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Editorial-Opinion Page The Public Interest is The First Concern 0} This Newspaper 4 * MONDAY, JUNE 17, 1974 Plea Bargaining Faces An Overhaul A Number Of Special Items We have a difficult time getting away from the notion that annual sessions of the General Assembly can best serve the interests of orderly legislation and appropriation. The inescapable need for "special sessions," in the odd years, is but one of several indicators. There is plenty of reason to convene the state's legislators this month, judging by the tentative list of call items put together by Gov. Dale Bumpers. And he hasn't settled on one of the most pressing propositions, yet, according to announcement from his office. That has to do with teachers' raises. We have an idea the governor will find a way to provide a raise in teachers' pay with other outlays of surplus funds. We hope so, anyway. If there is a belter hope for the ills of spirit, body, mind and poeketbook than education we are unaware of it. Toughness by law enforcement agencies and the courts is seen by some as the ultimate lever- age for social order. Good teachers, we believe, are infinitely more important -- and they need to make a respectable living. Of importance to education in another way is the possibility of supplemental appropriations for college construction, authorized last year, but pigeon-holed by rising building costs. This category of concern deserves a lawmaker's attention now, rather than nexl year. A late addition to the governor's list is a matching sum by the state so as to qualify for a special safety program of highway construction authorized by the federal government. A substantial amount of Ihe funds would be supplied by the U.S. Department of Transportation for such safety projects as railroad overpasses, wider bridges and divided grade intersections. We can t h i n k of dozens of worthy candidates for this program in the immediate FayeUeville area. The state should take full advantage of the opportunity. From The Readers Viewpoint To The Editor: This letter is written lo inform you that our Fayelteville Public Library has Â·graciously provided space Tor the collcu- tion of ecology information that can be utilized by the people of the Northwest Arkansas region. Hopefully, this Eco- Library can become a useful tool For everyone, whether you are interested in what went on at the last highway or power . -company hearing or need up-to- date information on such topics as solar and wind energy systems. Anyone who has information about alternative energy sources, our natural resource inventory, or pollution of our environment is urged to donate their material to the Eco-Library. Consumer in- formation will also be collected. If everyone helps, it is certain that this library can become an excellent source oF in- f o r m a t i o n by the end of this year. At present, we have a fair start, but there is much room for improvement. In order to insure that this information remains readily at h a n d , the material donated lo this collection may not be taken from the Eco-Library. The service of a duplicating machine and the convenience of a conference room are available lo aid study and discussion. The FayeUeville P u b l i c Library already has an extensive filing system oF source material and newspaper articles dealing with the local environment and this can be used to help people From Oar Files; How Time Flies 1C) YEARS AGO The National League of Nursing notified Ihe University of Arkansas today that accreditation of the university's School of Nursing will Iw w i t h d r a w n July 1. Members of the Fayelteville High School band and choral group who will appear at the Lions Ciub International convention at Toronto. Canada. next month, arc practicing most 50 YEARS AGO A total of 76 local sportsmen have signed the roster For membership in the Isaac Walton League here and the charter will be 'granted within the nc-xl few days. A drive to make the charter membership an even 100 will be staged by the men interested in the organization. Work of J. FI. Field, local 100 YEARS AGO Notice is hereby given t h a t under ami by virtue of an act of the General Assembly, an election will be held on Tuesday the 30th day of June, 1874 by the qualified electors of Washington County at the several precincts. To-wit: Brush Creek f-.nd Homeley's Schoolhoiise: Clear Creek, at Friendship Mectiirg