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 - THE GALVESTON IMPORTANT DECISION Opinion of...
THE GALVESTON IMPORTANT DECISION Opinion of Justice Stephens in Joh F. Swayne et al. vs. E. E. and V. A. Chase. An Action Based on the Garnishment $22,000 Against Various Fire Insurance Companies for Debt. \Fort Worth, Tex., Jiui. 2.--TJie opinion of Justice Stephens la the case a* Jo'hn Swayno et til., plailntltfs In error, vs. 13 E. and V. A. Chase, defendants in error decided by the eeeond supreme Judlula district court of civil aippeaK?. to-day, i of universal intercut In this state. BeJvn hi the opinion in fell: John. P. Swayne et al., plaintiffs in er Tor, No. 1982, vs. E. E. ami V. A. Chase defendants In error--Opinion: Plaintiff In error. John P. Swayne, upor fudmonia already obtained' ti-sinnt -E. E Ohase and othero in the aggregate sum ft $22,000, sued out writs' of (jarnU'hinen j.gaii:t.?i various fire -Insurance comyanie-s Including -his co-plalntlff In error, the Phoenix Assurance -company. The an swcr oJ this company adm-ltted' liability to J3. J3. Chase In t'he s 1 "" *» f ?!SOO, «n e.a count of policy issued to him January 1892. to cover -his loss by flre for a period of three years on hl« rock dwelling, oc cu-ple-d by t-he assure aa a ifami'ly resl deuce, sU-uatiNl on'blocks It a.nO F iu Bellevue 'Hill addition to tine city of Fort "Wort-h Tex., destroyed -by lire July, 1893, praying ·t'hut 'he .be made a party to litigate wLuh Plain tdff Swayne the exemption rJsh ·which It hadi "been tulvleed' existed In be- .ihalf of said Chase. This answer (further disclosed t'hat subsequent to tthe service of tih!u 'writ of garnishment 'herein, ilki ·writs hnlr been issued- and' served on I In -the states of "Now York ami I-alnnd In favor of other creditors, ·whom E. E. Chase was Indebted in Jorge sums, graying- for continuance of thd-s rpro- ocedinir -til'l Us llalblUty -under aald foreign goralish'ments should !he determined, etc, E. E. Ohtvee ami «wiKe, V. A. Chase, by plea of intervenitlon, averred their family srtatiu and. homestead' exemption, tihat the policy In question Jnured to their join ·benettt as owners of. the homestead, am ·that they intended, with the proceeds o: this policy, when collected, to rebuild said dwelling;, without which ttaey -were unaJble to do so. Plaintiff Swayne, after demurring: to this plea, a'lleped that E. iE. Chase nad expended Jn the erection of this residence a/bout $125,000, t'he same .having 'been constructed during- -the years of 1890 and 1891 at -wliton time he was indebted -to plaintiff in the aum above stated, and to various oi'her -persons in the aggregate aum of jiwonnn * H n ·further .i!!osfi th.it tho con struct Ion- of this costly relden'ce had been undertaken and 'the cost thereof expended In contemplation of insolvency, '^vHh 'the .purpose and for iJie end -In view on -the ·part of said Chase of .withdrawing- and abstracting' an unnecessary and exccoslve amount of his asset.* ifram and beyond the reach of ,hle -cmll-tors. and especially his creditor. John F. Swayne, by converting same Into Improvements and placing -the eri'mc in the manner and for -the purple aforesa-M upon a lot or lots exempt 'to him by law ns a homestead." He further averred that "the aovne was done with the Intent and purpcuo and dcwlgti on the -part of said Chase to hinder, delay and defraud Ms creditors;" thai ·liope-tess and notorious insolvency en- «uisl; that saUl E. IS. Chase had procured policies In Olivers insurance convpiinlefl on «ald' dwelling-house, In ·fhe RffRTpgate sum of JW.OOO, and 'that, a f t e r tledu-ctinj* plaintiff's debt, there would etlll bo I'e-rt fJl.OOO or 540,000 due and owing upon 'pflJJ .policies, a «um more than am- llo to erect a ti'wcnini? in the