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Editorial-Opinion Page The Public Interest Is The First Concern Of This Newspaper 4 Â· MONDAY, AUGUST 5, 1974 Misses Jordan, Holtzman To The Fore Honest John Explains... Â· John D. Ehrlichman, President Nixon's former chief adviser on domestic affairs, has been sentenced to prison -- 20 months to five years -- for his role in the Ellsberg and Watergate affairs. Judge Gerhard Gesell pronounced sentence, stiffer than many had expected, after Ehrlichman had been found guilty on three counts of coverup and conspiring to violate another's civil rights. ,-' Ehrlichman, righteously indignant to the last, professes total innocence. Asked if he had a statement, prior to sentencing, Ehrlichman responded: "May it-please the court, I am the only one in the room who really knows whether I am guilty or not guilty of the charges against me. Your Hon-. or, I am innocent of each and every one of the charges in this case." '. Judge Gesell placed Honest John's point of view in perspective by adding that in view of the fact that Ehrlicbman had held one of the highest positions of public trust in the nation at the time of the. misdeeds, he Â· is obliged to bear "the major responsibility for this shameful episode in the history of our country." '.. What makes this exchange rather more notable than mere judge and miscreant is the fact that EhrlSchmari clearly DOES believe in his innocence. He, unlike Charley Colson or Jim McCord, doesn't see ANY error in his ways, and -- we are left with the conviction -- if he had the chance, he'd DO IT again. Ehrlichman explains it. this way: "People who are in government are constantly required to balance the rights of an individual against the larger rights of the na- tion as a whole ... there is a balance of that kind in this case." Sadly for the nation, Ehrlichman's is a dangerously distorted reading of the American system of government and its Constitution. Conversely to the Ehrlichman dogma, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights in particular, are designed to protect the individual from too great an emphasis on the claims of society. It was to free themselves of tyranny of the larger rights of society (a fitting description of communism and authoritarian governments of all sorts) that the American revolutionists fired their muskets at Lexington. Individual rights ARE the unique quality of the American experiment. All too obviously, a lack of appreciation for this fundamental fact pervades the entire Watergate "scenario." Ehrlichman unquestionably feels himself to be innocent of any wrongdoing, which makes .his doing wrong all the more frightening in its implications for the future, it seems to us. If'anything in the Watergate affair to date demands .that keener attention be given to the precepts of the Constitution, by Congress and the courts as well as the public, it is the credence given the notion.that an individual's rights must give way to big brother -- an argument that, ominously, is gaining currency in the ongoing defense against impeachment of the President. An article of impeachment that the House should consider is wrapped up in Ehrlichman's defense. The Nixon people honestly did try to subvert the political philosophy of our nation. Repression In Korea (II) (EDITOR'S NOTE -- The following is the second of a two- part report on conditions in .South Korea by Robert B. Let- Jar of Fayetteville, who has recently completed graduate study, in Japan on a Rotary International Fellowship grant sponsored by the local organization.) By ROBERT B. LEFLAR HONG KONG (July 16, 1374) -- Although the South Korean government of President Park Chung Hee has been roundly criticized for its ruthless suppression of domestic dissent, it has attracted international attention for its "economic miracle" of the past decade. But economic growth is not - achieved without social costs. Since South Korea is relatively poor in natural resources. to gain the foreign exchange needed for oil and other -overseas purchases, the country relics on its abundant labor. Pres. Park has been luring American, and recently Japanese, firms into special "free export zones" which offer tax exemptions, cheap labor in abundance, and a guaranteed absence of not only strikes but labor unions as well. This arrangement is fine for the foreign enterprises, but not so enjoyable for the Korean workers, of whom over 75 per cent are young girls. When I visited Masan Free Export , Zone, high school age girls in an electronic components factory were doing the same simple hand motion every two seconds, 30 times a minute, 60 minutes an hour, eight hours. a day, six days a week. Their pay: $50 -- a month. And this was one of the better, factories. Wages in Masan are said to range as low as $10 for a 70- hour work week (fourteen cents an hour); cases of workers being raped and beaten by foreign managers are reported to Billy Graham's Answer .**',,, . J '.