House. Em Spring? at Elm Springs: Marts' Hill at W. Cincinnati: Vinvarrt at Evans- vihe; Cane Hill at Boonsboro; evenings, marching on Mondays and Wednesday along Razorback Road. Pickets disappeared from the University Engineering Building today, but no workmen returned to the construction site. A strike was initiated yesterday against Osark Floor Company by Carpenter's tocal 1249, because of "the firm's refusal to hire carpenters." photographer, continues to gain national recognition. In the June issue of "The Camera," Mr. Field was awarded second prize in "The Baby" contest, winning that coveted position over 900 entries. The Joplin trade four caravan is due to arrive in FayeUeville shortly after noon tomorrow, having Junch here. Cove Creek at Ben Stricklers, Mountain at Hillingsley; West Fork at Woolsey's Store: While River at Seth "Mill's: Kichlanri at Maguire's Store, Prairie at FayetteviUe. Keep it before the people that th-? FayeUevElle \ T e\vs opposed enfranchisement of rebels: is opposed to a Constitutional Con- v e n t i o n ; and has endorsed all the infamous radical legislation ana corruption in A r k a n s a s for the- past eight years. They'll Do It Every Time WHAT'S THE MAIN FUMCTKW OF * HOSPITAL? 'CALÂ£Â£ 8-BOT, POOD*-! \ I LOTOFTKT5 fUL 6REAT \ l */Â£ PIPNT NCWÂ»WHYCAÂ£T J V 6fVE YW yETi J (5O HOME ? make contact with groups which are presently working lo improve our region. For tho.se who think the "energy crisis' 1 is over with and soon to ha forgotten or t h a t our own environment is not at this moment in any real danger, we have sufficient information now on hand to change their minds. The most important need at the present time is for us to obtain a metal f i l i n g cabinet, either as an out-right gilt or an inexpensive second-hand model. It should be the large, 4-drawcr type which sells on the market today for approximately $125. This will serve as a repository for pamphlets, news articles, and an easy filirfg breakdown for our c h a n g i n g information. T h e shelves in the Eco-Library will hold the source materials such as technical manuals, engineering reports, p o w e r nnd highway proposals, and books on alternative energy systems. We have tried to obtain this one item for the last two months without success and it is most important that we obtain the filing cabinet if the Era-Library is to reach its full potential, tf you can help us obtain this cabinet pleasa contact the Fayetteville Public Library and give them your donation. Since no one person or organization can see the whole picture, please feel free to lake a personal interest in improving the information in the Eco- Library. It is by all of us working together that we can i m p r o v e our choices by collecting and intelligent range of information. All of us w i l l be surprised at the quality of solutions which already exist that can directly effect the important decisions which our region must m a k e now nnd in the future. Patrick Horan I ayetleville In Review W A T E R G A T E A N D DETENTE. Fred Warner Neal, "A Liberal's Case for Keeping tlie President," The Center Magazine. May - June 1974. pp. 4-11. "It is a very serious question whether the detente policy \v.;ii.(i survive were (President Nixon) now to be replaced. First there would be an inevitable interregnum, during which no policies would be put f o r w a r d . Second. Gerald Ford has always indicated the strongest support for Cold War policies and has never indicated any .support for or understanding of the detente policy. Arid t h i r d . MI-. F o r d lacks Nixon's persona] involvement in this process and would. I fear, be far more susceptible to the Cold War forces still powerful in the country. Moreover, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion, over-all, that there is a relationship between opposition to detente and getting rid of Mr. Nixon. Some of the most vociferous foes of detente are also the most vociferous advocates of impeachment." "If somehow the detente policy goes down the drain, the r e s u l t could b e terribly MI'... On the other hand .if the detente policy can be made to work and to persist for the nexl three years...then it is unlikely to be reversed. If it is not reversed, the Cold War will be ended and new vistas will be opened. The chance for peace--noi a perccct peace by any means but a workable one -- would then be at hand. The United Nations could function again, a n d r e a l disarmament