1895 National Tribute Maps

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1895 National Tribute Maps - WynKkps. nT XL M&TMWM Alrd. Hal .NIC tr ?r a V...
WynKkps. nT XL M&TMWM Alrd. Hal .NIC tr ?r a V JA. j V l j k. VS A Vi J !- ' Supplement to THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE, Washington, D. C, Dec. 26 1895. Copyright by THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE, 1895. THE If T0R THEgATTLE By Jorjn MSElroy. As the month of June, F01, wore toward its close there was manifested a strong desire on the pa it of (lie Union-loving people that some decisive action be tnkn against the sirong icbel forces mailed threateningly in the neighborhood of Washington. The safety of the National Capital required that they he defeated and dispersed, and if this were done the ominous -war cloud might blow out. Neii rly 92,000 young men had resnonded to Piesi- dt Lincoln's Call, April 1.1, for 7",000 men for three months. Tlieir term of enlistment was drawing to a close, and it-was urgent that they accomplish something of importance before they returned home. Prjbably, about half the entire nuiiilr wetc in the. country ad-lacentto ANashingtoii-from Baltimore and Foit Monroe to Ciunlicrlniid. Md., while the remainder had been doing good service in Western Viiinia and Missouri. The rebels hud their main force the "First Corps," or "Army of the Potomac." under Urig.-Gen. P. ('. T. Pcauieard-stationed behind Hull Kan, around Mami-sns Junction, 27 miles from Washington, where the Orange & Alexandria liailroad connected with one running into the Munandoah Valley. Their next sttongesl force the "Army of the Hunandoah,' or ". Second Corps," commanded by Jiig.-C.en. Jos. P. Johnston, was stationed around Winchester. The railroad from Manassas Junction enabled either :miiiv to readily reinforce the other. Lieut -Cum Winfield Scot J j"ti command of the A rmicsof the United Slates, prepared a plan of operations by which a sufficient force, to be organized FERST BATTLE Op BUM $UfJ. JUliY 21, 1861. Col. S. Firl liritiadc. Col. W. H. Ji'llANKMS. fitli Massachusetts. 11th Massachusetts. 1st Minnesota. 1, 1st U. S. Art. 1st New Jersey. 1 z -ew Jersey. 3'1 N 4th icw .jersey. Xcw Jersey. I fr New .1 erse j". f New .Jertey. J Third IMiifiiU' Col. o. O How.um. 3d .Maine. 41 h Maine. ."it Ii Maine. 2d Vermont. Three years. .u,u piaccu iiiiuiT me command ol Jing.-Ck'ii. Jrvin McDowell, should move diredly out from Washington ujkiii Beauregard and crush him, wliile another force, under Maj.-Gen. Jtobert Patterson, should move from Haners Jerry uinni Johnston, and either dcfi.:it. him nr bw,t i.;... ,. v. .l Uilli. till busily engaged that he could send no help to Jienuicgard. j ne piuu was a nne one ami sliould have succeeded. ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. Gen. McDowell established his Headquarters at Arlington, and his Held of operations was officially designated "The Department of Northeastern A lrginia. " i e proceeded to organize his forces as follows : (Compiled from tlic records of the AdJutaut-GunerursOnlce. 3'iitST Division-. Brig-.-Con. JJaniui. Tvi.iat. Firxl JMnadfi. Ckrt 15 J J. knyiis. 1 Mnimj. m Coiiueotleut. 1st ( onuooUout. M Commotieut. Sccrnul Jiriyadc. IJt'itf.-GoH H. A. Soiiknck. 21 New York. 'M Oliio. M Ohio. J!,21 LT.S. Art. lliird lirtiiadc. Col. W. T. s5iii:uman. 3tli New York. 'M Wi-cousin. Oitt h New York. IJ, :jd U. H. ArU Tilth New York. Fourth Briijadc. Col 1. I J. KlCllAlUISON. lt MusMichuEolls. lid Michigan. 12tli Now York. 0, 1st IT. S. ArL c,. , t. -M,c,"l?". M, M U S. .Art. i'uw; i'HjaJW., O.) Col. 1)avii Hontbk, wounded. a ) Col. Ani.kkw Poktuiu Firt Jlrtuailc Scctnui JJriaade Col. A.VDHUW I'OltTKIt. Col 1-' Iliii.viv,,.. 8th NY. (Mllftiii;. Hut'nUAMiirlncw. 2d New lla nipMi fe "1 111 n, ! 7l..,wl IliitUtlioiiU.ti.Jnf, Tiifini Tlivisifiv. I'. I1i.istci;i,j!,.v, wounded, .SccJ(d Jirhimir.. Col. O. K Wilcox, wonnil- ed and ciinliitiil 11th N. Y. (Fire Zouuves). :i8ili New York. IstMiehijran. 4th Miehifran. 1),2d U S. Art. Fourth (iu:si:hvi:) Division. Urig.-Gen. Tiikoduhi: Kijnvon. 1st New ,1( rsey. Three months. ? .ew Jeif-ej'. WJ 0.; .11-1 I'V. 41st New York. J 1-iKTii Division. Col. Dixon S. Mi lis, lirU lirfyadc. Sccmd lirtyadc Col. Louis 11i.i:nki:h. Col. 