wrwi 7T 11 - r 7 WIWJIH iem ai itsii 1 tiff V rj - The dtseassloa of methods of die - pesal of our wins atrapt crop aad cull grapes conttnoes On food valley land It Is a question of substltutlss other crops which seme will sder qultaftban another The Director ofAgrl promptly while others will wait - to see what the news Is going to be There la net yet any such pulling up 01 vineyards aa to attract pubiio attention There stems so thought of pulling out any hill vineyards which apparently arebelng pruned as usual It ls believed - that uae wUl be found fo the crapes which will be more profitable than returning returning ths hillsides to posture Just how grape amps are much talked f The scarcity of sugar alone Is sufflolent to turn thought In that direction as good table syrups are In excellent demand at high prloes A grape In which there Is sufficient sugar to give a Juice developing 10 toll per cent alcohol or more ought to make an acceptable syrup Doubt does not bear a true proportion to the need of the sara4 counties for lnspsetors and a a raiilt the frh fruit inspection la carried on to syH mujn greater - degree In ore county oulture surveys the apple situation of tha state and deals with It as a stats wldo problem wjth uniform rulings and policies applied equally and Impartially In anh rtlan ITnSer the fresh fruit law the County Horticultural Horticultural Commissioner Is mora familiar with the conollone Of his own county and his attitude toward bfatandardliatlon week Is necessarily necessarily Influenced by this fact so ihat he 4oeo not obtain a tru - perspective of the Industry as a whole The result la a leak of ualformltv la executing regulations designed pri marily to promote uniformity So far the balance seems to favor the apple law as against the fresh fruit law There are reaaona whv Jhe latter offers advantages over tha former The funds for operating under th apple law are fixed by the Bale of stamps The purchase of stamps Is optional with the packer - If all apple packers ceased to buy stamps for their boxes ths funds less It will but at what cost remain wo be exhausted and apple to be seen To make good syrup Is a factory proposition Involving ex pensive Installations and probably a many stamps were sold twloe as many Inspectors could be employed ana tne ssrvice correspondingly im and land suitable for planting te this crop varies widely In different localities localities and depends largely apoa Mil and cltmatlo ooadltlona Bare land underlrrtgatlon suitable far planting a held at from not nimi ao acre Bearing walnut orokards can be purchased purchased from MOO to ttooo an acre the averae - e orchard being valued at soma - where around 11800 per acre The old practice of - taking out walnut uses and ranlantlnar to oraars trass and lemons which wss common several years ago has been practically abandoned abandoned a - a ttll - beerlnY walnut orchard orchard In some dlatrlots Is oqnsldered lust aa desirable property eS an orange orange or lemonjllprove The walnut treV - Usually oomes Into bearlag at from five teniae years frorii tune of planting and with good treatment will - - apparently bear In - deflnltelyVA safe estimate of the av - A JU l - a 1 - faaa crmir 71cm ruin ntaHurt yrmwm nvm 900 to ltOO pouiiwN tr 4er A care ful fcrrty of 111 walnut gTowrjii4 DAI R Y PAPES lIRui FOR INCHGKSnON lipSrJiT CHEW AFEW - PUT STOMACH IN ORDER At encel Rdieveilndieettion Heartbuth Cum byweosk Itawied bfAddity Hunyl buy a box at wiy dtut ttorcEtt iltaai - CWDWoflSenseRuIei Rceirdlng Stejnuch In packtjt seeded for confectioners use and some will be exported Thus far grape juice from California grapes has not met with much favor the nrettv riwut 4ntiA m v - i Proved The apple Inspectors also sell Prtiv good demonetrstlon will be pB Ump nt eotfct ln mony required before plants will be erected for the same which is transmitted by sufficient to care for the crop Some them to the central office No mat - varieties will probably be dried and how rlfld 4hr honesty and no Icy the fact remalna thattybese men receive their pay from tlie sale of stamps The amount of salary - does not vary with receipts but the sales M M - - - - - VVV V Vm - - VK loxy navor or tne native species Nothing could be further from 0ty being usually preferred In - the mar - lmn tnn to n 0 ct any reflec - ket Eiprimentatlon however will ton 10a th cnrcr ot the stats C wlJapple Inspectors It Is my purpose proceed la this and In syrup making however to point out eome of the There la always a market for good defects or the apple law as well as vinegar The Stat University andf1 lu Kwd points end I con - 4t