Clipped From The Cincinnati Enquirer
M sreciAL ooKinpo.vDUfci or n ssetnasa. , . Raleigh. N. C. July 1908. TfV "T stranger story U on record than IM tne ot tm Croatan Indians In I I North Carolina and their rle. Up to 21 year ago these people were classed as negroes, but. owing to the work of one man. a Scotchman, their claims were so fir nly and convincingly set before the world that the legislature declared them I a dlstlnet trihe and gave them speelal ad-vantages ad-vantages ad-vantages n the way of a school system" for I themselv- themselv- 'alone. They were literally raised ouf of th'; 1 i I Jim by Hamilton McMillan, McMillan, tiui rn-irib"r rn-irib"r rn-irib"r of the Legislature. whose horn vvaH atnl Is In the very heart of the Cioatuii country. WL.?n the a:iesrors of Mr. McMillan set-I set-I set-I tied In tii.it part of North Carolina, after they left S. otland upon the great defeat of CulluJffn 111745, they found the Croatans there, with pl.asant homes and good roads. S.ti.e of thse owned slaves. They did not then nor do they now have Indian. characteristics, though like the other aborigines aborigines in some respects. , - Mr. McMillan was asked to give In brief the strongest evidence of the Croatans be ing descendants of the English colonists who I were sent out by fir Walter--Kalelgh Walter--Kalelgh Walter--Kalelgh Walter--Kalelgh Hoanoke Island, and who formed what hie- hie- I tory calls "The Lost Colony of Roanoke.' There Is u mystery, of over years about this colony, which was seated on Roanoke Island In ISM. and of which, when tna English relief expedition arrived later, it. round only tile lug und earth fort, with the gate open, cannon lying ahoul, and the; word "Cro" cut on a gatepost. This was for "Croatan," the settlers having made an agreement to put up a sign to show where they had gone. Croatan was on the mainland some 0 miles away. Captives of the Indians. The relief expedition .made only a short (V anH rilri r.ru 'I II v rn Br.nrililnv ffii" the colonists. Writing about 1H12, Strachcy. j the historian of the colony at Jamestown. Va., told of news that people said to be i white and English were held captives by the Indians not far to the southward; that these whites, soma of whom were children, were building houses of stone, but that the Indians kept them close and "would not let the English have speech with tl.eiir" Mr. McMillan says. In giving In a scientific way his reasons and his confident belief that the Croatans are thus descended: 'l. Their appearance. customs u.nri mull. dltlons. Their appearance Is that of the Indians, and their dreys, abounding In bright red colors, corresponds with Indian taste. Their habit and customs are similar to j those In the West. Their traditions all : point to Roanoke Island In Virginia as the .ancient seat of their white ancestors. The details of their traditional history are kept by some old persons of the tribe. - Since I83S these chronlch rs have been" reticent as to their origin, owing to their disfranchisement disfranchisement and to their being classed as mulat-toes. mulat-toes. mulat-toes. It required long and persistent inquiry IISSST -V -V - .- .- .v.:. fl IB "8 81 , K BBBsh mm Mr t m Bk ! m i v 3 i mw r xaatr- xaatr- sv Bk st S t W-53f W-53f W-53f - !-' !-' !-' I CI I I - 11 . ! , Is, ' BI '1. H " BSSSSlBBSBSSsSm mW. JWM ' S t , W&L22-ttr W&L22-ttr W&L22-ttr MJ),smm&' ill EtvSsmt? i x aass vjbbbbbbv'--BBfasw. vjbbbbbbv'--BBfasw. vjbbbbbbv'--BBfasw. vjbbbbbbv'--BBfasw. kv wfc' r-- r-- r-- to gusher such facts as I have related, and only In the lust few years did I discover that they were of Croatan stock on the Indian Indian side. Language Is Peculiar. "The Cherokecs are a hill-country hill-country hill-country people, occupying the mountainous parts of South Carolina. Georgia and Norths Carolina, and were so even In Tennessee and Virginia. The lowlands were -simply -simply used as hunting grounds. Roads or trails extended from their mountain homes to the Atlantlo Coast. One road, . beginning In Butler County, Tennessee, extended through the southern border of North Carolina and united, with the 'Lowery road' near. Lumber River, which stream traverses ths heart of the Croatan country. The Lowery trail crossed the.Peedee River not far from Bennetts-vllln Bennetts-vllln Bennetts-vllln and passed through Robeson County to Fayettevllle. thence to Sampson and on to Greene and Craven