Northwest Arkansas Times from Fayetteville, Arkansas on June 14, 1974 · Page 4
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June 14, 1974

Northwest Arkansas Times from Fayetteville, Arkansas · Page 4

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Friday, June 14, 1974
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Editorial-Opinion Pag* The Public Interest It The First Concern O\ Thil Newspaper 4 · FRIDAY, JUNE 14, 1974 Behind The Doors Of The Grand Jury Scientists In Collision : It is rare indeed for a scientist to be- ·come a popular cult hero, but Dr. Immanuel "Velikovsky is such a figure. For nearly a '. quarter-centry Velikovsky has been at · t h e center of a controversy stemming from ^his novel theories on everything from a- ^stronomy to psychology to physics to an- ;cient history. His approach involves leaping ;freely from one scientific and historical discipline to the next, horrifying the ortho- "dox practitioners of each as he does so. Velikovsky's fame, or notoriety, rests principally on Worlds in Collision, a book ' : first published in 1950. In it he asserted that earth had undergone several near-annihilating catastrophes during recorded history. - Specifically, he claimed that Venus must ;have burst from Mars in the form of a scomet, swept by earth twice in the time .'of Moses, collided with Mars, and then fin"ally settled into its present orbit. As supporting evidence, he cited passages from the Old .Testament and other ancient texts. The tidal forces created as Venus swept by, Veli- kovsky said, parted the Red Sea for the fleeing Israelites. Moreover, the comet-like tail of Venus showered naptha -- "manna" or "ambrosia" in ancient writings -- on earth. Worlds in Collision created an imme- diate sensation, both among the reading public and in the scientific community. The book became a runaway best-seller, but it was roundly denounced by Velikovsky's fellow scientists. From that time forward, they treated him as a pariah. The trouble is that some of Velikovsky's "predictions," which were scoffed at in 1950, have since proved accurate. For instance, he asserted that Venus must have an extremely hot, dense atmosphere, and that Jupiter would be found to emit radio waves. Space exploration has confirmed these and some other Velikovsk- ian theories. Velikovsky still is not widely accepted by other scientists, but at least they are now willing to grant him a forum. The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a symposium on his work in February. Another, sponsored by the Student Academic Freedom Forum, will be held at Canada's McMaster University, June 17-19. Meanwhile, Velikovsky's books are undergoing a campus revival, and a magazine, Pensee, is devoted almost entirely to his writings. What accounts for Velikovsky's popularity? Here's one theory: He has managed to make scientific theory conform with sacred texts, whereas Galileo, Darwin and others made religion and science seem antithetical. New Oceanic Law By JOHN HAMER Editorial Research Reports WASHINGTON -- For 70 per cent of the globe -- the area covered by the world's oceans - -- there is virtually no law. A United Nations conference on the Law of the Sea will open June 20 in Caracas to seek an international agreement on con. trol of the oceans and their vast resources. The gathering may decide whether the wealth of the oceanic domain w i l l be considered Ihc common heritage of . all mankind or an open realm for national exploitation on a first-come, first-served basis. Many fear this effort to write a "constitution" for the oceans . will fail and the result will be chaos -- with powerful nations " claiming vast expanses of the sea and seabed and weaker nations grappling for a fair share of the ocean's riches. "It is urgent that \vc take the first essential steps toward international agreement as quickly as possible," U.N. Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim has said. "Time is not on our side, and delay would be perilous." IF THE complex issue of oceanic law seems to have hurst suddenly upon the international scene, it is largely because ocean technology has rapidly outstripped ocean politics. The U.N. has held two previous Law of the Sea conferences, in 1958 and 1960. but many of the ocean's resources were then considered inaccessible and of little interest. Since that time, new underwater mining techniques have b e e n developed, offshore oil and gas drilling rigs have been improved, and ocean fishing methods have become more efficient. Consequently, the race for the sea's riches has speeded up. The potential wealth of the oceans is enormous. The deep seabed is the earth's richest mineral lode, covered with from Our