f - - - M - rsiner mat anytning wnicn lenua the Department ot AgrlcuHur are toward placing a premium upon the T iij in aeirpawir to dsvelep - Improved processes tn hlr laboratories and one predeas believed believed to be of treat vslue in syrup making has been developed in the Department of Agriculture laboratories laboratories paten tad and dedicated to tbe publlo - r HOUSING FOR HARVEST - WORKERS It is not too early to begin planning planning for harvest help The majority of the blanket men who formerly did a good deal of our harvesting Seem now te be Infected with tbe prevailing prevailing ugly disposition so that nobody will want them on his plaoe and It Is desirable to create conditions must be drawn from the cities and will be - discontented If they do not find many city oonvenleneee To what extent women will seek work In the fruit harvest It Is net yet possible to tell but If employed In consider - able numbers conditions must be such ss to meet their neede As a rule the class of women who have thus far entered this work will Insist on facilities for tsklng some kind of a bath after a days work In the hot 1 i a gooa subject for farm s fo deal wilt r Calif orniaCottonGives The Highest Yield Federal Crop Reporter The cotton of this State leads three ways in yield per acre condition and price Arlsona Is close behind but there Is a big gap In ths cotton overage pro ductlon ladder between the California andArlxona rungs st the top and the others below The condition of California cotton on October 1 wss HJier cent of ten - year average Tab condition ol Arlsons cotton - was 15 per cent that of the next highest state atlsssari wns and that of Louisiana was3 per cent The average condition of the cotton crop all over tbe Union was l44 per cent on October 1 Therleld per acre In California In eluding the Lower California portion of the Imperial valley this year it Is estimated wlile S3J pounds per acre ine nignast among tne aretes The average yield per acre In the United States wltKhr III pounds psr acre Arltona Will run tot pounds per acre ana tnei tniyo ntgnest state Missouri 81T pounds psr acre The prlcef eetton In California Is given nt 13 n cents while the sverage price is US cents ArkSnsaseotton Is S3 cents r Ths production this year In California California is estimated to ba 111000 bales from ItfOOO acres Including 85000 acres In Lower California ths cotton of which Slate passes through California California Arlxona production will probably probably be 70000 bales from 110000 acres Note It will he noted that official flgureH do not sustain the land boom - era claim of a bale te tbe acre In California - - f Tti w ffami 71 CALIFORNIA DVTM IWPCtTnT Dr WlllleSi A Tiylqj United Rtules Urpartmenl of Agriculture lit - htri annuif report ssys American methods of dale culture sue probably more advanced than those of another another date - growing country In the world In spite of the facjl that experience experience In this eountry Is limited pfkctlctlly to two decadea Jchaugh atl 11 conducted on a small seals the dale culture has become a reeesSlxed commercial Industry andglvbs pram - la of slssdy growth The culture of the Deglet None the finest - af the fenporteddsla varieties has already beeentd waH - esjabllshe la Calif er v - sale of apple stamps rather than upon the Inspection of apples Is a defect Under the fresh fruit law the inspection work Is done by lnspetors who reoelve therefor the Insufficient salary of 360 a day The salary has not been Increased to take care of tbe Increased cost ot living and the result Is that many counties cannot secure a sufficient number of men to early on the work properly Then too the quality of service rendered by me receiving 13 SO a day does not compare with that received for an equal amount six or eeven Tears ago and the fruit inspection has suffered thereby V e Walnut Growers Have Their Biggest Season H H Earner In Rural World The biggest snd most succeesful which will attract a belter class of Industry In California has lust been woraers To a areat mm tv iconciuaea For the second eucceas ve i vear tne meal Aarlmlalln at the opening of the season proved too low ana tne actual tonnage was larger than either the growers pack ing - house managers or the officials ef the California walnut - Qrowers Association had anticipated Ths as sociation which is credited with marketing 30 per cent of the produc tion in California has shipped this year more walnute than were produced produced In the entire State by all growers growers last season The entire production this year according to C Thorpe manager of AsjY association was almost