Northwest Arkansas Times from Fayetteville, Arkansas on October 13, 1974 · Page 5
Get access to this page with a Free Trial
Click to view larger version

Northwest Arkansas Times from Fayetteville, Arkansas · Page 5

Fayetteville, Arkansas
Issue Date:
Sunday, October 13, 1974
Page 5
Start Free Trial

Page 5 article text (OCR)

In Search Of The American Dream Northwest Arkansas TIMES, Sunday, Oct. 13, 1974 · FAYETTEVILLE, ARKANSAS 5A Settling North America Wit/i Britain's 'Undesirabtesi EDITOn'S NOTE: T li i « fai llio third ot 18 iirllcles u.xnlorltiK the llieinc, In Search of llic Aincricnn Dream. Tills article discusses Iho seUlitii! of America and llic surprises encountered by colonists. The author is professor of history nt the University ot California. Berkeley. By WINTIIKOP I). JORDAN Copryrighl, 1974, Regents of the University of C n l l f o r m n Distributed by Copley News Service When Englishmen first began to scent, opportunity in America, they were told two contradictory "tacts" about the new land. They were told, on the one hand, that it was a "desert," a "waste firmament." Tliey were told, at the same time, that "savages" l i v e d there. For Englishmen and Anglo-Americans both state ments remained correct for centuries: America was b o t h empty (an opportunity) and filled (with problems). America's apparent empti ness can be explained by consi dering English perspectives n that time. The native Indians were not numerous by Euro pean standards, especially noi in comparison to the enormou expanse of territory they lived in. What we would call a rela lively low density of population Englishmen were then perfectly justified in perceiving as "few.' More importantly, Englishmen thought the Indians had n "settled habitations." What we now know to have been eastern woodland Indian cultures which rested on a com bination of agriculture and hunt ing were perceived by English men as a thoroughly uncout (i.e., un-English) sort ot peopl who neither occupied the lam (properly) nor would stay put. INITIALLY, therefore, English men had no notion ot exter minating the native peoples, no veil of sweephrg them aside; vcn though people already [veil It) America, Englishmen loughl, such an immense land ud plenty of room tor more. The warped perception that auscd the English to sec In- inns as unsettled wanderers vas in large measure a function f how they saw society at home, 'ho severe, almost catastrophic islocalions which accompanied he English Reformation and Icnry VIII's fluctuating temp- is had resulted In largo num- ·ers of displaced persons Thrown off the land onto Eng isli countryside and villages, hc-y became the "wandering The article on this page Is part of Courses by Newspaper. It Is offered as a public service by this newspaper to present college-level courses through the community newspaper. The program has been halleil by the academic world and publishers across the nation as one of · t h e brightest advances in newspaper service to readers. beggars" to whom Hakluyt, the "trumpet" ot American coloni zation, had referred in his "Dis course Concerning Western Planting." Social dislocation and wha we would call "underemploy ment problems" persuadec many Englishmen that Englan was overpopulated in genera and especially overpopulated by "undesirables." Given the as sumptions of the day, Amend was seen not as a dumpini ground for these undesirable (as Australia was to seem much later) but as an empt; and fertile ground for the sel 11 e m e n t . employment, an hence moral and social refor 'niatipn of the offscourings o English society. AT THE SAME time, as th Protestant Reformation took in creasing hold on English s ularly striking in terms of the umber and variety of people and motivations involved. Rela- ive to the population of Eur- pe, probably more persons left Europe for the New World dur- ng those decades than at any ime before or since. The Engish went principally to three areas: the eastern Caribbean Barbados and the few small Leeward Islands), the Chesa- leake Bay (Virginia and Mary- lety, certain religious fringe roups came to think of Amcri- i as a refuge from a m o u n t i n g ircal of persecution, 'ore nol immune, any They mil Englishmen generally, to 10 scent ot opportunity which y the early IGOOs was so very much In the air. The various treams ot attraction of Amcri- a and propulsion from England 'ere thoroughly mixed. In retrospect, the early "great ligralion" English to (l(i20-lG50) of the America Is parti- adds, sugar and the slave labor ,1 seemed 'i require took over almost totally. THE C H U S A P K A K K settlements, with a d i f f u s e population, spilled al! over the eastern, watered portions of the area. After almost beinf' wiped out by the native inhabitants, the colonists eventually succeeded in establishing