Slavery debate 1851
AND DULY TRlNSCRIPT. milMalakla, YYedaesae? , ' ANl Question. A mm kae eec" li Now Yolk, Which seem to .amirs s Bew qeetl"a "" CMBlKf U right sod tAliggrios f ander treat it, a deserter from '" mf U Canada hmi beea elat - ed by ! '' u """ rat, thmark Its mlnleter IVeafclogioa and Its correal at New Vntlt, .ad h. nrfrmfinea cleaee of IM Aikt" Treaty, eomnilr called, Uoti k in ehoo U I "' Treaty. A enMhrr ni from tlx British army 1 Caaae da eta bath L Hutu, aad enlisted la the ABarleea anay. A corporal ia la Britlek army at. a C. . u L. . kMMB at - alaufftjir tola M "4 penknife, aad cirri ed Uiaai of eetertlaf j aad fur UM erime, ne well ai for the dcaartioa, as to elaiaied ai ekwresTtentloned. To oar apprehension, the ease If Tory plain. The Treaty provides far the eitradltloo of person ne - fnaed of fekales or other crime whick ara mole fa M, ttilt im llmHlni, aad doea aot eitoad to mala steatMle, or get f prekioitiea. la plain English, sera a H ara acta regarded aa erime anaonf all eirillzed aaWone, aa piracy, marder, rob. aery, theft, forgery. Mala trtkibUa ara aeU wkiek ara fcaoeeat ia Ike abstract, bat wklob, throagk pablle poller la partlcalar oomrasnitles, ai ptoklMlrd by partiealar atatatea. Tkaa fore - Malliaf, lotterlea, koree racing, f ambling, ara not crimes ia tka abstract, for society eaa exist ander Inent. Bat a. the but be regarded ia anyone coataoairr at michierou the; maybe prohibited, aad thes evade criminal by Ita pirtiealar laara, arklle talented elsewhere. If then aa extradition treaty akoald prorida nerely for the delirvr of tkoaa aeeaard of erimn, the en Would eorer only assle a it, acta tti;it4 aa erlmet ia all eirllUed eeextriee, korkuae they are Crimea egatnst aoclety fceenllf , crime, aaoar the general toleration of whick, aoclety eoald aot exlat. li would aot la - (he mala pvehteaf, and meek teat political Crimea, Ne woald it eorer military erimca, or erlaMfagaiDet the mi Mary code of a nation; for anak artillery code if tpttial, like all apecial efcif laara, originating; ia local policy, and aot ia tka ailreresl aeeeeutiee of civilized aoeiety. Hence a niUoa may seeoste a refuge of military deaerteraor atiaeera, or of political refugee, witkoat endan - gerlag tka peace of ita neighbors. Bataaatioa beeoaiiig a rrfage of piratea, mnrderera, thierea, forgera, aad other eriminala againat aoeiety gene - nil, againat aairaraal aural principle, and aot awrely againat local opiaia, would really become a aett of pinte and a dea of thierea, dangeroaa to tka wkolc eirilized world, and would thereby aa tkorixa aark world to deaationalizo aad aappreaa It, ortedtlirerapita refugee eriminala to thejerU - dietioaa which they had riolated. Pueh hti been, aawsg all cl lilted aationa, the construction of ei - tmdluoa trcalica, aaleaa aack eonatractiua were eielcded bj explicit proritioni. And when a party M deaoaaced aa a eriminal ai4er aa extradition treaty, the proof of the charge moat be aack aa woald, at hoaae, authorize all trial, or at leant hia commitment for trial. What then ia tae eaae of UU alleged deserter! DeeeMM la a militmry, and not a ciril crime, for wkkk he U ameaable only tn a eoart mtrtitl, and aot to a court tiril. la earning off hit armt and eqalpmeatt, he may commit a crime in addition to deaertioa. But this too ia a crime aisrliul, cognisable oaly by a tribanal wurlimt, and not a erime tiril, eogaixahle by a trl anal ci'rti. Nor ia deser - tioa, at drpartitioa of publie military property, a pulititmi crime. Bat ke ia acsased of reeling a corporal's keys and peaknifc. Whether this act la a soldier woald be cognizable, ia England, by a elrll or military tribunal, we cannot now decide. If tka latter, it is aot covered by the cxtradl'.ioa treaty. If the former, let at aee if the aceuntioa be aamcieat. As we interpret the Treaty, the charge of crime mutt be met aa the jurisdiction eluiaing the prisoner regard as sufficient tun for trial, or commitment for trial. If then a peraoa ahould wear, before a magistrate in England, tktt, ' so far aa he kaaws," another bad ttolea hia witch or parae.WoaJd the magistrate, apon e testimony, lame a warrant for the apprehension of the accused! Or oo mailt or hold him to bail, if arrested on auch declaration t Certainly ax. Mack leas woald a Craad Jary indict on sack testimony. And if suck testimony woald not authorize detention at kome, atek last would it aatkorize extnditioa abroad; foraoetrilized nation whose authorities were governed by eomnwa aenae, would as conatrue aa extnditioa treaty as to eorer more ground than the laws of the country with which it was made, and which preferred the claim. In auek case, tke Bri - tiak government woald any to any other, we cannot surrender to you as a crimuMljone whom yout own lawa do not show to be each." Tnen whtf evidence is neeeesury to support a claim for extnditioa T tome legal proof of crime, such as the word of aa indictment, aa arraignment, a conviction, ar at least of the deeiaioa i f some migittrate in a primary examination. Wa see no such evidence ia this ease, and do not think tht a mere oose aeecaatloa of the deaertet'a having atolea a penknife from aa officer, brings him within the treaty, area If nek act were a civil, and not a mi litary crime. Borne of the newspapers intimate that this mm ought to be discharged, by way of retaliation upon British deciiions, ander which fugitive slave claimed as thierea wer refused to be sarreadered, because a sfat tnld tui tuttf. W sea an similarity ia the eases. Aad if aay existed, one wrong would aot Jaatify another, aad therefore should not be eommitted ia retaliation. A alare serve by force, without will; a soldier serves by contract, madeatwllt. Eecapefrom slavery ianot a crime la tke abatraet, bat the exercise of a natural right, aad therefore eaaaot be covered by extradition treaties, without positive provision. Desertion is a erime, involving the violation of a voluntary contract, unless the soldier hare beta impressed. But it is aot a erime against aoeiety generally, and therefore is aot covered by extnditioa treaties, unleii through expressed provisions. But a hjkre tun steal, or commit other crimes against society, and therefore aa a trimintl, aot as a aart, may be covered by aa extnditioa treaty. If aay British authority kure - faaed to surrender a alare claimed as a ertmisal, oa (tgal proof of theft, on tke ground, that, a slave cannot steal, the answer Is that, such British sutho - sity hsd no right to look behind the legal erideaee of erime. Paeh aethority my sty, we will ait surrender a alare as a irt, for we do a it iccog - alee alavery, but wa eurrender a eriminal oa due proof of crime ; and whether tke peraoa claimed aa a eriminal be bond or free according to tka lawa of the claimants, is no question for us " Wt think that Ibis man ong ht not to be surrendered aa a deserter, because the treaty doea not cover mi llary Crimea, Bar aa a thief ander the evidence offered, because that evidence woald aot be sufficient to wnrrant kit indistment, or even nis commitment, at kit kome.