place of the one destroyed, averring- that a .rcaio'ia- ble sum if or this ipurpose would not ex- ·cetHl S5000. line -court sustained a general tfomurrer to Whls replication, mid after bearing- proof Jn support of the plea In Intervention, ren- deroO, judgment In favor of Chuae end ·wife. Thi? validity of thta Jutteimmt "depends, so far as Sway no I* con'cerned. upon ·the correctness of the ruling on demurrer. In Kuppart of this ruling counsel for Olinn* and wife -cltf, fls conclusive of the question. Ihf IwuHnp- rn*»' tn cM* * t n t n of Cameron vs. Fay, 55 Texa.«, W, and ftl*o. as in line -with it, the tubsequeiU canes of Sahnolder vs. Bray, faO Texas, 6C8; V,ard va. Qoffffan Tiro-., 4 Civ. App., $1*1 -Ueynolds vs. Halnos [la.] 43 'N. w. Men.. 331, and ner.ihlcm vs. Dofttt [Ky.j On the other hand, -cotinttcl 'for Swayne, In a brief »nd arKumtnl auRRestive of much researcli and analysis, earnestly 4n- alst iihiit the decision In Oumoron Vfl. Pay Is sea-contradictory and legislative In character, and tihcrofore -should be d!s- refe-ardwl by un, citing, among other au-thorl.tles, LSmlth vs. iltotellirg. 0 Minn., 683 [H Am. Bt. H«p.. OOCJ, o-nd Wooster vs. Pfl^c. W .V. H.. V [20 Ann. iRep., US]. ·It -la .plain thail -t'he supreme court u"f rXlle- «.'»*.ppl in -t-hp oa-w cited -frwn t h a t Hta-te very iiovtM'cly, n* not contemptuousJy, crltl- Ins taiconelRieiiflv in ·tire rHClH to subject the process o f ' t h e Insurance pMJoy to .the mcohnnlc'9 'Men, on . t'he hitnuul that fhea? proceeds resulted, not .from 'the ·buiM.ng destroyed, but from a .personal contract ot Indemnity lounjcd on tun Ino-eipemi^nt consideration and at rlie same ttiiK* upimftMiLly placUiff their ox- omptlon Trorn the garnlshmprrt process on Vhe srouml .tha,t 'they oociipted the place of Wffurat'.vely spealtlns, t'he proceeds of a policy of Insurance Isaued 'to ln u emniIV against aoss -from lire imay Tie snld to take the .place of the 'tilling destroyed, bu-t lo deduce therefrom t'he ·cor*; us ion that they represent, aa oo it-he proceeds of An In- voltmary snle, the tlvlnir aoCU would sewn {o ofoiUern't-e a Ti?a4 distinction and flmoimt to a mibstltu-tlon o-f rlii-tortc -for logic to supply a Jink In o. chain of urarujnen-t Tn 1'lie one on«e t)he property la entirely destroyed and Its Identity g^ne, but in -the other it -still exists, though In a new form. If, iho-wever, vt ahcruCd t» held that thli Identity con .be -truce-d t'lwouifh .uhe nshea or t'he burned ibnlUEng Into tho proceeds of .the poitay it does not follow -that the exemption -would be available by reason or that fact, because i-t J» not t'he Identity of property uvhlcJh may be traced t'hrou~h various mu rations--like, tor instance tlie separate estate of t'he -wffe--*\vhich preserves Its exempt ch'arncter, ibut -ra'ther the iform itsail. t'he apecltlc ,pu\perty named In -the eonst'l'fit'lon. Wltih a dhange of form. It yotan-tarily made. BOM the exemption. Klrby va. Qldd-lngs, Is Tex., 079, and cases cl-tea. "While the .proceeds of the property In Cameron va. Pay were -likened -to -those re- eult.jw from an Involuntary sate the force oc tija analogy was not '.n .the continued MentUy of tte house, -traced in-to these proceed*, -but -In .the thvoilunta.ry ahflracter of tne transaction, resu-i'ting In each case, If peculated tu iiave 'ijia.1 etleot, In a substantial dejfeat of -the very purpose of the exwnptKm. From a cri-Ucal read,rig c-f -the ojmi'.on of our supreme courUin that cose K w-hl te seen, ive -think, thai the exemption of -tlhe Insurance money was placed- pi .iilim-Iiy *!4xn file 'broad jj.