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In Search Of The American Dream V The Voyages Of Northwest Arkansas TIMES, Sunday, Oct. 6, 1974 FAYKTTKVILLI, ARKANSAS 5A Editor's Note: This is ttio second of 18 articles exploring the theme. In Search of the American Dream. Entitled "Voyaging," this article is the first of a three-part discussion of the general subject of The New World as Utopia. The author of this article is professor of history at the University of California. Berkeley. Â·Light A Torch. On The Horizon *j : , " \ By W1NTHROP D. JOKDAN Copyright, 1SI74, llcgonls of The University of California Distributed by Copley News Service Â· It requires effort to realize what a powerful impact the voyages of Columbus had upon the European imagination. By comparison, it could be argued, recent landings on the moon have been of no very great Importance and Indeed are merely one more extension of the historic process begun by Columbus. Shortly after his discoveries. !t became clear that America was not China and the "Indians" not natives of the sought-for Indies. Europeans thus confronted a world that was truly new. It was precisely colonization. Some men did tcstantlsm. Yet clearly what both. Sir Humphrey Gilbert, for ~ The arlcle oil tliis page is part of Courses by Newspaper. It Is offered as a public service by this newspaper to present college-level courses through (he community newspaper, The program has been hailed by the academic world and publishers across the nation as one of t h e brightest advances in newspaper service to readers. example, not only wrote the first promotional tract (1576) but himself led two expeditions. It proved easier to advocate colonization than to achieve it. His'first voyage never reached America; the second did, ihut Sir Humphrey was lost at sea on the way back. He was last seen seated in the stern-shcel.'i of a ten-ton fishing smack, reading (of all things) a copy of More's "Utopia." THE GREATEST English publicist of American settlement was Richard Hakluyt (the Younger). Known as Preacher Hakluyt, .he was a successful preacher of divinity; more effectively still, though. he preached to the entire literate English nation the .importance and indeed necessity of English planting in the New World. Today it still is possible to sense (he stirring impact of his glorification of the cause. (As was once said of him, "Master Hak- uyt hath served for a very good rumpet.") At the behest of Gilbert's lialf-brolher. Sir Walter ialeigh, he addressed a tract to Queen Elizabeth, commonly called "A Discourse Concerning W e s t e r n Planting" (1584), the newness of the New World which stimulated Sir. Thomas More, in the 10th Century, to write "Utopia." In this book about an ideal country, More used the unspoiled novelty of the new lands as a foil for exposing the stale failures of the Old World. Sir Thomas' fellow Englishmen were late in- taking so great an interest in the lands beyond the Atlantic. Had' it not been for voyages in the 1490s by John and Sebastian Cabot, t w o Italian-born mariners somewhat offhandedly supported by Henry VII, England might not have been- able to lay claim among the Christian nations to original discovery and therefore settlement. As it was, England was just beginning to recover from a period of civil strife. THE COUNTRY was headed for wracking political, religious, and social changes, which seemed at times to turn on the tortuous marital difficulties pi Henry VIII. It was not u n t i l three generations had passed that Englishmen began to take an active interest in exploiting the claim established by the Cabot voyages. : Rather suddenly, in the 1670s, a number of gentlemen-adventurers became interested in the New World. It was not merely a matter of mounting a voyage to America or of actually going there (which some of - t h e m did); it was above all necessary to rouse the English nation or (as we would now say) to advertise the desirability of commodities the Indians which set forth the case for settlement as a national program. Hakluyt's "Discourse" was a persuasive "collection of cer- .ain reasons to induce her Majesty and the state to take in hand the western voyage and the planting there." Some reasons were economic: " c h e a p p n m n n n r l i l i n . . " m igl,t g e SOld tO and particularly might a market be found for English woolens. Some reasons looked as much to social as to financial advantage: unemployed mariners, returning war veterans, and "the fry ol the wandering beggars of England, that grow up idly", mighl in America toe put to gainfu' employments. A POINT not to be neglected was that "we shall be planting there enlarge the glory of the gospel, and from England plant sincere religion" -- by which Hakluyt meant, naturally, Pro most animated his "Discourse" vas Ihikluvt's fear that all these idvantages might accrue not to ho English nation but to some- ane