a populous but sparsely settled community in Virginia, devoid of real villages and devoted m a i n - ly to staple agriculture. (They hunted 'but mainly they f a r m e d ; ironically they went, unintentionally, part way toward reproducing the Indian woodland cultures their forebears had disliked.) Only -in New England (anc this development was to pcrsis cits have long attracted atlen- ion because they were so arti- ulate about their own goals. Though the Puritans ' were a nuch larger, wealthier, and etlcr educated group, they a n d ) , England and (the eastern New Massachusetts for a very long time) did the Bay and the Plymouth Colony). SOME WENT against their will, especially the Scots and Irish, victim-prisoners of the English livil Wars, who migrated to the West Indies. Many went tor bel- :er fortunes and better times: such people probably predominated in the Chesapeake area and were certainly prevalent everywhere else. Some went in the hope of fulfilling the faith we describe as religious, and while it would be right to ascribe "religion" as the predominating motive ot those who came to New England, it would be radically incorrect to assign therebv a lack of otherworldly faith to't h o s e not fortunate enough to have joined God's special project there. H o w e v e r sure various breeds of Englishmen were about God's intentions, the various English convmunities in America turned out to be different sorts of places. In the is- English manage to reproduce in the New World what the thought, valuable, as a soeia ·mode, in the Old. The Pilgrims in Plymoutl and the Puritans in Massachu- shared with the Pilgrims a jowerful sense of mission. In England, their own low-church, nodificd-Calvinist P r o l e s - tantism seemed to be on the defensive against the forces of .he Crown, the closely allied Church ot England^ and, not east, the numerous legions ot ungodliness. DETERMINED that their "true religion" and the Lord's will should prevail in the wilderness, they set about to e s t a b l i s h "Bible Commonwealths" society, the where polity, families, and the mulshed lying, drunkenness, ornicalion nnd all the myriad other sins lo which men and vomcn, and even children, seemed so wickedly inclined: They enforced orthodoxy and Jisciplinc in the churches; they harried out religious dissenters ;ind went so f a r as lo hang ;wo Quakers. The Puritans were indeed pious, itilolcrani moralists, but they were nol prudes. They punished sexual offenses but Ihey were not in the leasl surprised by Ihem. They wore colorful . clolhlng, suitable, of course, lo Ihcir social stalions. When Harvard College thought it necessary to limit drinking al commence- menl, Ihe aulhorities restriclec degree-lakers to three , gallons of wine per man. churches would all be harmoniously ordered according to God's word. All this required inner discipline and inevitably (given their view of the essential nature of man) outer discipline as well. They sternly at the decline of true piety, they [follow Quakers (whom' t|ia ' acutely conscious that] Puritans hated, partly becauaa ........ ' -' ------ ¥ -- · ..... -" WHETHER succeeded or the failed Puritans in theii mission is a matter of definition and they were themselves ambivalent on the matter. Even as they railed at the prevalence of wickedness among them ant hey had so much in qommoji) deliberately founded a colony t h ' a t would welcome' ill varieties of Protestants. : ij; The idea was a relatively: new one, but it led quite directly, is things 'turned populousness and out, -.'to prosperity .heir society and churches were superior to England's. While they were keenly aware of men's tendency to disperse ,01 new, empty lands, they prided themselves pn their regulated pattern of settlement, ordered town by ordered town. They were, indeed, the most realist of 'Utopians. They expected to establish a New Israel in the wilderness, and they demanded godly thoughts and behavior of its members; at the same time Ihey knew that Adam's fall from grace meant that men were inherently anc perversely wicked. People whc demand perfection yet do not expect to achieve it are inevi lably condemned to ambivalence about the results. ', THERE WERE other such experiments in America, .but with m a j o r , differences. The [ m Ncxl: New^ Societies^ by most notable ,and undeniably "" " " T '~~ 2ven beyond the dreams of the foundecs.