Lockley on blacks in early Oregon

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Lockley on blacks in early Oregon - cen-, tlepor-tation a cooperative-lyback Race...
cen-, tlepor-tation a cooperative-lyback Race Feeling Arose Very Early in Oregon Deed of Fraud and Violence Occasioned Antl-Free-Negro Law. James D. Saules, a negro, came to Oregon in 1941 as a cook aboard the Peacock, wblch was wrecked at the mouth of the Columbia river. Lieuten ant Wilkes, who was In charge of the United States exploring expedition, chartered an American vessel from Dr. John McLoughlln, changed its name to the Oregon, and sailed for California without his . negro cook, who remained J in nmtng ua tne uregon naa ciearea for California. Saules drifted to Ore gon City In 'the early forties, where he foregathered with another negro named Wlnslow. Winslow hired an Indian named Cock'stock to clear a .tract of land, promising him a horse - In payment for the work. When the work was done Cocks tock asked -tor his- pay. Winslow had sold the horse to Saules and had nothing else with which to pay. and laughed at Cockstock's discomfiture Cockstock left, vowing vengeance against both of the negroes. Saules got. nervous over' Cockstock's threats and, went to Dr. Elijah White, the Indian agent, about the matter. Meanwhile Cockstock had taken the horse, which had" been promised him, as he believed there was collusion between the two negroes to defraud him. Dr. White compelled him to return tbe horse. Cockstock renewed his threats of bodily harm against the negroes. Dr. White thought it might not.be healthy to cross the river to Wenaxka's village and arrest Cockstock, so he decided to aet George do it," and offered a reward of $100, to be paid to Whoever would arrest and deliver Cockstock to him. ' Cockstock heard that Dr. White wanted him, so on March 4, 1844, he rowed across the Willamette to Oregon City with a number bf other Indians. He had on his war paint The settlers thought discretion the better part of valor, and left him severely alone. He returned to Wenaxka's village, and a few hours later returned. As he started to come ashore from his canoe a number of white settlers tried to capture him, thinking the $100 reward would come in handy. In the scuffle that followed Cockstock was killed, and three of the white men were wounded, Mr. Rogers and George W. Le Breton dying from their wounds. This resulted in the formation of the Oregon Rangers, a volunteer company of mounted riflemen, the first military organisation to be formed in Oregon. T. D, Kaiser; was elected captain, J. L. Morrison first lieutenant, and R. J. Cason ensign. On April 3 they received their commissions Blgnel by Overton jonnson, secretary oi tne executive committee of th. provisional govern ment, and by the three commissioners, D: Hill. J. Gale and A. Beers, acted In the same capacity as the gov ernor does in these days. J The members of the Oregon Rangers were: Daniel Waldo, Lindsey Apple-gate, John B. Kaiser, Weble Haux- hurst, Nineveh Ford, William J. Martin. William Delanev. John Edmunds. Charles P. Matt, Ira C. Hutchins, R. I-L Kkin, Peter Brain ard. Nathan Sutton. James R. Patterson. James Martin. John Anderson, Joel Furnham, J. M. Garrison. Joseph Holman, John Ford. Charles E. Pickett and W. H. Gray. More important than the formation of ; the Oregon Rangers was the legis lation enacted as a result of this encounter. It had an hnnnrlant K.,rln on the negro question and on their status in the Oregon country. Saules. who, by his complaint to Dr. White, the IndSh.n agent, had precipitated the trouble, had married a Clackamas squaw. Shortly after the death . of Cockstock and the, two white settlers Saules threatened to kill a white settler. C..E. Pickett." and incited the Indians against him. Saules was arrested, but as there was no jail to put him into he was fold to leave at once or he would be "dealt with." He went to Clatsop Plains, near Astoria, and secured a job at the Methodist mission. He worked for them till 1846, when the mission was suspended. He was again arrested, this time for murdering his Indian wife. There was no difficulty In proving Jils wife was dead, but a trial would be a long and expensive business. There was- no jail or prison to put him fn. and as his wife was a squaw, it was regarded as a more or less personal matter, and while some regret was expressed that she had not been the survivor and he the one that was - killed, they finally discharged him with the admonition not to do it again. For years thereafter he operated a nondescript craft carrying fretght and passengers between Astoria and Cathlamet. to all is In -?So

Clipped from
  1. The Oregon Daily Journal,
  2. 06 Jan 1920, Tue,
  3. Page 6

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