twice aa mJlch as In Hit and three times as great as the 1314 crop The volume of the entire total production In California California reached the amaslng figures of 32000000 pounds and paid the growers growers about 13000000 This Immense production Is 6000000 pounds more than the consumption of both foreign and domestio wslnuts In this country country as recently as 1314 but even then would srovlde every man woman add child in the country with only two walnuts apiece sun centers to deal with The Standardization Of Fres Fruit nrrora I Slsndrala tlon iw r ow sn0 - - fa KtViu J Michigan Michigan Maine Montana Massschusetts XT - ViKVJJCakr W jvw Tork Idaiho niwa -22 -22 C - 0JVa Waah - H rranil - Nebraska and California In two of these Pennsylvania Pennsylvania and North Carolina - Vie State Bureau of Markets and Board pf Agrlsulture respectively are au - LeiV ubh trtsde and grading rules and stsndsrd containers containers for farm products and to enforce compliance therewith except that exemption for the sale of farm products products for whKh stsrtdards have been eatabliahed Is permitted when plainly marked ungraded or unclassified In these two states fses for Inspections Inspections for grading farta - products ars collected by the state In Texas the Commissioner of Agriculture la authorised authorised to place fruit Inspectors - at loading points snd to collect charges for their services In California ws have two methods of supporting the standardisation work Ths one used In the case of the apple law provides finances from the sale to growers snd packers ot sumps whlcb go on apple boxes The use of the stats stamna la oniini fwlth the packer but compliance with too grans ana merxea requirements Is compulsory The other method of carrying on standardisation as seen In the case of the fresh fruit lew is by charging Its enforcement to the Director ot Agriculture and the County Horticultural - Commissioners The expense under this system is borne by the stats snd county treasuries treasuries Bach of these methods has advantages and disadvantages The comparison cannot be carried as - far as I should like to tarry It beckuse It Is not possible to get a definite Idea of the exact cost of standardisation standardisation work In seme eountles - br Aha field department of theVCaft - forAla Walnut Growers Association lsst year revealed theeost ot aettlns out an orchard Including - the cost of the nursery trees to run between 41 and 30 per acre Th4j average as - nualrcost ot maintenance - Including taxes over the years before the trees come into bearing was 43 per acre The average total cost of planting the grove and bringing It Into - profitable bearing for these Its growers was 323733 oer acre The annual cost of operation of a bearing grove lnclud - lag - irrigation fertilising cultivation pruning harvesting taxes etc - was shown to be between 140 and 30 per acre The sneoeas ot the walnut Industry In this state Is largely - due to the un tiring efforts of the California Wal nut Growers Association which Is a strictly co - operative marketlnc or ganixauon of ovsr loon growers some thirty local aeaoelatlons each owning acd operating Ita own naaklns slant hold the central a office whoae - man agement tney employ and are responsible responsible for the selling of their out put so rar ifi Is selling expense Including Including the cost ctiarsed to adverUs Ing and maintaining this field department department has never exceeded 3 per cent of the f o b value of the walnuts plus tha customary 1 per cent cash discount to the trade This Is believed to be a record In the economical marketing marketing and distribution of this immensely immensely valuable crop Much of the present success of the Industry has been due to the ag gressive management of the associa tion and Its recognition of the possibility possibility of lower returns with Increasing Increasing production unless consumption could be Increased through advertising advertising They are directing an advertising advertising campaign In publications of national circulation and a consistent effort Is being made to persuade the consumers to eat walnuts all the year around and to keep the demand ahead ot tile Increasing production through spreading the period of consumption WALNUTS AS FKED This propaganda Is having the do sired effect and consumers sre be - gtnnlng to get away from the old - fashioned Idea that walnuts are onlv to be eaten along with turkey cranberries cranberries and plum pudding during the holidays The Importance of the food value of tbe walnut Is being emphasised emphasised and the housewife Is learning how