-imnd o-f u lub- eral coiifltructloii of -t'he coneL-tuUon according to Ita spirit aivd -intention, BO as not to tlofea-t Us monljfcst purpose bv -too ll«ral a construction. The better view of the question would reran to be, If fhat Ibe a correct U«cij on. nut lihut -the ian-grlRitfe of -the constitution can be atretohed to cover t'he proceeds at a (wncy on he d'wtWnfr, nu In any sense iwKMn the .meaning o,f .t.be terms o' description .fhere employed, ibut In construing o;i ln.';tra:nv:i-l Kran.t-ntf a .rlgiit or an OD- .porlnmlty to acquire ,1 rl«iht. u will not )« «u wit*uued ua -to detent t h e v?ry purpose of 'the Kran-t, for that would be -to vio'ate a -well knotvn canon of const.rui.-tlon "w^rcu uphoUs ,ly nivcssiry hnpll.ution is i.irt } of the tlilnjt grant*), tiliousjh unex.irMed '-the exercise ot a rlffht, wM'hou-t ivhioh Ithe tnliw irramted could nkl be enl(n-ml. JWasfalnim's Jiasfnnenta [-1 re-j ] p 43 Ood- - uard'd Eafjoiiienla [lilni.], p. loo It to uiiou this iN-inolpTo -UMU u.ndir a fcvUHf UIUlllU- .11 iills siale .me (·xeiUJ.Con t a horse wan ·hel.l to «irrj- m-lrh it llia,t pf tho brkDle «ww3 wa.hlle. tiioiirfli n.»t mfn- Aionetl. _\-jltjp \w. "J^lonvin, 14 Tex r!l (In Ih-.e ?ae dtiipf J-wtioe Hojnphill ISM I ut« mu»t IwXU'le not only the subject Itself" ' «nlt eviTyil-.iliK almolin-'ly MWMMIB) to its towwfiaal enjoyment." c?ea also l)ar)xrne vl. FtiXUfa. :i Tex., Hi. t;r.dor ffnany conditions a rentf*naS.M in- 0uTAnoe of the ;n,mlly In'eUliiK b»oom\i a practical necessity, «nd a denial to the in»oiv«nf dolnor--tihe head at i n e ffa.jr.IIy-- or the «xoroisc o: thlo rig^t wouM rwiU la rta« nt th* diwltHiotion of such ·by flie, In » defeat at the craerKheJ . of the cjiisrtltutlvti. and tittit, tgo, u.t the ver-y thn* when t'h^ um;!y Shelter would liottsfcs and lknd» into' b» t'huj prot«U»l, as ni.cl;!«uiii to -the rltfht oif pj*opwty. T)te lueti CAIS fiion -t'hvrc-farc [Jt nmy uv a-rifueu] toe tolerjtt^l. that t'he -hoitiKMtenl e^taite, \\t l U'h 'has been- t. public.fa.vorlte 'nxn uh« »:, i,y tlo-nyUis to -fhoae Interested in a ric'ht !ncid*mt to every other claw of '\r.ea*wh. to-j.vK, the rlgtnt of its protection and preeervft't Ion. · U IB upon Oili prluolsle, In 1 -port at least. Miuu five proceed* of an InvOlunUiry Mile of ex-etnvpt property are permitted by .the courts to retaSn th.i-t c*hnr(icter for a reasonable Is-njrtih or t;.me, aind. nlao t'he -business homeatwid is :held to "be exempt for a l-t'U-'smjible lenii't'fl of Unw oiTter thr owner h:iit, under c:i-cum«tincts of convpulslon, cr-a-dcxl to use U ais a place of buslr?«3. I H t i n t e r vs. \\ p ooldert, 53 Tex., -153. and eases {hpi-i i-Jirri: Harg.ijWw vs \V'i»!!"!J T Tex.. 4S); G.isonuy vs. WMto, Id., 477; Schouber vs. Dallwvc, 01 Tex., 163.] In .tihi.-iu lABUinws, 1f tlhe consUtu-tlon- in -terms ^nHex1; there wvjuld be no occasion to lm,!t ttiv exom.ptIon in -tlnne, so as to afford, a reasona'ble opportunity for rem- \v5i-mfat or resumjyLlo-n of tihe former uee Tt-ue. the eases "ho'ldine the proceeds of oompulajry saleB nuule to subject me «x- also' oai Che ground of .conversion by paira- tnount aiutihopH-y. Jn. »urh cases, rhoug-h tlhei-e is a d-e facto converwlon, ihe land 's treated as In -part not converted; -the established rule Li equuty bolng, that "-wihere land 13 aold by order of court, and 'there la tt surplus of money after aalisfylng 'the purpoee for wSilah the sale was mod*, sudh surplus w always regauxled and -treated as real «*ta-te" [3 Pomeroy's Equ-Ky, sec. 11C7J. But -tllils prtoolple could not apply In the ot'her class of canes cited. In -this wonnootlon, lit 'may -not be out of place, to notice tns very able and -Interesting opinion of -the suprema court of Minnesota, In t'he cane of Oulberson. vs. cox. 2S Mtert, 391). In 'Uh^t case -tJie Ihusfband had pj'oourcd a. pol-lcy on Idle d'welUji«Jlioitie, t'he ihomaateaxl, which was destroyed-by flre after Ms ]eatlh, · and