else. As he eloquently phrased the matter, "This enterprise may stay the Spanish king from flow- ng over all the face of that vaste firmament of America, f we scat and plant there in time." It was a bold suggestion; this was before he defeat of the Armada and Hakluyt was urging the Dnglish nation to take on the vorld's super -power. Opposition o Spain wrapped national pride, financial gain, and reli- _ious f a i t h into a single glorious enterprise. As Hakluyt put the matter, planting in America vould enable the English "to spoil Philip's navy, and to derive him of yearly passage of lis treasure to Europe, and consequently to abate tbe pride ot Spain and of the supporter of ;he great Antichrist of Rome." The New World would be the "ulcrum by which England would raise Itself to greatness in the Old. THUS IT IS clear that European perceptions of America were from the beginning very much shaped by European national rivalries. querors the primary issue was ;old. Although the Spanish claimed i monopoly .on the entire New World, in fact they effectively controlled those accessible portions of South and Central America where precious metals verc readily available. Englishmen, enormously frustrated, by his fact, of necessity focused their attention elsewhere in America. Â·.'Â·'Â·'. .'. . IT TOOK the English a long ime to realize that they were not going to find much gold themselves and even longer to appreciate that they had not been shunted into the less desirable parts of the New World. Sir Walter Raleigh was so Jrmly convinced that the gilded city ofÂ·' "El Dorado" actually existed In South. America that mounted : a disastrous al;empt ; to found an ! English colony in Guiana. Another Elizabethan adventurer m a d e three voyages in the 1570s in search of the supposed North west Passage to the orient; he became so diverted by his discovery of "gold" that he hauled several hundred tons ot ore aack to London. Upon .assay, however, the ore proved to contain only fool's gold (iron pyrites), and for several decades the ore lay heaped just inside the gates of Ihe Tower of London, entirely blocking the way. Even as late as 1607 the first settlers at Jamestown, Virginia, went searching for g o 1 d while the tiny settlement nearly starved out of existence. Gradually Englishmen came to realize that their portion of the .New World could ' produce other forms of wealth. T h e fisheries yielded the first genuine profits. Pulling fish from the North Atlantic, ono of t h e world's great fishing grounds, was scarcely a glamorous business for gentlemen-adventurers. BUT'THE fisheries came to be greatly appreciated, both as nurseries for seamen and as a supply of food and of trade, to other nations. The forests, another great natural resource of the northern parts. of the New World, soon were equally appreciated as a boon to England's national defense and economic self-sufficiency. The northern forests yielded masts, spars, and other stores (or the backbone' of national power, the navy. These same forests were teeming with fur- bearing animals. Furs were greatly in demand in Europe, and for nearly two centuries the fur trade was a central concern in England's diplomatic relations with the native nations of America. What Englishmen -did not a p p r e c i a t e initially about America was: that in the long run, truly enormous wealth could be derived from certain agricultural staples which could be cultivated there.' The most important staple proved to be sugar, a product which turned he little islands of. the Caribbean into by far the most pro- itable part of the Old British Empire.. Another was tobacco, Englishmen in Virginia were soon able to prove, despite many assertions, to the contrary, that it was indeed possible to "found an empire upon smoke." Other products proved disappointing. OPERATING upon the age- old geographical supposition that similar latitudes necessarily had similar climates, countless attempts were made to cultivate such products as silk, wines, and citrus fruits, all of them pronounced failures. .Much of the labor, for these enterprises came from Englishmen who were lacking opportunities at home.- A very sizable proportion of English settlers came to America as ."indentured servants," having sold their labor for a period of years to a master In exchange for their ocean passage. By thus a l l e v i a t i n g some of the pressures of population within England, the colonies further contributed, as Hakluyt had predicted, to her social and economic welfare. H look experience and experimentation, but gradually Englishmen in America were able to realize the hope that the New World would give forth wealth to the Old. Wealth meant power a n d national greatness. America came to nurture the island nation. Richard Hakluyt had been absolutely right. Courses 'by Newspaper was developed by UCSD Extension and funded by grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, with