to use them In salads snd desserts desserts through the summer months The association serves Its members through Its field deportment composed composed of scierrtlfloaily trained or chard men and has done exceedingly valuable work In solving problems of production and pest control An affiliation affiliation company known as - The Walnut Walnut Growers Spray Manufacturers Company has recently been organised to manufacture and supply at cost to association members material for the control of aphis codlln worm and other orchard nests This Plant Is J under the management of Professor Jlalph IS SmltU tha widely known expert on walnuts who personally superintends the manufacturing on a large scale of these Insecticides which he hss developed so successfully successfully by experiments The growth of by - products from this business hss been spectacular and profitable The cull walnuts of the association members members are cracked by machinery and the good meats picked out sorted G H Hecke director of tho State Department of Agriculture points out that the difficulty cf sterilising the rubber oarts of milking machines constitutes one of the principal ob jections to their use One of tbe principal objections to tha use ot milking machines hss been the dim culty In sterilising tho rubbsr parts e aa ta nraduce a milk of - good ouai Uy and lew bacteria count Some of the milking machine eeropi tes hays riunnuidij almnlr washitg and niacins - theaa parts In a brine or so called sterlllxma solution Vhllethe Inadequacy of this method has been widely recognised there has keen a lack ot knowledge at a really satis factory Method of sterilising them Soma dairymen have worked out methods tar themselves which are apparently satisfactory Ona of these parties la Miss Luey Hicks of Santa Barbara - California Miss Hicks has used a Hlnman machine for four or five years 8he milks about thirty - cows and has a high class trade obtaining some three cents per quart jnofe than her com - wetltora Tha average ot her bac teria eountsfrom wagon samples for the last nine months was 7700 and among them was enly one above 10000 After each milking she rinses the rubber parts In cold water washes tbem with soap and water using a brush then pieces them In a 4 vet of cold sterilised solution and iMa ti aiaam until a temoerature of about ISO degrees Is reached Thef remain In this solution until the next milking Under this method tbe long tubes last about a year the short tubes six months sad the lost cup rubbers three months O D Brant ot tbe Elliott - Brant Rancho near Los Angeles California has developed a similar method Mr Brant milks about sixty cows with an Empire machine Hs also baa a high - class trade bis milk being consumed consumed largely In hospitals Ills average average count for tbe last tour months from wagon samples was 3000 the lowest being 700 and the highest 23000 Hs - clesns the tubes with warm water using a brush then places them In a stsrlltslng solution for a fsw minutes He then places them In a ten - gallon milk can fills with cold watsr and turns In steam until a temperature of about 130 degrees degrees Is reached He leaves them In this water until the next milking The life of the long tube la about four months the short tubes two months and the Inflations three months BIG CROP BIG MOKY There la no questioning the fact that walnut - growers In California have made big money this year but LjMs has been due largely to the unusually unusually nvavy crop reinvr man to an excessive high price The advance in the brlce of this years orop hardly paid for the Increase in tbe costvof production over lost year owing to the necessity for heavier and mora frequent irrigation on account ot tho scanty rainfall laet winter v The crop matured later IheniUeuel In many aectlone but after the - harvestharvest harvestharvest started It taxed the capaolty of the packing - houses to the utmost to grade pack and ship Oik walnuts out aa fast as the growere delivered them About two - thirds of the entire crop dropped from the trees within 10 days following the early rains the letter part of September and the long dry spell afterward permitted harvesting under the most desirable conditions - Approximately S3 per cent of the crop were No ta In slse and the No la sversged smaller than In many years when there Is a lighter crop There are at the present time about 33000 acres of wslnuts planted In this State repreeentlng an Investment of more than 330000000 The commercial commercial lnduetry le centered In Southern Southern California Doe Angeles Orange Ventura and Santa Barbara counties produce by far the