dut-lnc -t-he life of the iwlilcy. Tlhe co-itcot over the proceeds of uh* wlloy .was between .me aoTml-nla-trator of -tlhe deceased 1 -husband's esta-te and the widow, .who was entitled to the benefits o tlhe -homestead ifor life. I-t was ttield .yha- these proceeds, on account of the purpose of the husband ill -taking- out the policy were affected wlilli a 'trust for the benefl of those Interested in -die homestead, an became, as between-'tlhe contending partite a sutoUt'U-te for .the property Itodf, Vti, widow belris er.tltled to fhe same toteres in tilie. fund w'hioh She had In t'he house d atroi'eu. This principle oif a trust created iby ooiv ti-aot and m-ten-tion, however, as seems 'to be conceded In t'hat opinion, would no haive ajppllca-tioit lit a contest toetwen ith( inusband and ot'hers Interaeted to 'Che homestead, oru .(he cme 'htutd, ana credltoro o the -haisbMid. on the other; because such application, would Uuuve the effect of creating exemptions by contract -inatakd of to law. 'In -that oaee, also, af*er ft review of 'Hit early English oases upon -which the doctrine of the pereonal Indemnity -feature of insurance poltoles Tests, that doctrine Is ·tilius realunmed: "It Is now 'too well ue-ttlflt to_ be questioned, that policies of Insurant* ·the assured, wftilch do not attach 'to thi roaflty, or 'In any manner go with the same an Injcwent -to a convcyonice or transfer ol title to t'he land; 'that t-iie contract -is con- flr.ed -to tlhe parties; and fhat, as a generaJ rule, no equity attaches uoon tho proceeds of such polioics hi favor bT -l-hlrd pal-ties, ·who, In -the character of grantee, imortgrag-ee or creditor, may sustain loss -by the destruction of the property." ,«. W °, a !'° ^ ias ^ to the conclusion thiL-t me decision in Cameron vs. Fay can- not oe rested upon any other ground than that of a liberal toterpretotlon of the constitution, according ito Its reason and spirit, ao as not to de-feat the beneficent homestead purpose B deeply Imbedded therein; and ·that the learned supreme court of 'Mississippi. 1-n BO triumphantly disposing of the assumption 'that the decision rested «olely upon the narrow grouna of the -Identity of the Insurance money -with the house, not only tailed to uppreclatc IJhc -true ground of -the decision, but took a rather Illiberal view of -the .question. Involved, Q.nd tlhait. ?V-i? ) " Vll ''; u ' Jr ''? , lhe wete'ht of auuhority. WihWe t'he opinions In .this and the New rtamt*Wira oa-se clt«l dlsseint from 'th'e provai':lnjr rule, 'I'hty bot'h uoncedo .that d-t o-u«ht o bo 't'hc tow; but oonltond tlhat, tn une abfi-en-ee of an--'express lglslaitlve entuctment to tlhllt' cffeot, tiho courts are without power to dootare i't so to be. TMs la ibiit a conililniinitloti ef the contest, asj ow UM :tlh« Jmllcilal conalTucHon- of lewisla- tloj, botwttJU tho stHol n«l llhiral foter- urotaltm of (Statutes. The -latter method has tons -lican. -uhe su-bjcot or^dversa orllt- l)y Justice Ch'a«o a oonltAiry «igi: "tfy -the rules wui-ich are Infid down -In Bng-iond for nh« ooiMtraoiion of »t«iliutts, an'd 'She latl- «ule wji'loJi iliais boon ittidulued in- th«lr ap- pUuaUo'.i, the llrltilall judxea ihtive assumed- u . ' e TM'»»v* iwww: Uind. on H'ha pret«ice of JUui.ctal exposition, ihave In fact made a «rMit portion of -Uhe BUi'tute Jaw of the Wlidrdom. Ot these rules of construction none can .be more Oti-nwerous than .t'hat which, diHrtnffuttfh'hi:* .bt"l\vx)en the -Inrten't nntl the woiMs of tiho lewlGiuture. declares that a cnse nut wtthdn tho -mca-nlne of taw- Sialutc. accorylt'r.K to the opinion of 'tlU luxteKi, shaU no* be embraced d-n it-he ojier- wtlon of t;he *tfttwte, ajKlhoutih- H Is oleartv ^\ilthl-n -t'he wwfdw; or, \-*ce vorsa, fh-ijt a oaew wlUi-Ln- fhe fneantag, thoujfh not wWh- (TV Uie words, shnll be emrbiuoejl" Lilko pratcslts have been -made foxjm Umc to t.me rt-m-o njrnlnst tihe con-ltavcd awm- cnltlon ot liberal rules of construction to new coses as they ihuve nrlsen; L-ut. nat- ^thatandto^^hesejOTjtrets, tile Blrons ly widened,.