Northwest Arkansas Times from Fayetteville, Arkansas on October 13, 1974 · Page 37
Get access to this page with a Free Trial
Click to view larger version

Northwest Arkansas Times from Fayetteville, Arkansas · Page 37

Fayetteville, Arkansas
Issue Date:
Sunday, October 13, 1974
Page 37
Start Free Trial

Page 37 article text (OCR)

In Search Of The American Dream Northwest Arkansas TIMES, Sunday, Oct. 13. 1974 FAYETTCVILLE, ARKANSAS SA Settling North America With Britain's 'Undesirables' EDITOR'S NOTE: T h i s is the third of 18 articles exploring the theme, In Search of the American Dream. This article discusses the settling of America and the surprises encountered by colonists. The author is professor of history at Ihe University of California, Berkeley. By WINTHROP D. JORDAN Copryright, 1974, Regents of the University of California Distributed by Copley News Service When Englishmen first hegan to scent opportunity in America, they were told two contradictory "facts" about the new land. They were told, on the one hand, that it was a "desert," a "waste firmament." Tliey were told, at the same time, that "savages" l i v e d there. For Englishmen and Aifglo-Americans both state menu remained correct for centuries: America was b o t h empty (an opportunity) and filler! (with problems). America's apparent empti ness can be explained by considering English perspectives at that time, The native Indians were not numerous by Euro pean standards, especially hot in comparison to the enormous expanse of territory they lived in. What we would call a relatively low density of population, Englishmen were then perfectlj justified in perceiving as "few." More importantly, Englishmen thought the Indians had no "settled habitations." What we now know to have been eastern woodland Indian cultures which rested on a com hination of agriculture and hunting were perceived by English men as a thoroughly uncouth (i.e., un-English) sort of people who neither occupied the lane (properly) nor would stay put. INITIALLY, therefore, English men had no notion of exter minating the native peoples, nor iven of sweeping them aside; ivcn though people already ivcd in America, Englishmen houghl, such an immense land ad plenty of room for more. The warped perception that aused the English to see In- lians as unsettled wanderers vas in large measure a function if how they saw society at home. The severe, almost catastrophic dislocations which accompanied he English Reformation and ictiry VIII's fluctuating tempers had resulted in large num- ;crs of displaced persons. Thrown off the land onto Engish countryside and villages, hey became the "wandering The article on (his page is parf of Courses by Newspaper. It Is offered as a public service by this newspaper to present college-level courses through the community newspaper. The program has been hailed by the academic world and publishers across (he nation as one of t h e brightest advances In newspaper service to readers. beggars" to whom Hakluyt, the "trumpet" of American colon! zation, had referred in his "Dis course . Concerning Western Planting." Social dislocation and whai we would call "underemploy ment problems" persuadet many Englishmen that Englanc was overpopulated in genera and especially overpopulated by "undesirables." Given the as sumptions of the day, America was seen not as a dumping ground for these undesirable, (as Australia was to seem much later) but as an empty and fertile ground for the set 11 e m e n t , employment, am hence moral and social refor matipn of the offscourings o English society. AT THE SAME time, as thi Protestant Reformation took in creasing hold on English so :lety, certain religious fringe roups came to think of Amcri- a as a refuge from a -mounting ireal of persecution. They vcre not immune, any more lan Englishmen generally, to lie scent of opportunity which iy the early 1600s was so very much in the air. The various treams of attraction of-Ameria and propulsion from England vere thoroughly mixed. In retrospect, the early "great migration" (1020-1650) of the nglish to America is parti- ularly striking in terms of the lumber and variety of people and motivations involved. Rela- ive to the population of Eur- pe, probably more persons left Surope for the New World dur- ng those decades than at any ime before or since. The Engish went principally to three areas: the eastern Caribbean Barbados and the few small Leeward Islands), the Chesa- Jeake Bay (Virginia and Mary" a n d ) , a n d eastern N e w Ingland (the Massachusetts Bay and the Plymouth Colony). SOME WENT against their will, especially the Scots and Irish 'ictim-prisoners of the English Sivil Wars, who migrated to the West Indies. Many went for het ter fortunes and better