bulk of tbe Oall - erha IniltiBtev hli haen tln a tra mendous Impetus since the orcanlta tlon of the California Walnut Grow crs Association six years ago and the practicing of fair merchandising methods which hsve always succeed ed In moving the crop at prlcea satisfactory satisfactory to the growers Ths walnut njoysva meal xinlque 4lsllnallon amengrtree products Inasmuch as It oan e stored for a year or more awaltlna dlanoaaL Without loss from - iii - uiit v iiov nvaeas aeierioraytion Tins feature naa given The districts assigned there men are jfc industry a stability snd freedom THE APPLE LAW The apple taw la charged to the Director of Agriculture for enforcement enforcement He employs men as far aa funds will permit In the localities not confined to certain political lines but they may cover all or paTt of several eountles based on reaaona sf geographical convenience and efficiency efficiency Employed - by the Director of Agriculture in accordance with the civil service rules of the state they may be dlschargsd In theieame way and they are at all times subject to the direction of the central office Under the fresh frultlaw the Dire tor ot Agriculture Is made ex - efflclo chief Inspector of fresh fruits for the stale Jn each county the Count Horticul tural Commissioner serves ss fresh fruit Inspector within the boundaries ef his own reunty He - Is assisted by horticultural Inspectors who serve as deputy Inspectors fit fresh fruits These men receive their appointment within the county aad draw - their salaries from the eeonty treasury Because of the differences In the souress of revenue ef the various counties there le aeaesseniy a cor responding dlffsreeee In the amount et f undo available and hence same oonntles are able to employ tare Int specters taaa ethers Thie varieties - M l - Y - WJ fev - T - F torn Is walrlut crop 5 - 1 IK - from speculation that Is not enjoyed by the perishable food crops A wal - nutjiroduced Is money earned without without anxiety of probable loss In stor - atre while awaiting marketing Another Another kdvantagsvis that walnut trees are found to bloom and bear fruit after tho danger of frost Is past The abseaceot the smudge pot tn the walnut walnut industry Is one ot Its attractive features Uvea la California where cltmatloextreme are practically unknown unknown this quality of the tree Is not unnpprcisiea KO KlRIEItT ITOCK TO SBBWfl The remarkable expansion of ths In - ensfry It evidenced by the fact that nursery stock In oommereUl quantities quantities suitable for planting next spring la net te - ba had today anywhere at any - prlea Thousands pf aere which htv formerly boon tn barley alfalfa r other field crops arebelng leveled andVped for Irrigation In preparation preparation fer setting sot the trees thlswljif ter aad spring - The rains - of the walajif erehard r - vl - iillJaM light Into the dark corners of thai dairy Industry Crudeness and Indefl - nlteness ars giving way to exactness1 Thirty years ago we sold milk and bought milk with only one standard In mind which was volume ss measured measured by gallons quarts and pints Today we deal In milk for what there Is In it The Baboock test baa made this possible But Bsbcock test soon outgrew the trade In milk There was another - in the dairy business thai held back progress It was the cowj V lTr ahewas something decidedly Indefinite At best she was a big guess Was she a producer and one that you could breed with the definite Idea of getting offspring from her that would producers The Baboock test Is answering the ques - tlon Ths oowt In this country are rapidly getting on a basis of standardization standardization Tbey are no longer merely eowsi not even considered aa merely Guernseys Jerseys or Holstelns but - - Pound cows ttO - ponnd - ers 100 pounders 1000 - pounders and jo en referring to their records for autterfat production Whether pure - kra r srade this Idea of prfunds d attaching Itself to tho cows throughput throughput the country We may continue to buy pigs In pokes but In the future w V t0 know a terms Of their accredited records for production production they will have to show the figures gaulic r la von in milk Dairymen and ereamerymen in many States are troubled erSry aprtng by garlic or onion flavor In the milk This Is due to the - cows feeding on garlic or wild - onion one of the first plants to start In the pasture In the spring The trouble from garlic Is not likely to lest vary long aa this weed Is soon cropped off and the grass becomes plentiful enough for the cattle to feed on It in preterenoe to the onion Garlic flavor In milk can be removed by heating