-wi-Eli the'eime«U 'dJft t usSiii"5ir kno\vledse antfhe advance of enllchtonMl ^,...»,-- - , _ -- ti»ii»M t* ih n M ^"'t* 11 *- 11 !?'* unlit at has nluailly taken* (-u Uie enduiiing form of oxpresa oBisloitlvo duoiaTOjClcji. 11. g., jrin/n 13 7^tle. sec, 3. in the oanly. history of Me repuW-Jc tt.nd -.talc of Texu-s l'^)tral exeriiudluai. towi tuHa a libtml Lnt'orprctQitilo-n' i*f 'Lheae iaw.' ln oame 'Hie rule and poMey, -\vfliicih has been .,.~,,iM y oxihei-exl to ever since wnaLlt/u- - and sititutory ena^tmento on thtut suulec-t, includ'Ims: tliie tiom-e^tt*;^ affor beLiiK eo oociainir^. hia.vimjr bee-n readopted w enliiirffeil, ral(hr dJhan restTaJinx]'. 'l\ nv Ocny a iC'bcral rulfe of construcslion of ;dh pnv4»Iona wowM cttnitravene a cleuiiJv ..a'nAFe^ted: publ'k) .poU-icy, anti opermte li re- )«al in pain of tflie orffflmlc aavl fftatantary aw, \vihach u-xw-W Htsolf bp les-isJatiion- for t Is us nwcfli itihe exerolae oj a leg-leOait'Ive TAnetlon oji ·th'e paM of -t'he 'courts by A1- owlng- liltwiuaBm, or otHier narmw " " lots ivlrioh he toe -no* desire -to u-3* aa pa-rt gf oh* (home, ar*l for the di'ireet comfort iwij 1 (.·oavt'iiienoe of 'hlo fanrtly may 'ijui.d IKWJW.* upon -ttK-m ty -be h.'t to iteuiinut, uuU i.tivtej*. uicm ftwn forced cw.1* fey occxiKivwt- uily ir* \viji3 -from -tuiem a. atippiy of water, yr eowkitf the (rivunl In ·tui-irliJii. a wine aiui Imina-na pro-vl«itwv of our wgttia law On made *m Antwinjmwvt of wi-oaig- aud a 4 s o- tmvitfrt MII ions ihonevt JIKM." See ulw \'j;e o-piaion of wiiae learned juotlce in Ul!IAvra \V««on coimpony ve. K«ineUy. Jd., ai2. Our lc£ '.tuwe vlec'ltuuil'lOTi ·m0':i '{.'he con- s»truoUon of vttute* (and certainly tdie same txtle would aml-y iv vhw xnd'Li. i ;ulJu';i} i» not only 'tihtrt "yhe provielouis -Lh-are^f shall ibe lobenaHy owusti'ued, witlli u, view to effeot their c4Jeotw," t»ut uJet " '-\t promote Justice." [U, S., lluaJ ttUe. ««·. 3.] 'IViw b-.itim-,?: force of Him la-uter ·dev.-lura'liton. iy i.ot l«i* tihaa 'Uhut t»f 'tlhu fonntir. ii IK aii es»«»Ma! purt of iilia-t Uootrin-a of llb^JMl nii».?ni:i;!oin wiildh, -however mucnh in- vol^lhwlj as-aliist. after l'he B'rowth uti:-.l- ex- puwi-iion or ce-n't-urlee ih-as a p t Jast, u« 'before eon^ fouiul a. place 'iia C'ttr wirJc'ten law. Wllille no llinl't has bwn .plac-c-d by law upon .tihe exteret to -whtch the lh\xn-(-,slKul ma/y be improvevl-, and- whHe IWc-usili upon this we express- aio opi'iilon] there r:-:iy ba no ivm-eJ-y provud-ed -by law to ftfKwvl ttii* firaud-ed credi tor reHef affal'n^it a r-.ilpvi'ble pe-rvers'ltwi o-f i-he homestead .privilege, so long «* 'Me Inrpj-ovemonts, tih-j-us 1 -^ mia-Je under circumstanced aaifi ito r.\, cxt-eiK entirely transciuHiiitf 'line bO"Jir.:Je of a-nij riffM, remaLit a, pairt ot I'iie ho lot 1 ?, iwote-Gted by uhe xxniS'Uii i utl l ii from forced saJo, lit dooa not follow, we flhat wUiea uh' -dsa^-A'ine of HJjeral conu-oc- Uxn. is Invok-ed. -in' order to "effeol -tlhe o - b- Jst-t" of iho'mesl^ad tpryvlslwns, ;ihat of af- fordJiwf a needed fiihol'tcr Ho- 'lne familv of »n unfortunate debtor, the courts are pow- wiess 'tu »» do tihilis as "to promote justice.*' U wJll -be- 'borne in. miina tlhat it.h-e li-.