Files; How Time Flies] 10 YEARS AGO Representatives o f the University of Arkansas Schola Cantorum have written the Vatican, requesting an audience with Pope Paul VI and permission to perform for him. There has been no reply to the singers, who will be in Rome June 24. Two tornado funnels were 50 ··'EARS AGO Milo Koering of Springdale, son of Mrs. Emma Koering of Springdale and brother of Fred Koering of this place, was one of the sailors aboard the U.S.S. Mississippi at the time the explosion ripped through t h e ship in battle practice in what is being called the Navy's greatest peacetime horror. No word has been received from Koering. "College Avenue Day" will be observed by the Ozark Filling 100 YEARS AGO We had the pleasure of a call this week from Dr. Thmston of Van Buren. professor of Practical and Theoretical Agriculture and Horticulture in the I n d u s t r i a l University. D r . Thruston delivered an inie- sighted in the Northwest Arkansas area yesterday and wind downed trees in the Gentry area. More thunderstorms sre expected today. A suit brought against the city by a Baldwin couple over the construction of Lake Sequoyah, originally set for t r i a l Thursday, has been continued. Station here Saturday June 21, to celebrate the opening of College Avenue. The station will serve free refreshments a n d will give a half gallon of motor oil with each gasoline purchase. Ralph Spencer, University High School athlete, will lead the National Guard baseball team this summer, according to action taken by the members of the team yesterday a f t e r noon; resting lecture at the University of Wednesday last on "How Plants Grow," and on yesterday the last lecture of the session; Subject. "The Farm and Its Work." They'll Do It Every Time DOVCU SMEU.WV- THWB SUBNIHS? SNIFF.' B ft THE TV? THE OH. SOWS?? potato - shaped m a g a n e s e nodules which are accumulating faster than they ever could be mined with current technology. Several U.S. companies and a few foreign concerns already have started exploring for nodules and perfecting underwater mining techniques, with Howard Hughes's secretive Summa Corp. now in the lead. Opponents of these ventures w a r n against unrestricted exploitation and point to a 1970 U.N. moratorium resolution on any seabed mining before t h e Caracas conference finishes its work. OFFSHORE energy reserves may be the g r e a t e s t of all the ocean's potential resources. Offshore oil now represents 20 per cent of world production and is valued at about $10 billion annually, while offshore gas production is some 50 trillion cubic feet a year. or 10 per cent of the world output. But offshore exploration has increased in the wake of the Arab oil embargo, and it is estimated that by the mid- 1970s petroleum will surpass fish as the sea's largest cash crop. The problems with o f f shore petroleum production are devising pollution controls and deciding how far out on the continental shelf each nation will be allowed to drill. The question of setting limits on national territorial waters and coastal economic zones is among the most difficult the Caracas conference will face. The United States has long recognized the traditional three- mile limit, based on the historic "cannon-shot rule," but other nations have claimed a 12-mile limit and some have laid claim over a distance of 200 miles. The conference probably will settle on a 12 - mile territorial limit but may establish a 200- mile economic zone in which coastal states could control fishing rights and mineral resources. A more difficult problem is what to do about t h e some 100 international straits which then would fall under national control. MEANWHILE, as nations quarrel over fishing rights and seize each other's vessels, t h e stocks of many species of fish are rapidly being depleted. In addition, the oceans are being polluted at an ominous rate. Oil. tar. plastics, metals and chemicals have been found in alarming quantities at sea. But scientists disagree as to the effects of these pollutants and insist that much more research is needed. The question of freedom for oceanographic research projects is also on the Caracas agenda. The United States is approaching the Law of the Sea conference cautiously, although official public statements have expressed optimism. President Niion in 1970 made a statement on U.S. oceans policy which was widely praised as representing an "internationalist" approach. But in the face of energy problems, global scarcities, "Third World" nationalism and economic uncertainties, a thorough -- and secret -reexamination of U.S. policy was begun last year. This review process may to a great extent determine the outcome of the entire conference, since the