- Sleeplessness is my problem. Â· Perhaps I'm not living right or taking enough medicine. What about sleeping pills? Are they .wrong for the Christian? D.E. Â·- Apparently, chronic insomnia "is one of America's besetting problems. The pace of life, one's diet, physical surroundings, the disposition toward Iworry -- all of these are factors in sleeplessness. " If we are to judge, however, by the results of recent research, sleeping pills may only make matters worse. A team of Pennsylvania sleep researchers found that continued use of barbituates only pro. duced more disturbed sleep .patterns. A report in the Journal of the American Medical Association said that drug users had as much or even more difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep as did the non-users. The Psalmist said (Psalm 3), "Lord you are my only hope . . .1 cried out to the Lord, and he heard me...then I lay down and slept in peace." I feel that if you commit your life to Christ, practice His presence, talk often to Him in prayer, read the Scripture regularly, and then maintain a habit of life that is regulated, you'll find sleeping easier. Would you enlighten me as to where God came from. A group of adult friends of mine argue that God came from evolution. I can't find a Biblical answer anywhere. A.L. The Bbile uses simple words to describe the origin of God. Take Psalms 90 for example: "Lord...before the mountains were created, before the earth was formed, you are God without beginning or end." Some might call that evasive. I think rather it is a statement of fact which our finite minds can grasp. Certainly it is more acceptable than the monstrosities of pagan thought. They'll Do It Every Time snuerA AN' LUCKTJA'S IPEAOFA VACATION SPOT IS THE WAYWARP /HOME. MT. ROOSTER L006 HAS CONFIRMS? MY .VACATION RESERVATION! WHEN SHE WAS MAMS FUHS, OH/NO .THAT'S AM AWFUL RACE-HO fW AT ALL? OUST A' LOT Of 010 / WKfl THE FOOCMS TERRIBLE: ALAN HALE OWE4T44-TM HfNVXX, N.V. By CLAYTON FRITCHEY W A S H I N G T O N -- While Women's Lib has had its ups ' and downs this year, the cause of feminine recognition in the political field has surely been dramatically advanced by the impressive performance of the only two women on the House Judiciary Committee, which just concluded its historic impeachment hearings. Even though they are merely in their first terms, Barbara Jordan (D-Texas) and Elizabeth Hollzman (D-N.Y.) had already gained the respect of their male colleagues, but it took national television to show the American public just how effective congresswomen can be when they are given the right opportunity. Since the Judiciary Committee is so powerful and prestigious, it is remarkable that its m e m b e r s h i p includes atw women at all (it never used to), let alone two who are such newcomers. It is the best-educated committee ot the House, since all the members are lawyers as well as college gra- .duates. Yet even in this fast company, Miss Jordan and Miss Holtzman distinguished themselves. Millions of citizens must have improved their knowledge of the Constitution by listening to State of Affairs be numerous -- and unionizing . of the girls to end these abuses is forbidden. Here the Church steps into the'picture. American missionaries and Korean church people, both .Protestant and Catholic, are attempting to carry the "social gospel" to the factories and slums, encouraging the workers and slum residents to organize for better working conditions and wages and teaching them to perceive the injustices surrounding them. Apparently this kind of activity is what prompts the government to label the Christians as Communists. The government has arrested eminent chuch leaders like the American-educated Rev. Park Hyung Kyu, 50, pastor of S e o u l ' s First Presbyterian Church. The head of the Christian Urban Industrial Mission's office in the port city of Inchon, a woman Rev. Cho Wha Soon, has been in solitary confinement for six weeks now, but is still "singing and praying" according to her American friends. Eleven Christian ministers are in the second week of their total fast, inside Seoul's Anyung Prison. The ministers have it easy, though, compared with the student leaders. These young men are the ones who have received the death sentneces, and it is generally they who get tortured. The KCIA seems to use fairly standards methods: kicking ihem, placing ball point pens between their fingers and squeezing, forcing them to drink gallons of water, and hanging them in t h e air. A would-be union leader had his ear torn off, and a reporter who dared to send of a report of an appeal for freedom and democracy by six K o r e a n church leaders got a bashed head and both legs broken. Christian organizations which have little interest in combining evangelism with social reform, such as the strong fundamentalist wing of the Korean Church, however, are not subject to government repression. For example, the Campus Crusade for Christ's Expo '74, scheduled for Seoul in August, has t h e Park government's blessing. Why is President Park stepping up repression to such an intensity? And why docs North Korea act so co-opcra- tively by sinking South Korean vessels and making threatening moves just when Park is trumpeting the Communist threat as the rationale for his suppression of domestic opposition? The guess here is that both Park and Nrrth Korean dictator Kim II Sung find they can best preserve their own personal power by whipping up hatred between the two countries, so that in the nationalistic fervor and crisis atmosphere, each can tighten his iron rule over his half of the Korean people. Many Americans resident in South Korea find their own government's policy rather strange. They point out that at the same time so many Americans are protesting Russian oppression of Jews and intellectuals, the U.S. is supporting with money, arms, and PR campaigns a South Korean government which imprisons Christian ministers and sentences poets and students to death. And many American veterans of the Korean War arc wondering what was the purpose of ihelr long and bloody struggle "for freedom and democracj'" -- they thought. t h e m . Miss Jordan w a s especially eloquent in discussing what that document