-sur- ance mo-a'y -la not any paj't of -t'he lio-nie- ·tewd, tout ooily an Indemnl-ty fmui to w'alcSi resa-rt may ibe ;had Jn, '[ihe day of calamity, to avciU 'the alxsurd -consequence of 'I'h ·law's gTs-Titl-rfff Si- rlgilit of wh-'cBi It dnvlw tilt 1 mcams ol' easjoymwvt. An. rlgilit luifpMeJly graai'ieil* because , a n stiulutury ooiistna'cWon, to 'fhea-ebv defeat the tefflslalUvc ttHQl, as tt u. 4y a « Iberaa ru-:*-, to extend an act of tiiho Jeffi^ , ature beyond KB scope ami my As to u-he-th-eir tihtvt lin* od" recwiit enfjinlne n-tMh Turneo* va. Civ««, 83 'Pexas 4. EO -mucih neldcd' on. to euiypoiil tihemrtot oo-nsitTiiction ttieorr. does not . a to- alliera to thtot oM and effete niethtxl tf oonstrUotilOTft now d'^rurded by 'the TViri.ea- cnse tllie quosrtlom. -wnt*- . -.^w- the ternw of tleecnlpUon to 'the Ktaihtt-e tliere construed were hrtnad ono^rfh o Inri'iide a r-e-julveir c-f n ra-nroad In tme Oacneron-Fay cruse Uhe question wa» 'iroit vihcther fhe Inauronce snoney was covared iy t'he descrlpd'lve terms xf ^he ctwiBMtu- j.on. for evi^eruUy It was not, but wlh.EiL*her t was not necessary to wlith'hold tliiia money from the ored'Hw. to, oivier to pret ·ent a fa-lliirA o^ the 'hom-e^oax! purpose ano. grninif th-Qlt was* expressed. In vtew, t'h«n, of uhe webjlrt o^ autlh-Dj 1 ]- jr, or nine reacwn amil 1 pubito po-liov involved, and' of Uh« furDhflr fact thirt Com- *ron va I'^y has nmt ojiJy aiwxl unohal- ·p-nirc-a A%r nnoc-e thn/n n dpctiHlc. but ^u^ *een several times cfitwl wOtffi at*jrovail TO co.nchKlf t'hat. if fl as tK Ire molfover: nil-sd. H «hwiM he Oone by t'he t^wt o-f oat reaont. In aOdiUtiiooi to coses cijled ly wunwal flee flJsa j'n*utxLm;e Co. ·vs. TjiTnii 25 S. W. Hep.. 307; Wartles on Homco or.d Kxprrtptlonn jup. 8,15-c, s'oc, 7 tfeptmj? t*hM do-dwloai 1 then as au'th'ort- V. we wext ooniskJer wither It has un- umiteO a-piJ-Ht\artion to tfhe exceptl^ial and xtriiord.'iLairy case, n* iuM«Kt*d, of a,n Hn- Kolvent !-o.l«o^ who »TMic9 .jihe alI of a ·OUPL o-f Justice to win.ble ii-lm ito errac-tiunJ- f w-rtlrli^w fr^m fhp rwc'h ff his crcJ- IW9 ( i'he groawly excerutvo eiim of IGO ono n money, fho pmcowl» -of lTw«irancc p'n).|- U\i lesuod, flit t'hf* expf-ns« of JiM^ oretl'itors a an livJeninlty aftraiLnst 't'he lows by fire of ·oostly mn.nslon. oon^niclfnl iU«o tut tho-V xi)en«e nnd wifh intent to defraud tlufln by he lr.tontin-:;ai Ui»t» of an excessive a,r.ioi:'nit f ilvis aKSfte fn-r (h.Tt TMirrwe, wiVh thv* con- ?mphijt-wl irtsuJt of 'hopo!e*s amd notorious Uhe awn'm-mo-nt, by the appUcaUari. o*f n.he ' a rfS'u!-: so -rru/rv^troiisly tncvit-ibl 11 dliuoki i-e cs.n.st'lfwc nnd -brl-ngs .rir(xioh uixm la^t (hitrmijie nnd «acre«l (Tiwi-tii'tlon, tine itrwt ilioffior -!· un*v«r»fl.ll.y nsorlbod to j« .Itiailcc! Ontnf^, In Blum va. 'Rogers 'oxnq, Ktt; »ji«i wihlla .t.his ».\ni,r; Uina \vr %inRlrae.i, r.md will coii'thioia 1o oofl- ?nio. our oxMtvpi-lon IFI-WR ^^f^milv ITI fnvor of '.hose they w«?«r« i-vtoivletl to i»rotoot, we cannot M-ncti)on an Int««rpr0t,tii!o«n wh'.cth T\*ouM 'make tfiiom A m^re oovwr for shield- Lng ppr?w*tiy from telnt ·ubjeotol -to ilie pa-yrn^n-t of hon**t dffit*. If a Oeb-tw xrho Ji t-hft head of * f«irniiy, and wHio 4iat» con- tlffuoua or n*»r to hi* r«*d»TKr« OM or more * to t'he enjc*j"meiut of t'he 'tlii-i^ expressly graa-t-d, never expends toeyxiwl wihat Is necessary lo acc-ora'pUsh tlhe pu^rpo^es of fhe express grain'l. CWasrhbUira's Ease- ·nient's, p. 260; Goddard'a Basements, p. 270. In, applyOoj -Hire prhiojple o-f liberal cou- sbruoMom In Coibbs vs. Cole-main, sm-pra. ti-he learned; dalef JusUoe says: "Tihe nUiole ·poK-cy of th'e act (·exempilon statute) Is to a'bs't'raxnt no -jnc're from, uhe aredJtor 'Uhan la easentloil ito tlhe moderate eupj)o-rt of tihe ·debtor;" ami funiihar, "Yet extravaxiamce would not be j-usillfleJ, and ibrldles an-a saddles (th-e L'h:jnj5s implied; ibeca^use necessary) -beyooKl a -reaaonabl-e val-ue -mlgihit 'be exposed ·to seizure." Tlho -l-naurajice money J» ·wltlh'hefld fra-m ·tihe creditor, undeu* a liberal coniStruotixj-n, for a reatSD-nalble len^tih of time, on tlhe grounil of mecasslty, -to 'preveivt a faiLkiire of : tihe homeateaxl puripoae; and for the «ame reasoai. and 'ito promote justice," in. case of a,n Lnnofventt debtor, should more -Lha'n a reaaonabhe aimooun.