-It.Jed also to an even greater novelty-ethnic diversity, a development of such critical importance in all the colonies that it deserves'separate attention in another.lecture. Courses by Newspaper · was developed by UCSD Extension and funded by grants from the National, Endp\yment , for ,tha Humanities, with . a supplementary grant front the EXXON Education Foundation. successful was Pennsylvania There William Penn and h i s Winthrop D. Jordan,'professor of history, University of fomia, Berkeley. Cali- Personal Productivity Sparks Expansions 'PEACEABLE KINGDOM' BY EDWARD HICKS ... portrays what the early settlers jound--a land empty but also inhabited by savages Wins Scholarship Susan Russell of Springdalc is the recipient of (he Washington County Extension Homcmakers Council scholarship. The scholarship carries a cash stipend of $400, and Susan is enrolled as a freshman in home economics al the Unlveristy of Arkansas. A graduate of Sprlngdale High School, Susan plans to major in extension work. ' The rcciplenl hag been active In 4-H activities for the past seven years and will complete her association by serving ns president of the Springdale Community ·f-H Club. Susan has earned many county and slnlo awards. She was the state home environment winner and county leadership w i n n e r In 197.Vaml look he top county nwnril In clothing this year. . Lithuanian Seaman May Leave Russia WASHINGTON (AP) -- A Lithuanian seaman who sough iihylum on a U.S. Coast Guan culler four years ago, only li he draygcd back to his ship am imprisoned tor treason, now i being permitted lo leave the So vlel Union, a congressinn- snys. Rep. Thomas E. Morgnn, D Pa., c h n f r m n n of Iho Ilous Foreign A l f a l r H Commltotc laid Slnlc Department o f f i c l n l told him Friday Unit Slmns Ki The READER and/or STUDY GUIDE tor "In Search ot THE AMERICAN DREAM" are available from your locat bookseller or from the publisher, NEW AMERICAN LIBRARY. P.O. Box 999, Bergenfield, N.J. 07621. Include Ihe list price 34.50 (Reader) and/or S2.50 (Study Guide), plus 2SC p«r copy to cover handling and mailing costs. Please send check or money order--no currency or C.O.D.'s. Please allow Ihree weeks for delivery. THE NEW AMERICAN LIBRARY, INC. P.O. Box 999, Bergenfield, New Jersey 07621 Please send me copy/copies of IN SEARCH OF THE AMERICAN DREAM: READER (A Meridian Book, F42I,54,50 plus 25C postage and handling). Please send me copy/copies of IN SEARCH OF THE AMERICAN DREAM: STUDY GUIDE (A Meridian Book. F422, S2.50 plus 25C postage and handling' . I am enclosing a lotal of $ Name Address. City- -Slate- _Zip_ Please allow three weeks for delivery. Supreme Court Backs Dumping Of Ore Wastes apply again for reinstatement if the federal appeals court in St. Louis. Mo., has not made a f i - j nal ruling on the health-hazard question by Jan. 31. The states of Minnesota, Michigan and Wisconsin and the federal Environmental Protection Agency have been seek- in gto compel the Reserve Min- WASH1NGTON AP) -- The ing Co. to slop discharging Supreme Court, with Justice wastes from its Silver Ba y, William 0. Douglas in strong MTM- iron ore plant into the dissent, has refused to reinstate a district court order barring a mining firm trom dumping allegedly hazardous wastes i n t o U.S. District Judge Miles W. Lord ruled in the officials' favor, saying evidence showed that the wastes contained as- Lake Superior. bcstos fibers which can produce lung cancer and other diseases. In a decision announced I'ri-.][ c sn j,] t nc fj|, e r s had shown day, four of Ihc nine justices u p j n substantial quantities in said the stale and federal o f f i - l { ] i e ( j r j n k i n g water of Diilulh, cials who brought Ihe suit could d i r k n and his wife will apply Mnmlny for exil visas for themselves, their two children and his mother. The Slate Department has determined that Kucllrkn has a vnllri claim to American citizenship IhNMigh his mother, a U.S. clllzcn living In Lithuania, Morgnn said. K u d l r k n jumped ship In Inler- nallonal walcrs off Massachusetts In 1970 bul was hnmlccl hack to his captain, He was re leased from prison earlier this year. Minn., and Ihe discharges posed a danger lo other communities as well. The appeals courl sel aside Lord's order, saying a health hazard had nol been proved and "unknowns may not be substituted for proof ot n demonstrable hazard to the public health." The TIMES Is On Top of The News S*ven Dayi a Wsekl Arkansas workers have a track record of productivity. Plant managers across. . the state are able to expand their operations because of low-cost per unit production. This permits Arkansas products to compete in national and international markets. It's pur productivity that helps protect present jobs and create new ones;'·' through expansion. Stand Up For YOUR Arkansas JUST LIKE THE MANAGEMENT AND STAFF OF GYBAHK SERVING N.W. ARKANSAS FOR OVER 100 YEARS Foyetteville Chamber of Commerce Arkansas Press Association Presicionl: FRANK ROBINS, III Arkansas State Chamber of Commerce Pfesidenl: H.L.HEMBREE Arkansas Best Corp. Arkansas Industrial Development Commission Chairman: CASSS. HOUGH . . . ,

Get full access with a Free Trial

Start Free Trial

What members have found on this page