U.S. role is so vital. Perhaps the primary task in Caracas will be at least to begin building a realistic and effective means of dealing with oceanic disputes. Any international agreements must be fair and resilient enough to gain wide support in the world community. Ambassador Hamilton S. Amerisinghe of Sri L a n k a (formerly Ceylon), chairman of the U.N. Seabed Committee, has said: "What the world wants today is not law but justice." The Law of the Sea conference, for the sake of the world's oceans, must find · way to deliver both. By JACK ANDERSON W A S H I N G T O N -- T h e American people are entitled to know more about the historic grand jury which named President Nixon an "unindicted coconspirator" in the Watergate crimes. The 23 grand jurors, selected from all walks of lite, watched the Watergate drama develop behind ·guarded doors. They heard the secret testimony; they listened to the presidential tapes. Four were absent when they met on March 1. The remaining 19 voted for the first time in history to accuse an American president of criminal conspiracy. Were they fair to Richard Nixon? Or were they out to get him, as he has said of his accusers? We have broken through the secrecy which has surrounded the Watergate grand jury. Inside sources have described the closed-door drama: we have had access to actual transcripts. We are perhaps in a unique position, therefore, to assess this red-letter grand jury. VARIED GROUP The 23 citizens -- including an economist, a cleaning woman, a retired Army officer, an elevator operator, a receptionist, a taxi driver -- were called together on June 5, 1973. to hear evidence of crimes in the District of Columbia. Courthouse sources say one grand jury in 10 is outstanding. This one, in-the opinion of Assistant U.S. Attorney John Forney Rudy II, then in c h a r g e of the grand jury section, was "exceptional." The Washington Merry-Go-Round Most of the jurors were alert *nd responsive, with a keen sense of civic duty. At least one woman gave up her job to stay on the jury. They were well informed and asked sharp questions. So when chief Watergate prosecutor Earl Silbert asked for an experienced grand jury, Rudy immediately recommended this one. They had already served several weeks and could have begged off. "We asked whether they would be willing to sit on a case that might last five or six months." recalls Rudy. "They were not told it would be the W a t e r g a t e case." Without hesitation, they agreed to stay beyond the normal period of duty. The early transcripts revealed no hint of prejudice against the president. On the contrary. I'.ie grand jurors at first seemed to shy away from implicating the President in the Watergate horror. We spotted many openings in the secret testimony, where it would have been logical to ask about his involvement. But in the beginning, the follow-up questions weren't asked, almost as if there was an unspoken wish to keep the President out of it. As the evidence piled up, the feeling seemed to grow inside the grand jury room that Nixon was responsible at least for the Watergate atmosphere, that his own suspicion and hostility had infected the Whit* Hou« with a moral rot. Occasionally, the growing outrage would surface. During a discussion of propriety, for example, a juror snapped: I» 'proper' an obsolete word these days?" Three jurors, in particular, began to ask questions armed »t the President. Other jurors wanted ao call witnesses not on the prosecution list, whom they thought might have knowledge of the President's involvement. But most questions from the jurors were not at all loaded against the President. The best questions were asked by the gray-bearded foreman, Vladimir Pregelj, and a black postal clerk, Harold Evans. The methodical Pregelj, a native of Yugoslavia and a naturalized citizen, had a gift for reducing the complexities down to simple, pointed questions. The grand jurors were irritated with the special prosecutors, incidentally, for restricting the questioning. After the special prosecutors took over the Watergate case .they stopped inviting the jurors to cross-examine witnesses. LONG HOURS The jurors had a high attendance record and put in long hours. Once they stayed in ses- ion until midnight and foundthe ion until midnight and found the in. They had to pound on the doors to rouse a janitor to let them out. State Of Affairs By CLAYTON FRITCHEY .WASHINGTON -- There was a time when small boys wanted to be policemen when they grew up. But these days any youngster capable of reading headlines or watching the television news must have discovered that the path of fame, fortune and applause is in being a confessed public malefactor. Former Vice President