-t be tlvu-* wIL'hilielrt? To tlhe oibjeotlon -wih-ldh .nabuiuJly augfgeais it\self, WJiaiL .la a .raasonable amciint, aj.id how Ja UhJa to toe d^termiLned? -L'he comes An tlhe language o-f it-he criticism of Ca^mron vs. Fay, "V\Tha,L "Is a reasonable tlnve, and ihotf la tihJa to 'be tlett-mmned.?' .Vr.l fitrfhcr, hor.- v.T.l you ^.c-a^urc t h reasonaJble tlime allowed, tlie non-u^lag owJio of -Uhe "business ihomcetead, who 'has boc'n, forcod to isuapeind tousincas, for tihe resump- tilon. of fta tiae? r I n case of n allowance to TV-MO w a.ml (Shildrren In. Heu of exempt property, L-ncludlme tBie I h0lme^3le^ad. 'the court -In i*en-ulrai to jnodce a ircceonuible ul- lou-atnce fH. 'S.. 1994-5J, And In oa«c of " necessaries" eupplled 1 to wife or 'l-n'te'iit, it HiiLti IOIIK boeu Hitrld ilKLl 'UliaL luMi) incIa-U.s things j) rover onl ouHaible to each hidl- vlduail. Oioooixll-n^ to ih'ls circumd'taiiLcea and iconKlUlon of life, lihesc i'nstaiwca are S-estiive. AVe do not mea-n 'to 'l-nitl'mu le fWhere 't'he homestead fliaa been- "leKltim 'improved, leas :Uhan itihe full amount of In- euranco would «ncet the r equ h 1 P: non-la of reason, justice uuud myctJ»elLy, The case- niode by the plea, under consIderaiLJon (H clearly not of -Vhl character. IHie alles« tlons o-f itUito iplca, w*hMc noL o« full an deflni'te as Uhey imitfli'b (be, aa aga-lnst « grc-n eral deimoirrer, rprewon-t tlhe extraordhMc case of a r-raud/uilenit doiblor, i\iho, in ordt-r to place $100,000 cwvj more toeyor.d t'he rrtu-h of 'Me just crod'Hons, da?ltfne*i'iy, wJien ubuiH totoeconit Insolvent, mtaid-c u«o df nwo block j» of latid exemat -from execution cm itilw avuill- niUle meu'ivA of aioooinipn?:h!-n'(j -tihoit f)IUpc-n- dotw rosuM, cvruJ iwiho -now eooily ns'lt.i « court of juytl-ce ito conau m-mu te tfna pitfa-ntlc sulieme iby Ucorealmjf ito ih'Lm -t;he irol-a-Uvrty enormous sum of Ifiy.iXW o.r influra i nj.-:e unoiiev ns neeci?»ary ito 'ilhe enjoyment of t'he sarreil ihomcstcu'J. ritfht arua;'a i niiced "by tfhe coimti- 'hit'lon' to itili-e faamiy of an unfortunate dobtor! Tile cuiiiU LKioioa 01 *L laitv ·Uui.L '\%ou!d work (sucfli refiiul'tw cou'ld. Ihoird'ly le said lo ibe liberal anil aromot'lVe of Justice. In 'Ulie aipplicatlaii of '(JJiat prlmol'pie of cone) true ukm-, oourtfl have Ions' construed ffiiattite^, even a«udnmL tllie ilettor, to fla to proven 1 : ii'h«m from ibeltiK 1 ino^le 'Uhc hitrLru'inL-'n'tfi of fraud, iAai- liiKOl'Venit d-dbtor may huwfully -u^e a reasonable anuouriL of h!s aeti-ptm 1 iiitnL:on- ally lo t!if» Ut-riiniwvl of crti-dl'tyra in -i'he iinipTOVcmen't of ih'la iliomcaleail fwr 'the cou- ve-ale-nce aiud comfort vt 'ill* -family; tint wilien 'he titwiscondH 't'hutt object anul uiidta-.. st-oikea to ounwopriate at Uh-elr exjiwise, for ulterloa- nmkl covlnotls purpowe-s, a co.!cewul ffortuive, In Uhe guiae of an exeunpUoii, 'he is :!n no poRl'tlvm 'to Invoke 't'he aipplknitlon of illeral ijr4nolip'l i efl, \n order to Alil«iil f-rom tin U'ruconscloinaible Bii-m of Insturaint'i! money to. cover daanoig-e done to Improvements -t.hus mode. Jf the cou-nt, «« iheKl In- Camioron: va. Fiw, anoy, in uhe exercise of tihe power of liberal conRtrucWon, '-hoM tlhe i-nfliii-anco money exempt for a ren«OiniaibJe -tilinre, W wouki at, in- U'lie B.