times uch people probably pre dominated in the Chesapeake area and were certainly prevalent everywhere else. Some went in the hope of fulfilling the faitii we describe as rcli gious, and .while it would right to ascribe "religion" a! the predominating motive o those who came to New Eng land, it would be radically in correct to assign thereby a lac] of otherworldly faith to "t h o s e not fortunate enough to have joined God's special projec there. H o w e v e r sure variou breeds of Englishmen wer about God's intentions, the var ious English communities i America turned out to be diffe rent sorts of places. In the is 'PEACEABLE KINGDOM' BY EDWARD HICKS . portrays what the early settlers found--a land empty but also inhabited by savages Wins Scholarship Susan Russell of Springdale is the recipient of the Washington County Extension Homemakers Council scholarship. The scholarship carries 3 cash stipend of $400, and Susan is enrolled as a freshman in home economics at the Univeristy of Arkansas. A graduate of Springrtale High School, Susan plans to major in extension work. The recipient has been active in 4-H activities for the past seven years and will complete her association by scrying as president of the Springdale Community 4-H Club. Snsnn has earned many county and state awards. She was fne state home environment winner and county leadership winner in 1073 and look the lop county award in clothing this year. Lithuanian Seaman May Leave Russia The READER and/or STUDY GUIDE for "In Search of THE AMER ICAN DREAM" are available from your local bookseller or from 111 publisher. NEW AMERICAN LIBRARY, P.O. Box 999, BergenEield N.J. 07621. Include the list price 84.50 (Reader) amUor 82.50 (Study Guide), plus 25C p«r copy lo cover handling and mailing costs. Please send check or money order--no currency or C.O.D.'s. Please allow three weeks for delivery. THE NEW AMERICAN LIBRARY, INC. P.O. Box 999, Bergenfield, New Jersey 07621 Please send me copy/copies of IN SEARCH OF THE AMERICAN DREAM: READER (A Meridian Book, F421, S4.50 plus 255 postage and handling). Please send me copy/copies of IN SEARCH OF THE AMERICAN DREAM: STUDY GUIDE (A Meridian Book, F422, $2.50 plus 25C postage and handling' I am enclosing a total of $ Name ; Addreu. City- .State. _Zip_ Please allow three weeks for delivery. Supreme Court Backs Dumping Of Ore Wastes nds, sugar and the slave labor seemei' 'n require look over nosl totally. THE CHESAPEAKE settle- enls. with a diffuse popula- n, spilled all over Ihe eas- rn,. watered portions of the ca. After almost being wip- out by the native inhabitants, e colonists eventually suc- cded in establishing a popu- is but sparsely settled corn- unity in Virginia, devoid of al villages and devoted main- to staple agriculture. (They nled ''out mainly they farmed; onically they went, uninten- mally, part way toward re- oducing the Indian woodland Ituros their forebears had sliked.) Only in New England (and is development was to persisl r a very long time) did the nglish manage to reproduce the New World what they ought valuable, as a social ode, in the Old. The Pilgrims in -Plymouth nd the Puritans in Massachu- sells have long attracted alten- ion because they were so arti- culale aboul their own goals. Though the Puritans were a ·nuch larger, wealthier, and better educated group, they shared wilh the Pilgrims a powerful sense of mission. In England, their own low-church, modificd-Calvinist P r o l e s - tanlism seemed to be on Ihe defensive against the forces of the Crown, the closely allied Church of England, and, not least, the numerous legions of ungodliness. DETERMINED that their "true religion" and the Lord's will should prevail in the wilderness, they sel about lo e s t a b l i s h "Bible Commonwealths" where families, society, the polily, and the churches would all be harmoniously ordered according to God's word. All Ihis required inner discipline and inevitably (given their view of the essential nalure of man) outer discipline as well. They sternly punished lying, drunkenness, ornicalion and all Ihe myriad other sins to which men and women, and even children, seemed so wickedly inclined. They enforced orthodoxy and discipline in the churches; they harried out religious dissenters and went so far as to hang two Quakers. The Puritans were indeed pious, intolerant moralists, but they were not prudes. They punished sexual offenses but they were not in Lhe least surprised by them. They wore colorful clothing, suitable, of course, to their social stations. When Harvard College thought it necessary lo limit drinking at commencement, the authorities restricted degree-takers to three gallons of wine per man. WHETHER the Puritans succeeded or failed in their mission is a