Early reign: Tonton Makouts: Return: Cambronne
Ton Ton Macoufes Return To Haiti drive then Date to sides long as come there any from to they Of Business f o r m e r served office to called by his detractors. Marie-Denise, now living in Mexican exile, originally joined her husband, Max Dominique, in a two-year exile in Spain in 1967 and 1968. This was after Dominique, a captain of the palace guard, was implicated in one of many plots to overthrow the president. Despite the fact that Dominique was his son-in- law, the elder Duvalier condemned condemned him to death in absentia, but later .lifted the sentence and let him return, reportedly because the president president found Marie-Denise the most capable and useful of his four, children. ' There have been reports that more than 200 persons have been arrested in the last few weeks, and that a number of these have been assassinated. But there 1 is no way to confirm this. Reports of arrests and secret murders are always in the air in Haiti when the Ton Ton Macoutes (the word means "bogeymen" in Creole) are visible. Now The Leopards During the heydey of this private, casually clad army of Papa Doc, in the early 1960s, there were said to be as .many as 25,000 Ton Ton Macoutes carrying on their private and often -bloody vendettas while protecting their sponsor. It was always believed that Duvalier used this unofficial armed force to balance the power .of the official army, numbering about 5,500, so that neither could ever get strong enough to overthrow him. After 1967, the power of the Ton Ton Macoutes began to decline and the worst of the terror appeared to be over although men carrying rifles or with gun-bulged pockets remained remained a common sight in the capital and the country. Shortly after Jean-Claude was proclaim edpresident-for-life, on April 22, 1971, he announced that he had dissolved the Ton Ton Macoutes and was replacing replacing them with a group to be called The Leopards, which would be a small, professional corps of presidential guards. But in recent weeks, those men with the guns have turned up. again, and ;whateve,r^the president. calls them,v,-:?the Haitian people call the"ip\;the Ton Ton Macoutes. 'Â·Â·*'') Diplomats feel that Cam- NEW YORK -- Alan L. bronne is more certain of the loyalty of the informal police than of the army. It is said in By MIGUEL GUERRERO PORT-AU-PRINCE, Haiti (UPI) -- Haiti's "bogeyman, army," the Ton Ton Macoutes, are back. The sunglass-wearing gunmen, gunmen, who disappeared from the Port-au-Prince street corners and village squares after the death of President Francois (Papa Doc) Duvalier a year ago, have sprung up i again under the rule of Duvalier's 21- year-old son, Jean^Claudc, the Â· world's youngest president. What it means, foreign diplomats here say, is yet another power struggle in this 163-year-old republic whose history of power struggles is second only to its struggles against poverty. With a per capita income of around $70 a year, Haiti's five million people rank as the poorest in the Western Hemisphere. "In the eyes of the Haitian people, who still venerate the late president, Jean-Claude is the president. But the facts demonstrate otherwise," said a Central American diplomat who, like other diplomats here, chose not to have his name used. With the press under government control and no opposition politics of any kind permitted, anonymous diplomats diplomats became a principal information source. The Real Power The consensus in that corps is that the real power lies in the hands of 40-year-old millionaire Luckner Cambronne, who as minister of defense, police, and interior and special guardian of the borders of Haiti, heads all the government agencies that have any fire power. Cambronne, the diplomats say, seems to have totally entrenched himself as a result of Jean-Claude's exiling this year of his 29-year-old sister, Marie-Denise, who was considered considered the only other person in the nation with significant influence on "Baby Doc," as the president is sometimes going to Niagara U. His father was a supervisor for Loblaw's Â· before-his retirement.' Agent Honored son of his career Loblaw graduation from before .Hagerman of Clifton Springs was one of 557 persons awarded the professional insurance Haiti that every army officer, designation, Chartered- given enough power, represents Property Casualty Un- a potential coup d'etat. And this derwriter, by the American doesn't apply only to the army. Institute for Property and Two years ago, the Haitian Liability Underwriters at the coast guard, which consisted of N a t i o n a l C o n f e r m e n t ceremonies in New York City recently. Mr. Hagerman, a partner in the Richardson Insurance Agency, is also president of the Rotary Club pf Clifton Springs and vice-president -of Rotary Handicapped children's Camp Onseyawa. He is a past president of Associated Insurers, Insurers, Inc. and immediate past regional vice-president of the New York State Association of three derelict ships and 119 men, shelled the gleaming white national palace where Duvalier in his later years became a near-recluse, and then fled for neighboring Puerto Rico. Whatever the reason for the re-emergence of the Ton Ton Macoutes, it doesn't augur well for Jean-Claude's campaign to polish up his nation's image internationally.