\tnx:i,se on' a he- t*tine power, *t migih't .Impose uhe Tmr'iiher redtr-it;- Lion indicated fllbove; aptl tlhoit iif -dhe latter be judicial leeiaiatilon «o would tihe former ibe. Either conjclueiom leads -to a reversal of the judment. \Ve are o-f oipl-nioni itihouffh itihe quest-toin Jfl by no means tfree from d'iillcui'tiy, twvat if 'Lii ewvw. Swityue, can- iwovc mit aa allegred tihc avcmmonia of -jila plea, he should 'have Judgimen't aualnRt, the ffarnlshee. If t-n title iwe ej-r, we fiave the consolation t'hat it a.ppeaTs ito be on Uie «lde*of justk-e, 'Uhu promotlonj of v'iitch la nxloulytedd'y Uhe ViiToimou-nt ofbject of ibot'h aklinff aimd construing luiwo, The jud^memti wilJl 'be reverBDd and, -t/hc cause remanded- for farther proceed'Iirig8 in- accordsunce iwiuh Uhe vlwvs erpreased In tliia opinion. tiieijdh«iitf, A. J. Filed In cotunL' of civil ajprwals -Tan. 2. 1895. I, W. l. Huff, clerk of the court of clvlr appeals for 'tihe second suprume Judflolal dialrfoL of Texas, (hereby certify tlhat fhe foregoing Is a. 'true an»3 corrdt coi^y of the op.!ini!on. UiePiveretl iby 'tihis COUTI in nho above enMUed ami anjinuberod ciuusc. WI-t- jiess my sl-frraaiUure omd .tihe seaJ of cald oaurt. Bit oOlce An -Uhe cHy of Fort Woiruli this 3d d-ay of Jaruimry ( 1895. ISeal.J _ W. L. HU1FP, Olca-k, THE OCEAN'S SIZE. on -the Oubkaul Kxtent of the Water ofjihe Olobe, Newcastle [Eng.] Chronicle. John Murray of '-the Challenger expedition has show nthat the cubical extent of tihe water* of "the slohe ^s fourteen, timea uhat of the ta-nd abova -the eea. level, and Capt. WMurton, ihydro^rapilier to -the cd- miralty, comsldera rthat Wila very bulk. compared wit^h. t'hat of ithe visible laird, R-lvea It an importaaice poasessod iby no other fea'Mire vn our n-lmiet. The Pac!/lu ceajfi alone covers 67,000,000 of -Uie earth'a 88,000.000 sqparc mllos, while the Atlantic extends over 31.000.000 square miles, and (he nduan ocean 25.000.000 squnrt miles. Thefie hrc6 great oceans alone account for 123,000 BOO square miles, in addition to which Lhere are Ithe M-eKliktarriwie-am. «iid otlitr in- and seas naid jrreaiL lakes to be reokonodi The Paoiilo averfures a dep-bh of 2-100 fat/h- ·m.* Ln tihe nortih nm» 2T.OO fa-thoma In fhe J XMhenn occam: -fho Ailaratlc hue a mean euLh, of 2200 fathoma ami -the InO-ia-n ouean meairt doptih of 2000 tajbhoira. Vaot aroan f the ovuitii art- yet unbounded; but as ·air aa 'lm«Jltjraillcin tons he«i carried up o the proBcn-t time U 0-teclunes 'Uhe remjwk- foot that -flic Kreatc-r fh»n.tilw are nut nex), ft« mtfilit be fiiipnos^l, ,l-n ni-:«l- ce.T!n, tnrt ratlhcr in spout ^Tmiiara-tlvt'ly TOUT to the IfUid. Tlie deemwt soutHlilng yet Malni'd 1« 4S) fatihonrw at 110 miles frinn liu ICairlle islansis, wihile wii'h.!-n sevc-ntLy ndle« of Poa^to Ititco -tiho next deepest 4Sfil a,lU^;iiri, iuus Li-tn obtained. I-Jvt-ry «ir.ip f tht* vwwt bulk -of waiter 1« now knoivoi ^ be In onnMfurt. inovemcrvt and itrt in- luc-iK'e upun i.he u-hj-BU-al eomditlo-n* of tho and 'U) lrrjnio.'Uflinn,blo. Tho surfiwy oiinrmns of the oof-nn form ho m-a-t obj-lojis i^.cnoincna ati.l a li,w* iesn ve*tnbU«hcd th.i.t Khe prime mo-tor of aesa currrniUi te -the wtr.ds-- tih-a trmlo liulA, w"4nV1i -blow conwtftr.'1-ly wor ffTc-at roa«, «jyl the wctonly w(ti*ls iJha-t l»ro- 'A!l 1/n hl*j*her noc-tliPrn and southern. laM- ·Hr.lcs. l.rtnpr the most current factors in tho prxloution of ocean currents Ditrnr- on-ceo of *mpCTrwtiwi n-ml of »iK«cinc gravity have hJ«o c*r(B.ln influence; but ih« effeot of 't^we l*r ftVlROiler t h a n tut tho cn.fi* of the wlnrt nnn l« more marked In the unvler clrcAil^aion; «n4 tflit vvrtlc^U fraxlnc af tih+ Vic or I J In ut all l of to of to the In go v. m Is on to The t In but W. the to Sunday the do she xnd ng of ate Jd v VO rooms, l)onrd 2322 K

Clipped from
  1. The Galveston Daily News,
  2. 04 Jan 1895, Fri,
  3. Page 5

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