would become a possibility. And we could at least be able to concentrate on nnr sorry plight at home, no longer distracted by having to save the world from communism. None of these goals are certain even if w e have detente--without entente they have no chance at all." Ky SANDKA STENGEL (Editorial Kcscareh Reports) WASHINGTON -- The consti- tuUon guarantees every American accused of a serious crime the right to trial by j u r y , the right to confront witnesses against him, and the right to he proven guilty by proof bpyond a reasonable doubt. But the; vast majority of criminal defendants never have their day in court. It is estimated that 90 per cent of all criminal convictions are based on the defendant's own plea of guilty. Many, though not all, of these pleas are the direct result of negotiations known as plea bargaining. The term refers to a prc-arraignment "deal" between t h e prosecution a n d t h e defense in which the defendant is offered a lenient sentence if he agrees to plead guilty, perhaps to a lesser charge. In most jurisdictions, plea negotiations a r e informal a n d o f f the-record, sometimes conducted in hurried whispers in the courtroom and through the bars of a jail. Starting Aug. 1. however, plea bargaining in the federal courts will he subject to formal rules -- barring an unexpected rejection by Congress. On that day the Supreme Court's proposed revisions of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure are due to take effect. Under the new rules, any plea agreement worked out by federal prosecutors and defense attorneys must be presented in open court for the judge to scccpt or reject. If it is accepted, the defendant is assured of receiving a lighter sentence than he could expect if tried and convicted. If the agreement is rejected, the defendant is given an opportunity to change his plea. THE CHANGE OF ..rules cornes at a time when publicity about plea bargaining by W a t e r g a t e defendants h a s aroused public awareness of the procedure and a new round of criticism in the legal profession. The most publicized case of plea bargaining in recent years involved Vice President Spiro T. Agncw. He resigned from office, pleaded no contest to a single charge of income tax evasion -- and stayed out of prison. Though his case did not relate directly to the Watergate scandals, it coincided with plea b a r g a i n i n g b y Watergate defendants. At least eight of these defendants have pleaded guilty after engaging in plea bargaining and the sentences imposed so far have been considered mild -- to the point of public controversy. The Extra Load This was true especially for Richard G. Kleindienst, tht former Attorney General. He drew one month of unsupervised probation after pleading guilty to a misdemeanor chargt --Â· t h a t of' testifying inaccurately to a congressional committee -- rather than face the possibility of a felony charge of perjury. Among the other seven -Frederick C. LaRue, Egil K r o g h Jr., Jeb Stuart Magruder, John W. Dean, Donald H. Segretti, Herbert W. Kalmbach, and Herbert L. Porter -- none "so far has received a sentence as severe as that given another Watergate defendant, Dwight L. Chapin, who stood trial and was convicted. S p e c i a l Prosecutor Leon Jaworski -- like many others in the legal profession, including Chief Justice Warren E. Burger -- defends plea bargaining. "I personally believe strongly that plea bargaining is a very fair and appropriate method of disposing of a case," Jaworski recently said in a U.S. News World Report inter- HOWEVER RIGHT or wrong it may be, America is likely to hear more about plea bargaining in the months ahead. A Potpourri Excerpts From The World Of Thought D E T E N T E I N PERSPECTIVE. Theodore Draper, "Detente." Commcntarv, June 1ST'), pp. 25-47. "Two decisions by the Nixon administration may prove to be of far greater long-range historical importance t h a n a n y t h i n g else...the willingness to take four years to end direct U.S. military intervention in the Vietnam war . . . (and) the at- templ to solve o u r problems t h r o u g h o u r antagonists, without, or even at the expense of our friends." "This onesidedness made it overly important that the detente with the Soviet Union should come off as a colossal, spectacular success... (But) the real issues have certainly not been resolved... The central fact of the past five years is t h a t detente with the East has beguiled us