Spiro Agnew, who resigned after pleading no contest to charges of income tax evasion, received a standing ovation the first time he appeared in public after getting a suspended sentence. Meanwhile, on the strength of his new celebrity, he has been able to sell a novel at a hefty price. Last week, Richard Kleindienst, the former attorney general and chief legal officer of the U n i t e d States, pleaded guilty to lying under o a t h to a Senate committee about h i s role in an anti-trust case. He, too, got a suspended sentence, along with effusive praise from a dating judge. Kleindienst He won't even be disbarred. . THE WATERGATE scenario is getting repetitious. The defendants go before a grand jury or a congressional investigating committee or a judge and piously tell all (sort of). They are contrite; they proclaim the error of their ways, and they are eager, or so they say, to go straight. The curtain falls as they gei off with a light sentence, or a suspended one, accompanied by lavish appreciation of their belated but elaborate penitence. After that, they are free to start writing their books about Watergate, to tour the lecture circuit, to appear on television network shows and engage in all the remunerative and rewarding activities of national celebrities. They don't all get standing ovations, but res- taurants are glad to 'give them good tables. IT IS NOT yet known just what punishment or testimonial Charles Colson will get, for the former White House special counsel will not he sentenced until June 21. Meanwhile, after pleading guilty to obstructing justice and trying to interfere in the Ellsberg trial, Colson has been excused from prosecution on all other charges, accompanied by drooling senatorial blessings for his having "come to Christ." It is one of the great "awakenings" of t h e year, rivaling that of Jeb Magruder, another prominent Watergate repenter. whose testimony before Ihe Senate investigating committee left the members without a dry eye. "I have seen a lot of atonement going on." said Sen. Lowell Weicker (R- Conn.). "but I do not think anybody really put their finger on the problem with a sincere feeling as you did." Magruder. who could have been sent to prison for five years, later got off with a 10-month sentence. In that time he can write a book on his prison experiences to match the best seller he has just published about the Watergate scandals. AS MAGRUDER w e n t into jail, his old pal, Herbert Porter, came out after serving 11 days of a 30-day sentence for lying to the FBI about the illegal disposition of Nixon campaign funds. He could have been given five years in prison, plus a $10.TOO fine. He, too, won the hearts .of the Ervin committee by confessing his sins. He told the senators he was "positive down to his toes" that he "will never get into trouble again." In view of all this, it would seem to be clear thai Mr. Nixon, if need be, could as a last resort beat the rap by re- ·fgning, repenting, telling all and, with the help of Billy Graham, finding God. Considering the Senate's reaction to the other confessed sinners, it no doubt would give the President the Congressional Medal of Honor. Moreover, now that U.S. District Judge George L. Hart Jr. has established a new legal justification for perjury, there is little to fear from a little lying under oath. It was Judge Hart who let former Attorney Genera! Kleindienst off with a sentence of 30 days and a $100 fine, both suspended. He could have give the defendant a year in prision and a Jl.OOO fine. IN FALSELY telling t h e Senate that Mr. Nixon had not Igiven him orders in the ITT anti-trust case, Kleindienst, Judge Hart said, was motivated by "a heart that is too loyal and considerate of the feelings of others," obviously meaning Mr. Nixon. Had Kleindienst "answered accurately and fully the quest- tions put in this case," Judge Hart explained, "it would have reflected great credit on this defendant but would have reflected discredit upon another individual." Like Kleindienst's boss. That, of course, has been the standard defense for other Watergate defendants, including former Attorney General John Mitchell, who felt that any Nixon wish should be his command, legal or not. Judge Hart climaxed nil ode to Kleindienst by saying that he "still is universally respected and admired." Universally? Apparently the judge overlooked the assistant prosecutor who handled the Kleindienst case for special prosecutor Leon Jawor- ·ki, and who resrgned in protest when Jaworski let the former attorney general plead guilty to a misdemanor instead of i felony. (C) L They were scrupoloai about the grand Jury rules and kept the Watergate secret* locked behind thl tightest lip. in