means to blacks (like herself) as well as whites. Miss Holtzman was notably useful in helping the public to understand the modern method of drafting charges against defendants. This fall almost 3,000 women are expected to run for city, county, state and national office, which is about three times the total in 1972. The Jordan- Holtzman performance ought to accelerate that trend. NEARLY ALL THE pros agree that the only thing delaying the long expected political breakthrough of women has been their timidity o v e r getting into the rough and tumble of campaigning. Those who have made the struggle have been remarkably successful. After all, women have the votes -- nationally, they outnumber men of voting age by almost 8 million. For a long time, women candidates for major offices were largely confined to the widows of men who had previously occupied them. Few women like Rep. Ella Grasso (D-Conn.), for instance, deliberately set out early in life to make a political career for themselves. Mrs. Grasso has just been nominated as t h e Democratic candidate for governor of Connecticut. If, as expected, she wins in November, she will become the first woman to head a state in her own right, so to speak. There have been several other women governors, but they all ran as widows of governors or as fill-ins for their husbands. Â· Mrs. Grasso, 5, a magna cum laude in economics and sociology, started In politics 20 years ago and has never been defeated. She was elected to the state legislature in 1952 and became the first woman floor . leader^ She was twice elected secretary of state before going .to Congress in 1971. The Grasso career appears to be the pattern of the future. Of the 16 women now in Congress; only three are widows -- the rest gradually worked their way up. The new trend also seems to show that family and political life can be sue- "Sir, He Says He Has An Appointment With You" cosstully combined. Only two of the congrcsswomen -- Jordan and Holtzman -- have not been married. Most have sizable publicans -- Margaret Heckler of Massachusetts and Marjone Â· Holt of Maryland. The Â· political climate for women could hardly be better. Few, if any, women office- h o l d e r s have ever been convicted of corruption. Their record of high moral standards should mean a lot at a time- when Watergate has inspired a new demand for honesty in government. IN ANY CASE, the rise of women in public office is long overdue. Â· Years before. "Lib" was ever heard of, there were more women in the House than there are -now. There were two w o m e n in the Senate, as against none now. And, unlike today, women were in the Cabinet as far back as 1933, and they 'also ran important embassies. v Tile peculiar thing about this retrogression is that it occurred in the years when women started 'becoming extremely important in grass-roots politics, and began by playing an influential role in state and national party conventions. Still, they let both Lyndon John- Eon and Richard Nixon fob them off with sweet-talk, but few significant jobs. When Gerald Ford was named Vice President, Mrs. Anne Armstrong, a presidential counselor, said Mr. Nixon had made a "conscious, concerted effort" to find a qualified woman to nominate for the job. Gerry Ford is a nice man and a veteran politician, but if Mrs. Armstrong can make her sex believe that there is no woman in America capable of being Vice President, then women deserve what they get politically. After all, India and Israel had no trouble finding qualified women leaders. (C) 1974, Los Angeles Times Government Of Law And Of Lawyers WASHINGTON (ERR) -- ThÂ« American Bar Association will hold its annual meeting in Honolulu, Aug. 12-16. What Others Say ON THE BUFFALO An overnight trip on the Buffalo without camping on a gravel bar? Thai's like a Chinese restaurant where they serve only steaks, or "watching" Sesame Street on a television set with no picture. Gravel-bar camping is such an integral, essential p a r t of the marvelous experience of an overnight float on the North Arkansas stream that it is difficult to conceive of the bureaucratic mind that would propose to pro. hibil it. Yet, somewhere, there is just such a mind, for such a proposal has been made in the National Park Service's environmental impact statement (or, at least, the first draft; one hopes it will not be t h e last) on the Buffalo National River. The prohibition has at its root a good purpose -- keeping the river .and its gravel bars free of human contamination - and the park folks plan instead to permit camping, but only at "primitive campgrounds with sanitary facilities.*' Uh huh. We have an idea just how primitive those campgrounds would be. A graveled area for your tent here, a metal-and-plastic-lined hole in the ground for litter over there, maybe a low brick or stone grill to keep your fire under control, another duplicate s i t e just 20 feet away, and a chmical one- holer in the middle of it all. All the amenities of Nature at Her Best (with a little help from man). And, all fold, perhaps five or ten canoeing parties camped within 100 feet of each other. What is apparently worrying the park folks most is sewage disposal. But surely there are alternatives that would accomplish the aame purpose without eliminating one of the things recreationists thought they were fighting to preserve when they battled so long to save the river and establish the park. A couple that occur to us are putting those chemical toilets atop the river's high banks, directly adjacent to many of the river's gravel bars, or requiring overnight canoeists to provide