Germany

Berliners watching a C-54 land during Berlin Airlift, 1948

Berlin Airlift

The Western Allies organized the Berlin airlift (26 June 1948–30 September 1949) to carry supplies to the people of West Berlin, a difficult feat given the size of the city’s population. Aircrews from the United States Air Force, the Royal Air Force, the French Air Force, the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Australian Air …Read More

Lusitania

Sinking of the RMS Lusitania

Background When the British passenger liner RMS Lusitania set out on its final voyage on May 1, 1915, World War I had been raging for almost a year (though America was still neutral), and Germany had begun unrestricted submarine warfare around the British Isles. Still, despite a warning placed in newspapers by the German embassy …Read More

The West Berlin side of the Berlin Wall, 1989

Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. Constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany), starting on 13 August 1961, the Wall cut off (by land) West Berlin from virtually all of surrounding East Germany and East Berlin until government …Read More

Hungarian Jews at Auschwitz II–Birkenau concentration camp in Poland, May/June 1944

The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945. Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event which involved …Read More

Signing of the armistice with Germany

End of World War I

On November 11, 1918, German representatives met with Ferdinand Foch, the commander in chief of the Allied armies, in a railroad car northeast of Paris, France, to sign an armistice to end the fighting of World War I. Countries allied with Germany—Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire, and Austria—had already signed armistices with the Allied Powers between the end of …Read More