'I homas A innrs S.V,', Y" 7- fr -i1 IJ S;,Ari- ,r 16lh Nuw Vork :&1 New'York. S ' x-C,V V" ' Hookwood's N. Y. 8th cw York. G, 'd U. S. Art. Kith New -V oik Dattery. aist New York. iih Pennsylvania. ALMOST INSUPERABLE DIFFICULTIES attended the transformation of this host into an effective, aggressive military machine. The legimetiLs themselves had as yet littlediscipline or cohesion, and the brigade and division organizations were literally rones of sand. Few men in the whole army had ever seen a brigade so much as paraded, let alone marched, manuvered, and fought. Trained staff officers there were next to none, and the material for such, as well as for commanders, had to he guessed at, or left to the selection of chance. The regiments and the officers were from different States, and all were strangers' to the character and abilities of one another. THE FORCES. Pcanregard's "First Corps," or "Arhiy of the Potomac," consisted of the brigades of Holmes, Jionham, Jewell, J). I;. Jones, imgstieet, Cocke, and fcarly, containing 28 regiments and battalions of infantry, 1 rcinicnt and : battalions of cavalry, and C batteries of artillery, iimkiii" aiia"re-g-ite available force of t:,000 men, with 27 cannon. Johnston joinedTiini with the brigades of Stonewall Jackson, Pee, JJarton, and Kirby Smith P) rogimeiiLs of infantry, 1 regiment of rivalry, and C, batteries (20 cannon). Ablegate, 8,:M0 effective men. This made the total cn'eetivo rebel force at Pull Pun :J1,:M0 men and -17 cannon. (Jen. .McDowell slatted out with :3,000 men and -19 cannon, but with-!" G117.,.n,,es of Cenlerville he detaehed Gen. Punyon, with the 1-ourth Division, to guard the road to Alexandria, and it remained theio diinng the battle. He left the Fifth Division, with Piehardson's Pri-ado oi the First Division, in reserve at Centerville, and it took no part ill1 the battle farther than alight engagement with a small force of the enemy which advanced beyond Pull Pun. After making all proper deductions Provosl-Marshal-General .las. P. Fry, who was then Gen. .McDowell's Adjutant-General, estimates that there were actually engaged 8!)(i officers and 17,7( men total PS,. 072 with 2-1 cannon. Gen. Thos. Jordan Peauregaid, -who was I ieau regard's Adjutant-General, says that the lebel forces actually engaged numbered 18,UT):. THE ADVANCE. Gen. McDowell lcgan his advance on the afternoon of July ( wifh three days' rations in his men's haversacks. The march was such as might be exacted by gieen troops, as yet only nominallv soldiers, and commanded by equally green officers. It was a general st niggle, and not until the 18th did the army reach Centerville, only 20 miles fiom the 1 ofomac, and wmie 11 or -1 from the seene of the coming battle. Jn the meanwhile Gen. Tyler, who had been oidered to iccontioiter, iinaiiy repuiseii, with a lo-wot till men killed, wounded, and missing. July 20 McDowell gave his officers his plan of battle. It was tha Tyler's First Division should leave camp at 2:.'!0 A. M., for the Stom Pridge, and make a vigorous demonstration there with artillery am brought on a small battle at Plackbuni's Ford of Hull Pun. nnrt w.-. i! II. .1 -I -.1 .. ,... . "" nnaiiy repuiseu, Aviui a lo-wot a., men killed, wounded, and missiii". that Stone tv ntid O..W.1I il... I- -.1A...1- . .V..." oiiuiii-.ii ma, c-ny.ii; me enemy a aiieuiion, Aviiue the Second and TJiird Divisions were to make a long circuit through the woods to the right and come upon the enemy's left and rear, throw him into confusion, when the First Division should cross the Stone Pridge, all the forces unite, and sweep the enemy from the field. Jt was an excellent plan, and canio'verv near succeeding. THE BATTLE. The first hitch occurred in Tyler's failure to move as earlv as ordered, and he blocked the way ior the divisions behind him. Then, the flank march of these divisions stretched out into 12 miles, instead of the 0 calculated upon, and it was 0:30 before they reached Sudley Sprint wheie they had expected to be.at 7 a. m. The men were very tired, hot and thirsty, and the rebels had time to discover the turning movement. Tyler did not make his demonstration at the Stone Pridge sufficiently vigorous to deceive the enemy very long. Evans, who was in command there, left 1 companies to amuse Tyler, and hurried off with the rest of his brigade to confront Purnsidc, whoso brigade led Hunter's Division. The battle between the two opened on the slope north of Young's Praneli at!): '15. Gen. Hunter was soon wounded and taken from the ifeld. Pee and Parton went to the assistance of Evans, and