Counties and to Roanoke Roanoke Island. Settlements wars mads all along this road In the ancient days. These roads or trails were so named from a oh 1st or ohlsfs named Lowery, who had them laid off. One of the chiefs of ths Cherokees Is mentioned as having; mads a treaty with the United States, as I found In ths Ethnological Ethnological report sent out by ths Smithsonian Smithsonian Institution. "2. Their language, particularly that of the Ignorant classes. Is very peculiar, being drawled out, nearly every remark commencing commencing with the word 'mon' (man), which is old Saxon. They have many words of old English now not used In English-speaking English-speaking English-speaking countries. 'Lovend' Is used for loving, 'mansions' for measurements, 'houssn' for houses, Ac. In an old English doctor book brought over from England 200 years ago or more and preserved by the .tribe, rs contained contained a remedy for fever which is, and has been used for a long period among these Indiana Indiana The remedy is to take three live headllce, put them In a drink of whisky and swallow Immediately. This old English remedy Is yet a sovereign on among the Croatans. Of Mixsd Origin. "Their dislike of the negro exceeds. If anything, that shown by Anglo-Saxons. Anglo-Saxons. Anglo-Saxons. X find that they call themselves Malungeons; at least I have heard that word used among some very old people. This la a corruption corruption of Melange-ans, Melange-ans, Melange-ans, a term applied to these people of mixed origin by the Swiss-French, Swiss-French, Swiss-French, who came In contact with them in North Carolina as early as 1705. I find the same names among the Cherokees In ths Indian Territory as in Robinson County. Soma little intercourse exists to-day to-day to-day between between the Cherokees and the Croatans. "3. The fact that about 40 family names are found among these people corresponding corresponding with the family names given . In Hawkes's History of North Carolina as belonging to the English colonists sent out by Raleigh is proof of their descent. In 1878-9 1878-9 1878-9 I Interviewed an old woman, appar or- or- .'. . 'sr .ar (D)? North AM If ently 80 years old, who gave me a detailed aocount of the exodus from Roanoke Island, saying: The chief of our tribe was Wo-noko, Wo-noko, Wo-noko, and he took the women and children round Pamteeco (Pemllco), as thsy could not risk the trip over the- the- water In the small boats. They stopped to rest at Ohano-howan Ohano-howan Ohano-howan and then came to a settlement of our tribe on Newslck River.' In the 'Genesis 'Genesis of the United States.' by Prof. Brown, of Virginia, recently published, are found accounts of two voyages In 1600-1010 1600-1010 1600-1010 mads by Captains In search of the lost colonists of Roanoke, the manuscripts describing these voyages." . Whites Were Cruel. . "The extinction of most of the Indians In North Carolina, not by the white men so much as by disease and by desires which the white men brought. Is something fearful to contemplate. It is the testimony of a historian, who made bis observations In 1708, that within 60 years prior to that time dTAmoimA Are TO MABIIW TCUEBR TRilBE - 44 & k c4s'- c4s'- K c cV W- W- entire tribes of Indians had been practically practically destroyed by smallpox and by flre water, as . the Indians called the strong drink which he white men taught them how to use. The cruelty of the wars which the whites waged was so extreme as to cause a thrill of horror even now. Every male Indian . m UpBinawfi In T1iifin -v -v -.sr -.sr il IWsi mm m IK .if' (i f. ; f ( Mm Pzrszzw over 14 years of age captured was killed. the others were made slaves. In fact, the right to make them slaves appears never to have been questioned. The grdat inducement inducement to the South Carolina Tema-ssee Tema-ssee Tema-ssee Indians Indians to eome to North Carolina and aid the whites in destroying the Tutjcarora Indians Indians In 1712 was that they couldiake away ZocttzEffj? Bnrz all of their captives as slaves. It is a matter of record that in 1713 Governor Pol- Pol- I ter, very largely hold their lands together; lock bought from the Council, Which regu- regu- I and they are the wards of the United lated the affairs of the state, eight Indian 1 States, which looks after their .educa-captlves .educa-captlves .educa-captlves at 10 (50) per head, these to be I t,on- t,on- &c- &c- sent to the West Indies. The oldest man among fhe Croatans Is From time to time the colony of North Solomon Locklear. whose age Is 87. and who Carolina took a census of Its Indians and la remarkably active. These people use nioie In 1753 such a census showed that there home-made home-made home-made articles than any others in this were the following number of warriors: part of the country. They use the old-fasl.