a supplementary grant from the E X X O N Education Foundation. Next: Settling, by Winthrop D. Jordan, professor of history. University of California, Berkeley. To each nation the advantages of the New World were enhanced by the knowledge thai others were eyeing them. Interest in America was in reality the beginning of nearly five hundred years of European exploitation of the peoples - and natural resources of : the remainder of the globe. ' The Spanish had begun such exploitation of the New World nearly a century before the English. Not all Spaniards had been motivated by the lust for treasure which drove Cprtez and so many of his followers. Some came to save souls and, as they conceived it, to better the lot of their Indian subjects; Vasco de Quiroga, first bishop of Michoacan, successfully organized two Indian villages on the principles laid down in Thomas More's "Utopia." But such Utopian ventures were exceptional, and for the Spanish con- The READER and/or STUDY GUIDE for "In Search of THE AMERICAN DREAM" are available from your local bookseller or from tho publisher, NEW AMERICAN LIBRARY, P.O. Box 999, Bergenlield, N.J. 07621. Include the list price 84.50 (Reader) and/or S2.SO (Study Guide), plus 25C per copy to cover handling and mailing cosls. Please send check or money order--no currency or C.O.D.'y. Please allow three weeks for delivery. THE NEW AMERICAN LIBRARY, IMC. P.O. Box 999, Bergenlield, New Jersey 07621 Please send me copy/copies of IN SEARCH OF THE AMERICAN DREAM: READER (A Meridian Book, F421, $4.50 plus25e postage and handling). Please send me copy/copies of IN SEARCH OF THE AMERICAN DREAM: STUDY GUIDE (A Meridian Book,F422, J2.50 plus 25s postage nod handling). I am enclosing a total of T Name ,,_. __--TM-^_ Address. City- S tate L___Zip_ Please aliow three weeks for delivery. DISCOVERY OF THE NEW WORLD ... drawing, courtesy of the Bettmm Archive, depicts Columbus' landing Oct. 12, 1492 Dominicans Refuse To Negotiate SANTO DOMINGO, Dominican Republic (AP) - The Dominican government is demanding the unconditional surrender of terrorists holding seven hostages in the Venezuelan consulate. "There have been and will be no negotiations," the government said Friday in its first public statement since the siege began Sept. 27. Gen. Rafael Guzman Acosta, head of the National Police, told newsmen: "The only solution Is that they turn themselves over lo authorities to face Dominican justice and that they do no harm to any of the hostages." .The hostages include U.S. Information Service official Barbara Hutchison and the Venezuelan consul and vice-consul. Earlier Friday, terrorist lead Â«r Radames Mendez Vargas met briely with American Ambassador Robert A. Hurwitch and the Spanish and Venezuelan envoys and told them the hostages were in bad shape. Killed In Crash ARKADELPHIA, Ark. (AP) -- State Police said Robert Edward Boswell, 20, of Bismarck was killed early tod,ay when he lost control of his car while traveling at a high rale of speed. The accident occurred on U.S. 67 near Friendship in Hoi Spring County. Trooper Ron Ball said Boswell's car went out of control on fresh gravel, slid sideways and rolled over several times on its side. The vehicle then tumbled down a sleep embankment and landed in a creek bed. But a spokesman for Hur witch said Mendez Vargas' re port was evidently only a ploy to draw the Dominican govern ment into negotiations. Contacts with the terrorists were suspended by the Dominican government last Tuesday ivhen Mendez Vargas said his demands for $1 million and release of 37 political prisoners were non-negotiable. On Thursday, the terrorist chieftain dropped the money demand and said he would free the hostages in exchange for safe conduct to Mexico or Peru for the kidnapers and several of the 37 prisoners. The TIMES Is On Top of The News Seven Days a Week) Foreign Trade Zone: We Are First On The Inland Waterways In The U.S. i*.,wr~-,v i -j~ __ Â» 'The Foreign Trade Zone at the Port of Little Rock links manufacturers to 15,000 . miles of Inland Waterways. Raw materials are brought into the Trade Zone for . Â·Â·Â· processing; manufacturers do not pay tariff on finished goods until they enter the United States markets. The closeness of our waterway . transportation to a major airport, two : ' . interstate highways and ; mainline railroads is truly Cinique. This.multi-modal : y V transportatioasystem is creating new distribution center interest across our ' entire state of Arkansas. . Stand UD For YOUR Arkansas JUST LIKE THE MANAGEMENT AND STAFF OF SERVING NORTHWEST ARKANSAS FOR OVER 100 YEARS FAYETTEVILLE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE ARKANSAS BEST CORP. Arkansas Press Association Â·- Arkansas State Chamber of Commerce Â· Arkansas Industrial Development Commission President: FRANKROBINS. Ill Â· President H. L HEMBREE '. Â· Chairman:CASS S. HOUGH . . .