Andrew Porter to that of Pumside. After an obstinate light which lasted until 11: 30 the rebels were driven in confusion across Young's Pnmch, and reformed by Stonewall Jackson on the Henry House plateau. Peauregard and Johnston the latter having eluded Patterson and come to the assistance of the former were completely deceived as to McDowell's plans. They had expected the main attack to ho on their right, and only at noon were convinced that it was taking place on their left. They immediately hurried everything toward that flank. The Second and Third Divisions all came up, and pursued the enemy across Young's Pranch. McDowell sent an order to Tyler to carrv out his part of the progiam by crossing tho Stone Pridge and assailing The rebels with vigor. Had this been done the victory would have been ours. Put beyond sending Sherman to join those in pursuit of the rebels, Tyler did nothing of the slightest consequence. The rebels formed theirline ab the edgeof a convex piece of woods, under the cover of which they rushed reinforcements as fast as they arrived. The Union troops came up out of the valley of Young's .Branch, and a des-pemte battle raged hack and forth over tho narrow iield. Never did new troops light better than the Union regiments, as a whole. The two fine batteries of Pieketts and Griffin, which seemed to be the heart of the battle on tho Union side, had been brought across Young's Pranch, that they might tiro directly into the center of the rebel line. Here an unfortunate mistake occurred, owing to tho similarity of uniforms and a rebel regiment was allowed to approach within a short distance,' when it poured in a volley which virtually destroyed both batteries. This was the turning point. The worn-out Union troops saw themselves continually assailed by fresh regiments, and began to retire. Their officers saw the day was lost, and ordered a retreat. At first this was deliberate and orderly, for the rebels had quite enough of the fight, and made no ellbrt to follow up. Suddenly a panic struck a portion of tho troops, and they began a wild flight for Washington. The panic was accentuated by a number of civilians among whom were Senators and Pepresentntives, and many ladies, in carriages who rushed oil in a, frenzy of fear when they learned that the battle had gone adversely. LOSSES. The official Teports give the loss of the Union army: Killed',, J('0:( wounded, 1,121; missing, 1,312; total, 2,S9. The rebels reported: Killed,3S7; wounded, 1.5S2; missing. l.J;totnItli.QS2: The notable Union losses were: Cols. James Cameron and J. S. Sloeum. killed; Cols. Michael Corcoran, O. P. Wilcox and A. M. Wood, and Cant. J. P. Ricketts, wounded and captured, and Cols. David Hunter and IF. W. Sloeum, wounded. In detail the Union loss was as follows: Command. First DivMtnt 1st Connecticut M Connecticut I'd ( onneeticut 'M Maine 2tl New-York 1st Ohio I'd Ohio 13th New York.... G'Jth New York.... T'Jth New York.. . id Wisconsin !M U.S. Art., Co. E a i tr. y Art., Co. e -'d IT.a. Art.. Co. 31 Total First DivNion.... Second Dirfaioii. Sth Now York (Militia 11th New York "Till New York Itattaliou U.S. Infantry Battalion U.S. Cavalrj- itattaliou IT. S. Marines fith U. S. Art., Co. D 2d New Hampshire , 1st Itliode Island , JidiUiode Island , Total Second Division... Killed, i Wounded. Missing. . . . .. . 2 -4l 2 t C IS c 4 ' 1 i 1 ' Jl ') tit s 4 lit &i 15 1 3d 4t 5S t JS 5 3 So- ifff ....:. 3 S 19 m is 8 & W ill lil if;; n i m vsa, 3rr, IJii lilt m 105.' Id 11W 1P 01 19 2t0 10 m mum. Third Die iithMnssachiteetts ... 11th Massachusetts... 1st Minnesota lstTJ.S.ArtMCo.l... 1st ."Wielu'im 11th New York tfSth New York 2d U.S. Art., Co. 1).... 3d Maine 4th Maine fith Mail e 2d Vermont Total Third Division. 7'7tt Division. 8th New York 211th New York 'i!)th New York :.. Kith New York 31st New York Total Fifth Division.... 20 10 8 4 9 12 20 Sfci, 17 4( 42 17 18 ' 17 lit 31 3!) 10 9 0.7 00 r ii 10 10 08 iS 2" 120 f 1S'2 41 11 4S 12 0 2SI K5 33 10) 14 33 71 49 ii 7 4.1 or 1 3Si 142! ISOi 83! 13' 4t 37. 107. S2f 93t it : 4ti 1 20 8;. a ... in ... 23 38 28 7f,' 02 5ft 3 f 119 ciy 91 709 i!)il 3.1 541 97, 59' 150' 27' 11U 1SS lL'S 10i ST 2931 2m K5S11 11! 401 01! 11 IE II

Clipped from
  1. The National Tribune,
  2. 26 Dec 1895, Thu,
  3. Page 9

kenace1950 Member Photo
  • 1895 National Tribute Maps

    kenace1950 – 08 Dec 2014

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