-Cherokees, old-fasl.-Cherokees, old-fasl.-Cherokees, old-fasl.-Cherokees, old-fasl.-Cherokees, 2,300; Catawbas, 240; Tuscaro- Tuscaro- ioned looms, spinning wheels, flax wluels. ras 100; (there being 201 women and chll dren in this tribe, which 50 years before had over 2,000 warriors); Mattamuskeets. 20. It is stated In North Carolina records that in 1760 the smallpox swept the Catawbas and left but a handful of the Indians. The Cherokees of the "Eastern Band," surviving surviving this disease, and many wars, from the only other Indian tribe now in the state living on a reservation in part of three counties. ' The writer paid a special visit this year to the Croatan country and took the first pictures ever made of them, the occasion being their greatest annual event, the closing closing exercises of the Normal school which the state has provided for the 'Instruction of their teachers. There are 80 students at this. These are of all types, the Indian tea. tures In many eases being pronounced, while In- In- others the complexion and figure s are Anglo-Saxon Anglo-Saxon Anglo-Saxon In every way. The eyes and the hair are' notable characteristics ef these people. Washington Lowery is the head man of the tribe, the exact-number exact-number exact-number of whlci, . t.000, there being 700 voters. Almost a 1 of these people own property, and son.e of them .raise as much as 75 bales of cotton, the tate has put them as i race apart, and they, have not oiS-their oiS-their oiS-their own normal, ool, but 2o pub.w schools, and have very recently bought a site to which the normal school is to t removed. Their main settlement used be known as "Scuffietown," this being a mere corruption of Scovilletown. The writer delivered the annual aJJrj before the Croatans at the closing of tr schools, music being furnished by t lie r own band, and there being 1.200 in the r. . dlence. The address was made ont-d.i.is ont-d.i.is ont-d.i.is under enormous pines, and from a as:;, and the Interest shown by the people , Intense, the moreTartlcularly as the wr;-.-had wr;-.-had wr;-.-had wr;-.-had wr;-.-had gone there almost directly ft..- ft..- . Roanoke Island, the original home of the . strange people. Swore "Blood Oath." - In conversation' with representat. i whites in that section the" latter fr-e fr-e fr-e v stated that no race could have kept l:s,ir purer than had the Croatans. so far as t: negroes were concerned, during the long anl dark period in their history from lMo' t.. 1868. or. Indeed, one might say until S7. It was in 1835 that the state convention took away from all colored persons (and it -. -. cry unjustly classed the Croatans as sucu right to vote. There were many free negroes negroes who' had voted, and the Croatans, . f course, had always done so. This action, of t'ne convention followed the insurrection e , the border or lrginla and North Curolli. which was led by Nat Turner, a slave In 1S68 the new state constituttonj;:tvo the Croatans the riRht to vote, but simp, ? in a general way, and it was not until iv.7 that the state set them apart as a race, g:v j them absolutely separate schools ami forbade forbade marriage with any one except r e r " own people. They are t"nus the states wards, and the only ones. The Cherokees. who are almost exactly the same In num. &c, and raise indigo, with whlCh they J a the very good fabrics they make. Their leaders gave what they sn.i was the true reason for the formation of a notorious band of outlaws 3S' ear s ago. When the Civil War began lien: y Lowery, a tribesman, wanted to e-nllst e-nllst e-nllst as a Confederate soldier, but was classed us a negro and taken to Wilmington to work on the forts. He resented this because his ancestors ancestors had fougnt in the War of the Kev.v lution. that of 1812, and that with Mexico, and so went home, where he was shot Lithe Lithe militia. Then his son, Henry Berry Lowery, swore a "blood oath" to avei.t.j his death, organised his gang and killed nil of his father's slayers except one S.