the milk to 14S degrees F and forcing air through It at this temperature for and aold to wholesale confectioner 0 t0 0 minutes according to Farm - and candy manufacturers all over - the ere Bulletin 303 ef the United States country This year the value of these meats will run somewhere around 35000000 returning to the growers per pound almost one - half ot the value of their merchantable nuts Under former conditions these cull walnuts would only net the growers a few cents a pound and some would always And their way into the hands ofv4tpacrupulous peddlers who would often sort and alilp them East to compote with the carefully graded and packed Diamond brand walnuts VACfJVM - PACKKD MEATS This year a large part of these walnut meats is being sold In her metically sealed vacuum - packed cans holding sight ounces of sweet and fresh meets all ready forthe house wife to use on cakes and In salads and other dlshos This Is the first time that consumers havs been of fered sn article ot this kind and tne sales to dste have been exceedingly exceedingly satisfactory Cows Lead All Farm Animals in Value The expansion which has been taking place steadily tn the dairy Industry Industry of tlifs country during the last seven years hae at last put milk cows st the head ot the list of farm animals so far as valuers concerned This Is shown by a recent report by the Bureau of Crop Estimates United States Department of Agriculture The value of these animals now exceeds exceeds that of horses and cattle other than milk cows the two clssses formerly formerly stsndlng higher on the list On January I of this year there were approximately 13747000 milk cows In this country an Increase of S7S000 head or 12 per cent as compared with a year ago Their aggregate value u placed at ttOtl 331000 - Ten years ago the average milk cow was worth 3313 compared with 37330 a year ago and 13313 January 1 1320 It Is generally recognised that the quality of the milk cows of this country Is Improving at ths sams time thaftlteir number Is Increasing Ths class of cattle consisting of calves steers bulls and cows not kept for milk production and designated designated as other cattle shows a do crease of 700000 head or 13 per cent Ten years ago the average Value per head of animals In this class was 1107 a year ago It was 4433 and 4314 tbls year The number of other cattle In the eountry at tbe present time is approximately approximately 44stt000 and tbelr value 1314373000 COMMUNITY ItANCR MANAGKMIClfT Communlty range management was explained by Foreet Ran re r T J Jones ot the Plumas National Forest an a part of - the Stockmens week programme at the University Farm ine ecnemc is co - operative In every respect Cattle owner pool the took uiei is to ps Biased an a certain - range and then eleet a range manager from - among their - ranks Thereafter ha has charge of all th management inch as quality et bulls salting and other factors Th expense le prorated prorated by the stock men ITllSar hla mIsm tawn - a - - - II herds ren band together te secure the - graslng privilege la National p - orest Department of Agriculture As this method requires a certain amount of equipment It la much mors Balls - factory for the averare dairyman to keep the odor out of milk by a few simple precautions In herd management management There are two ways of protecting protecting the milk from garlic flavor First prevent tbe cows from obtaining obtaining garlic and second manage the herd on garllo pasture so that there will be the least possible chance of getting the flavor In the milk It It le possible to keep cows away from garllo Infected pasture during the short garllo season drive them in three or four hours before milking snd supply them with silage If possible possible or otherwise with any feed Meantime dig but the rarllc e A Modern Standard For Dairy Cows agernsey Cattle Club In making an analysis of recent public esles of Guernsey rattle the American Guernsey Guernsey Cattle Club points out bow the figures prove the vslue of official testing by which means s cow is eredlted with a record for production In case ot 141 cow with official rec ords the average sale price was 1233 133 cows without records but whose dams had records sversgod 337 wslle 433 cows without records and without dams wltlt record averaged averaged only 433 WJint la true in raso ot the Guernsey breed Is also true of Jerseys Holstelns snd Ayr - shires The system of otficisl record - mak ing for cow of th dairy breede has the Nubian become a recognised feature in tne dairy cattle breeding buslnese It Is the logical oequence ot the applica tion of th Baboock