Washington. They were absolutely furious at us for publishing excerpts from the grand jury transcripts. They were highly upset, too, w i t h the Washington Post's intrepid Watergate sleuths, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, for attempting to question grand jury members. The 23 Watergate jurors, a cross section of the people of Washington, closely followed the case as it evolved from a foolish burglary imo a plethora of dirty deeds. The cover-up came apart before their eyes White House witnesses lied and cried. The high *ere humbled; careers were ruined. In the end. t h e y concluded, that the President was implicated. Seven days after they named him an "unindicted co-conspirator," we reported that they believed he was involved in both "the Watergate cover- up" and "an alleged conspiracy to buy the silence of the Watergate defendants." We even gave the nose count on March 7, reporting that all but four of the 23 grand jurors (sought) some way to hold Nixon accountable for tha cover-up'' but "the prosecution informed them it would be impossible to indict a sitting President." The best commentary was given by President Nixon himself who declared over nationwide television on April 30. 1973: "It is essential that we place our faith..especially in the judiciary system." Bicentennial Countdown Underway By Richard L. Worsnop The 200th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence is still two years off, but bicentennial celebrations already are under way. That they are is cause to wonder. Three years ago, when plans for a bicentennial exposition in Philadelphia were foundering, Mayor Frank Rizzo lamented: "The way it is goin£. we'll, have the police band at Independence Hall playing the Star-Spangled Banner, and that will be it." Indeed, the expostiion idea was subsequently shelved. But Philadelphia and other cities and towns are pressing ahead with a varied program of bicentennial events, largely at local initiative. As President Nixon observed in a radio address on March 10: "In 1976. there will be no single city in which we celebrate our 200th aniversaty and no sirfgle exhibition to our progress. No one city could be big enough. All America will be the showcase." Utilizing its own cultural resources, Philadelphia has put together what amounts to a two-year-long festival of music, dance and drama. One of the highlights is expected to be a series of concerts in 1976 by the Philadelphia Orchestra. -American compositions, including a major new work by Leonard Bernstein, will b« emphasized. Cities such as Cleveland and New York are restoring waterfront and downtown areas a* part of their bicentennial activities. Spokane already has done so in preparing the site to Expo '74. which includes both environmental and bicentennial- related exhibits. ..BUSINESSMEN, meanwhile. are making their own bicentennial plans. Bh the time July 4. 1976, dawns, the American public will be awash in a sea of memorabilia. Souvenir shops will be selling the u s u a l commemorative kitsch--plates, mugs, ashtrays and T-shirts. But more expensive merchandise will be available, too. One of the bicentennial-inspired items stocked by a B o s t o n jewelry firm- is a metal figurine of Paul Revere on his midnight ride, priced at »1,60Q. The Revere Copper and Brass Co. is making $1,000 Revolutionary chess sets featuring figures of George Washington and Betsy Ross Matched against King George II and his Queen. Even the British, of all people, are getting into the act. The British Overseas Trad* Board has produced a brochure advising British business firms on what to sell Americans in the bicentennial period and how to sell it. In addition, a British Bicentennial Liaison Committee has been set up to encourage cultural and artistic events at well as historical observances. NEW YORK design consultant Leslie Tillett has gone s» far as to predict the bicentennial will spark "a return of the 18th-century colonial, Georgian look. The American middle class is about to rediscover Georgian." Presumably he did not mean the American! win take to wearing powdered wig* and knee breeches, tat yo» never can tell. Some thoughtful citizens, including John D. Rockefeller 3rd, are fearful lest bicentennial hoopla obscure the deeper meaning of the event. "If thrt were * comfortable and tcdal* period in our history, the bicentennial coutd be merely a celebration, · national birthday party.V he wrote. "But this it a time of severe stress and uncertainty ebout the More. H K a time for patriotism in tit* deepes and trues sense of he term, a time not for a birthday Ideally, it will be a time for party, but for a rebirth." (EBB)

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