matter of definition and they were themselves ambivalent on the matter. Even as they railed at the prevalence of wickedness among them and at the decline of true piety, they I remained acutely conscious that! their society and churches were superior to England's. While they were keenly aware of men's tendency to disperse to new, empty lands, they prided themselves on Iheir regulaled pattern of settlement, ordered town by ordered town. They were, indeed, the most realist of Utopians. They expected to establish a New Israel in the wilderness, and they demanded godly thoughts and behavior of its members; at the same time they knew that Adam's fall from grace meant that men were inherently and perversely wicked. People who demand perfection yet do not expect to achieve it are inevitably condemned to ambivalence about the results. THERE WERE other such experiments in America, but with major differences. The most notable and undeniably successful was Pennsylvania. There William Penn and h i s I fellow Quakers (whom the Puritans haled, partly because they had so much in common) deliberately founded a colony t h a t would welcome a l l varieties of Proleslants. The idea was a relatively new one, but it led quite directly, as things turned out, -to populousness and prosperity even beyond the dreams of the founders. It led also to an even greater novelty-ethnic diversity, a development of such critical importance in all the colonies that it deserves separate attention in another lecture. Courses by Newspaper was developed by UCSD Extension and funded by grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, with a supplementary grant from tha EXXON Education Foundation. Next: New Societies, by Winthrop D. Jordan, professor of history, University of California, Berkeley. WASHINGTON Supreme Court, apply again for reinslatement the federal appeals court in St. j Louis, Mo., has not made a f i - | rial ruling on the health-hazard question by Jan. 31. The slates of Minnesota, Michigan and Wisconsin and the federal Environmental Protection Agency have been seek- in gto compel the Reserve Min(AP) -- The ing Co. lo slop discharging with Juslice wasles from its Silver Ba y, iron ore plant into Ihe lake. William O. Douglas in strong dissent, has refused to reinstate a district court order barring a r U.S. District _Juclge ( Miles W. mining firm from dumping allegedly hazardous wastes.i n t o Lake Superior. Lord 'ruled in the officials' favor, saying evidence showed that the wastes contained as- WASHINGTON (AP) - A Lithuanian seaman who sought j D e p a r t m e n t n a s de . asylum on a U.S. Coast Guard lcrmjned t h a t H K udirka has a bcstos fibers which can produce .lung cancer and other diseases. In a decision announced Fn- He said the fibers had shown day, four of the nine justices ; u p j n substantial quantities in said the state and federal offi-i^g drinking water of Duhilh, cials who brought the suit could'Minn., and the discharges I posed a danger to other communities as well, dirka and his wife will apply Mnnday for exit visas for them-1 The appeals court set aside selves, their two children and I Lord's order, saying a health his mother. jha/ard had not been proved ;and "unknowns may not be substituted for proof of a dem- eutler four years ago, only to be dragged back to his ship and imprisoned for treason, now is being permitted to leave the Soa congressman viet Union, says. Rep. Thomas E. Morgan, D- Pa., chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Commitete, said State Department officials told him Friday that Simas Ku- valid claim to American citizenship through his mother, a U.S. citizen living in Lithuania, Morgan said. Kudirka jumped ship in international waters off Massachusetts in 1970 but was handed back to his captain. He was released from prison earlier this year. onstrable hazard to the public health." The TIMES Is On Top of The News Seven Days a Week I Personal Productivity Sparks Expansion! Arkansas workers have a track record of productivity. Plant managers across the state are able to expand their operations because of low-cost per unit production. This permits Arkansas products to compete in national and international markets. It's our productivity that helps protect present jobs and create new ones through expansion. '· Stand Up For YOUR Arkansas JUST LIKE THE MANAGEMENT AND STAFF OF mcllROYBflflK SERVING N.W. AkKANSAS FOR OVER 100 YEARS Fayetteville Chamber of Commerce Arkansas Best Corp. Arkansas Press Association President FRANK ROBINS, III Arkansas State Chamber of Commerce President H. I. HEMBREE Arkansas Industrial Development Commission Chairman: CASS S. HOUGH

Get full access with a Free Trial

Start Free Trial

What members have found on this page