test throwing It The Different Breeds Of Milk Goats T Cohlt n aclflo Dairy It - vlw Up until th last few year tbe American was familiar only with the common troet or native Thess wsre of little value for milk only an occasional occasional one giving any lacteal flow and If it dM the milk was looked Upon with eeorn The people had a supreme dislike for these gosts snd for any goats thinking that the female of the goat family had the same odor ae the male Uverv stables which have mostly been replaced replaced with our modern garages usually hsd a vbllly goat with Its ugly disposition and odor for the very reason that it was supposed to ksep the horses healthy and that was not a superstition for It really was beneficial The general Impression was that a goat was only fit fer snssrs and the elums and foreigners of a low type Up until the Importations Importations sixteen or elehtean m ar only a few goats of the European type ever reached our shorss perhaps perhaps an occasional kid cams over In an Immigrants basket but was soon lost sight of by Indiscriminate breeding breeding with scrubs Tbe Mexican goals may awe an occasions good milker among mem to eome goats which were brought over by the Spaniard In the earlier days Goats were often brought on board a sailing vessel fer a trfllk supply as ths tin cow was net prevalent In those days riMT IMPORTATTONR Then some twenty rears aa - o w 1 Shafor and lster K S Peer and Robert N Riddle Imported our flrst mtia goate Our flrst breeders to take up the raising of mljk gosts were such men a Francis King Cooke of Wlnetka 111 who 1 now president of the American Milk Goat Record Association Rev D C Mayors of Virginia Dr N J Gregg Professor W A Bowman Wlnthraa - Mlowland L C Buhl Robert Olahn and John Stewart of California Here were started the nueleue for tbe famous herds or milk goats In Call - torn la We owe much to thess enterprising enterprising men who had the vision of the great American milk goat Beginning alphabetically we shall try to describe the more familiar breeds of milk goats The Anglo - Nubian is ons of our popular milk goats snd one gaining rapidly In popularity It Is not a goat characterised characterised by any particular color although some English people give tbelr preference preference to those of the solid mahogany color This color Is very dlstlnollve but yiose spotted like a coach dog but with larger spots are very pretty It I thought by scientists thst all goats originally descended from a species of goat common In Persia or Asia Minor and It may be from this original breed thst the real Nubian can trace - Ita ancestry It ie a matter of history that these Ttoats were early domesticated and used fer the production of milk These Oriental gouts are said to be the largest producers producers of milk In the world and it was from these goats stock was brought to England many years sg This stock in Its purity was never acclimated to the English soil but was croased with the native short - haired goat native to England After many years this cross becsme a distinct distinct type and Is now regarded as a breed of Itself sosne ot them hsvlng pedigrees reaching backward many years The Nubian goal of the Orient had lopping broad ears short hair and a peculiarly shiny coat sleek te the axtreme which I well marked In the Anglo - Nubian of today It nose Is arched and Its face ahould not be marked with the stripes Indicative or th Swiss breed Th coat I always short with no long fringes of hair on legs or back ae the Swiss type often have The body I large and gives one the Impression of statetiness I wish to speak particularly la regard regard to the ears of the Nubian We epeak usually of the lop or pendulous pendulous ears of s Nubian Many unscrupulous unscrupulous dealers sell to the unsus pecting public does with lop esr ss Nubians when In reality they sr grade Angoras ususlly crossed with a native doe Get your Angora Goal Journal look at the pictures of the Angoras Is there a prick - cared goal among them No but after all while they lop they are not like They are not Very long are quite thick and narrow more like those of a hound The Nubians ears are thin and full of veins wide an long rltVKrt rttC OR UCJCtN mPMCOhrtef B CTIB BJK7BG AB D BOUBOg jfr In Cticareti act ert Liter and Bowels without Griping or Shsllni rev tip - So Cormnienl You wake up withyour Head Clear Complexion Rosy Breath and Stotnaeli Sweat - No BilioutBess Hudacite or CotiitipaiiaB tsjfiVSvsi - i i - - L - Jit

Clipped from
  1. San Francisco Chronicle,
  2. 28 Mar 1920, Sun,
  3. Page 6

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