while deterioration in the West has beset us. It will not help at this late date to quarrel over which has been more to blame, Europe or the United States: there is inor^ than enough blame for all." "While lip-service was being paid to European-American 'partnership' to the Atlantic alliance as the 'cornerstone' of American foreign policy...the concept of partnership became more and more of a mockery, the cornerstone was relegated to a corner..." "Kto kogo? Who-whom? It was Lenin's favorite formulation of the crucial political questitn. It may be more freely translated as: 'Who does what lo w h o m ? ' It is not a bad way of thinking about detente." WATERGATE DIPLOMACY. Richard H. Rovere, "Letter From Washington." The New Yorker, May 27. 1974. pp. 91-92. "It is perhaps good fortune for us t h a t we a r e enduring a period of instability at a time when most other governments, both allies and adversaries, are going through much the same son of thing, though in only a few cases for reasons as squatid." "Practically every other major NATO power has had some k i n d of leadership crisis, and it is thought by some ex- perts that there are forms of the same malaise in China ami the Soviet Union. For awhile, it appeared Â·- h a t the Kremlin had unravcleld the Watergate mess and might very well be planning to 'gain some strategic advantage from it." "ft now appears that the Russians' main reaction is one of fear that some evil American forces--not the friendly President but unnamed, unprincipled cne-mies -- may use Watergate to block the path to detente, p e r h a p s , w i t h l e g a l maneuvering that will make it impossible for Nixon to keep bis appointment with Kremlin leaders... For some reason, their eagerness to make a success of the...visit seems to match that of the President." "It is a fact, and a rather astonishing one, that the disarray in the Nixon administration appears to have had little or no effect abroad...II is understandable that others are less disturbed over our ititcrnal troubles t h a n we are. but the fact that we are currently low in morale localise of both Vietnam and Watergate is one t h a t could be expected to hear heavily on other nations' estimates of our power in the world. In t r u t h , so far at least, it has borne lightly." CANADA'S DISCOMFORT. Robert Gillette, "India: Into the Nuclear Club on Canada's Shoujders," Science, June 7, 1974, pp. 1053-1055. "A vigorous protest from Pakistan was predictable, but the most vehement expressions of thinly veiled outrage came-of all places--from Canada. It %vas not without a cause, and a certain touch of irony. Canada, unlike India, has signed and ratified the 1568 Non-Proliferation Treaty and thus has renounced interest in building nuclear explosives for any purpose. But India, it soon became evident, had climbed into the nuclear clubhouse on the shoulders of Canadian tecn- nology and Canadian foreign aid." "There is no question but that India assembled its plutonkim device without outside help... What India could not have done It has even been suggested Â»Â· a method of relieving President Nixon of bis Watergate trouble! -- in return (or his resignation. Rep. Wilbur D. Mills (D- Ark.). chairman of the Houst Ways and Means Committee, has offered to sponsor a bill In Congress to grant Nixon immunity from criminal prosecution and any civil suits against him arising from Watergate issues if he would resign. "The biggest obstacle to Mr. Nixon's resignation may be his fear of going to jail," journalist I. F. Stone wrote last fall. "As President," Stone said, "he has the power to hamper i n v e s t i g a t i o n , drag o u t litigation, and block his own prosecution." Speculating on the possibility of presidential plea bargaining, Time magazine commented "it is scarcely likely that the public would put up with legislators voting to pass a special bill that would then have to be signed by its intended beneficiary." Anyway, according to the President's former speechwrUer William Satire, "Mr. Nixon is not the type to plea bargain." Whether plea bargaining ever reaches the presidential level, it has been dragged out from, the shadows of American criminal justice into the light of public scrutiny, and an outpouring of critical commentary has followed. Mart On Shakedown. without Canadian help, it now appears, was to make plu- t o n i u m . Canadian officials believe the plutonium used in the Rajasthan explosion almost certainly came from a small. 