their own protable sanitary facilities, if they intend to . camp on a bar -- and then levying stiff fines against those who are found by park rangers to have violated that requirement. Either approach might keep the bars clean, while letting folks use'them (without having to crowd up all together in a developed, but "primitive" campground). There's nothing quite like drawing your canoe up on a gravel bar across from an imposing bluff, making camp a couple of hundred yards downstream from your nearest neighbor on the bar (which may be a quarter of a mile long), and relaxing that evening while the moon lights up the' limestone bluff and the starlight falls softly down on your campsite, uriobscurred by trees overhead. We suggest that the park service's sanitary engineers try it before they conclude that thert is only one solution to the problem of keeping the river clean. -- Pine Bluff Commercial THE GAME Back in the 1930's, there was created for the American public that good old game "Monopoly." Young and not so young have ignored the midnight hour to go on into morning play, so engrossed they were with buying up railroads, selling houses, tryin to regain a fortune in paper money. The poularity of Monopoly may never wane and it is a fine example of games that make you think while having Jun. Just on the market is another educational game which will become a big parlor attraction for both kids and adults. It's called "New Town," is played on a board and its participants become a town's creators who erect private homes, apartments, shops i n d u s t r i e s schools, town hall, parks and environmental facilities. And who is the winner? The player who has amassed the greatest holdings after - wouldn't you know it - taxes and expenses. New Town calls for voting on municipal issues just like the government of a real town. And as often true in real life, players with the most property have the biggest voice. Maybe that's not good, but the game brings out realism. Players might just find themselves divided up into conservationists or maney mad developers, or perhaps homeowners will be pitted against the problems that industrialists might cause. Sure indicates more entertainment than some of the television shows iterrupted every few minutes with commercials. Richard (Ky.) Register SECRET WEAPONS A Southern accent has been considered by some to. be a handicap. As it turns but, it may be our salvation. A computer a tthe Massachusetts Institute of Technology that can talk cannot understand a Southern dialect - choice habits like dropping the "g" from running. So in 1984 - just 10 years hence - when Big Brother has his computers all fired up, all we have to do is lay on that magnolias accent to escape constant surveillance. If we wanted t o - b e mean, we might even get someone from Charleston, S.C., to speak a few words to the computer. Surely that would blow every fuse. --Charlotte (N.C.) Observer COMENTING ON THE Supreme Court case of United States v. Nixon, The-Economist ot London observed: "Even .those most familiar with the American system find it hard to grasp what a pervasively legalized society this is, how deeply Americans believe John Marshall's statement that theirs is 'a government of laws and not 'a government of men.'" Actually, it is a government of laws and of lawyers. T h e unending Watergate scandal has driven the point home with a vengeance. Many of those indicted or convicted in the various Watergate cases are lawyers, as are all members of .the now-defunct Senate Watergate Committee and of the House Judiciary Committee. President Nixon, too, holds a law degree. It was inevitable, then, that VVatergate would - raise questions about relationship of law and morality. The questions deal essentially with defining the lawyer's proper r o l e in society. Is it his duty always to see that justice is served, or only to see that his client is served if the client and justice do not happen to bo On the same side? CANON 7 OF THE American Bar Association's Code of Professional Responsibility stales: "A lawyer should represent a client zealously within the bounds of the law ... (and) while serving as an advocate, a lawyer should resolve in favor of his client doubts as to lha bounds of the law." This rule of conduct, essential to the functioning of the adversary system of American legal process, is widely misunder-; stood. Bayless Manning, dean of the Stanford Law School, recently wrote that "...the average American tends to see the adversary system as one that seeks to find truth by a process of competitive lying.... And in this view of the matter, the lawyers whose profession it i.i to participate in this process are seen as unprincipled liars for hire." Lawyers, of course, feel differently. Speaking of Watergate, Dean Abraham S. Goldstein of the Yale Law School slated: "The fellows with black hats arc lawyers and the fellows with white hats are lawyers. What we're finding out is that lawyers are very much involved in public life with the result that they move into very up-front positions, no matter what the issue, and on both sides of the issue." THAT'S PRECISELYY what bothers many laymen: the trial lawyer's ability to argue either side of a case with equal conviction. As Richard Reeves recently pointed out in New York magazine, White House attorney James D. St. Clair argued in 1954 that written transcripts of tape recordings "might tend to be misleading." St. Clair now maintains that the White House-edited trrnscripl of the Watergate tapes "really docs 'tell it all' as far as the President's conduct is concerned."