40-megawatt research reactor called 'Circus' that Canada helped the Indian government build and pay for in the 1950s." "The 'peaceful uses' injunction still pertained lo the reactor and its products, but, by 1966...it dawned on Canadian officials that the 1956 agreement had a loophole...It has begun to look like a case of technological c h a r i t y gone wrorrg." ATOMIC NON-VIOLENCE. "Gandhi Betrayed" (editorial), Far Eastern Economic Review May 27. 1974, p. 13. " I n d i a ' s successful u n - derground explosion was understandably welcomed more enthusiastically within India than elsewhere. Domestically at least Mrs. Gandhi and her Atomic Energy Commission timed their experiment well, for the government was goi:ig through its worst politiacl and economic crisis since independence... Many of Mrs. Gandhi's most virulent crl'.ics representing a wide range of opinion in India were willing to suspend their onslaught on her Ieadership...to stand bathed in the radioactive -glow...." "Mrs. Gandhi has jettisoned much of the moral legacy which she inherited from her political predecessors, Mahatma Gandhi and her father, Jawaharlal Nehru-a set of principles which were central to the, concept of India both in the eyes of Indians themselves and of the rest of the word. Nehru's vision of a society enshrining social justice and orderly progress has long since been eroded. Two central pillars of the vision remained--non-alignment and non-violence. TnÂ« first went in 1871, when Mrs. G a n d h i responded to the threat from China by signing a treaty of friendship and cooperation with the Soviet Union... Now the second has crumbled." Cruise NEW YORK (ERR) -- The stock market seems to be rallying, but the same cannot be said about morale on Wall Street. For a number of reasons, the mood of the securities industry is decidedly bearish and likely to remain so for some time. One of the industry's m a i n problems is the flight of the private, non-institutional investor. "In 1973, private investors bought and sold nearly 20 per cent less stock on the national exchanges than they did in 1968. and that 20 per cent represents $20 billion." a vice president of a major brokerage house recently wrote. "The percentage decline in public participation has been even steeper in the over-the- counter market, where several thousand shares not listed on any exchange are traded." As a result, institutions now account for 70 per cent of all transactions on the New York Stock Exchange. Because institutions buy and sell large blocks of stock, they pay much lower commissions than the average individual. Volume discounts were granted on trades of more than 1,000 shares in 1968. In April 1971, commissions became negotiable on trades of over $500.000; last April Ihc amount was lowered to 5300,000. And next May fixed commissions -- in effect since the New York Stock Exchange was founded in 1792 -- will bÂ« eliminated. T H E S E DEVELOPMENTS have contributed to the shaky financial condition of m a n y brokerage houses. "In 1973 alone, 33 brokerage houses were absorbed by others, while 73 closed up shop," Bernard Shakin wrote in Barron's financial weekly. "Through April of this year, six more wore absorbed and 16 called it tjuits "In two of the past Your years, the industry has suffered Â« SS l S: p a Â£' year ' tNew Y Â«"-k ? to f k Exchange) member firm, lost $49 million. While they f ^ ?.R r Â° f i t Â°f S69 million m the initial quarter of (his 3 Â» AF T' br Â°"Â« ht a Â°Â° ss of 547.8 million. May also an doubtedly was in the redTM The industry's current watchword is "merge or submerge." Bearing t h a t imperative in mind. two pairs of Wall Street brokerage [irms recently announced plans to consolidate. Hayden Stone Inc. intends to merge with Shearson. Hammill * Co.. while Kidder, Peabody C Â° BAD AS THINGS are now for Umes eCmritiC V n?UStry ' " times may he ahead Lexis- wcZ n " Wf "*"""* in Congrcs. th? in,!' ? rm . and "ode?ni z 2 wav, TM V,? '""lamental thÂ« !. , bllls Waved by contr^ ' PrOV - ide for fede "! control of securities processins and transfers, reform of e f change membership ruleTM and lending rate Somr buf'r*"' Â°!, a bank in Co 1 "TM TMÂ£ "Â·Â·! 00 25 S this cautionary ***Â· . Nobody rings a bcfi Adds ^.n" 1 *,' 1 hits bollom -" Abm *Â£f Slreet col "ranist rf ?h **Â£**'Â· Is 'WÂ» the end of the bear market? We can Â·nswer that without equivocation -- just wait six months."