Jlortfjtoost grfeantf ttfimof Editorial-Opinion Pag* ThÂ« Public Mere** 1Â» Tht First Concern Of TWÂ» tfewpaper 4 Â« TUESDAY, MAY M, 1974 Greek Junta May Topple In June Ground Rules For Plumbers r Federal Judge Gerhard A. Gesell is proving as tough a nut for the White House gang to crack as Watergate cover-up nemisis Judge John Sirica. GeselPs insistence that the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution means what it says is putting the White House "Plumbers" in an awkward spot. :Â· Judge Gesell is presiding over the trial ol five Plumbers, charged with burglarizing the offices of Dr. Lewis Fielding, the psychiatrist of Pentagon Papers principal Daniel EHsberg, Why the break-in was carried out remains unknown. The White House implies a matter of "national security," but Judge Gesell wonders aloud why even national security matters can't be handled by constitutional process and legally authorized agencies of the federal government. Implicit in the very act of creating the Plumbers, it seems to many, is President Nixon's knowledge of what they were attempting to do. But Mr. Nixon denies now that he was privy, even though at one point he was suggesting that national security (the Pentagon Papers leak) was HIS concern in the matter, which by inference might lead one to conclude that he did, indeed, know something of what was going on. Now, though, he denies it, and on that basis Judge Gesell will hold trial. The presidential loophole, at least, is closed barring some dramatic new bit of evidence. So it gets back to the Fourth Amendment. The judge was obliged, almost at the outset, to remind the defendants' lawyers what the Fourth says -"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized." There was no warrant for the Fielding- Ellsberg break-in, nor has it ever been made clear what the searchers were after. The Fourth Amendment is not so complicated that one should encounter trouble over the need for warrant and probable cause, stated for the record, Judge Gesell tells the defendants' lawyers. These gentlemen now face the task of convincing the judge otherwise, and in view of the law's capacity for compassion they may well do it part way. Chuck Colson, John Ehrlichman, G. Gordon Liddy, Bernard Baker and Eugenio Martinez may never serve a day in federal pen. But Judge Gesell has singled out a central issue for the trial that will not be obscured by claim of either national security or executive privilege. The issue, Gesell says, is the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, and the result -- no matter what happens to the Plumbers -- will surely be a fresh appreciation and recognition by the court for the priceless safeguard and guideline contained in the Bill of Rights. In its way, the Plumbers may have fixed a leak at that. By JACK ANDERSON W A S H I N G T O N - T h e military junta now in power in Greece will be toppled before the end of June. This is the grim estimate of experts on Greek affairs at the State Department. Pentagon an d Central Intelligence Agency. The expected revolt could bring to power forces hostile to the United States which would be an irreparable blow to the Western alliance. For sinlce the end of World War II. Greece has been the cornerstone of Western defenses in the Mediterranan. The U.S. stands to lose strategic air bases In Athens and on Crete, and smaller installations throughout Greece. Recently constructed "home- porting" facilities in Athens Tor Sixth Fleet destroyers would have to be abandoned. Lost, also, would be a powerful Voice of America transmitter. The daily cable traffic from Athens tells of chaos inside the c u r r e n t government. Gen. Dimitrios loannnides, commander of the military police and the real power behind the scenes. Is, in the words of one U.S. expert, a "political primitive." The men he has chosen to run the government, we are told, are of a similar ilk. loannides is not even in firm control of his own military. Ho recently took a field trip to the T h i r d Army area, near Salonika, for example., and o r d e r e d t h e commanding general to assemble his troops for a review. The Third Army commander refused. Had the administration only signaled some displeasure with the ruling junta, the loss of a valued ally would not be inv The Washington Merry-Go-Round From The Readers Viewpoint No Choice To the Editor: Last week there were two letters from the people in the NWA Times, one from Lt. Col. J. J. Holland in w h i c h he pointed out some of the faults of Senator Fulbright, especially the Senator's hate for the military forces of the U.S.A.. and one from Reuben Thomas, who tried to counter what Col. Holland had to say. Mr. Thomas seemed to think that he was really stooping to answer a poor, humble LI. Col. of the U.S Army, but. for my part. 1 will accept Cot. Holland's opinion, if [or no other reason, because he was a member of an organization that has done something in the past besides talk. Now you know that most of the editors of the state prefer Mr. Fulbright because of his long tenure in office, and are against Gov. Faubus for the same reason. This has been manifest ever since Faubus ran for his third term. Mostly I am against Fulbright for the of the Foreign Relations Committee, and his Fulbright Scho- Military, his work as chairman lars and exchange students, reasons that most of his admirers are for him. that is, long tenure in office, the Tonkin Bay Resolution, his hate (or the U.S. I am also against Dale Bumpers for his obvious liberality in Government and his inexperience. I am only sorry that we do not have someone of a different caliber to vote for in the senatorial race. We have only one con- From Our Files; How Time Fliesl JO YEARS AGO Â· The annual Memorial Day pro gram, 5 ponsored by the ."-American Legion at the Â·'Â·National Cemetery is set for - 10:30 a.m. Saturday. It will ;:5o VEARS AGO Â·Â·'Â·Â· The home of Mrs. Jpsaphine . Martin, East Mountain, was ."struck by lightning shortly Â·/after seven o'clock this morning . and slightly damaged. Â·X Fines of two dollars each -.were assessed against Dewey Â· Scrogins and Elliott Dickson by ; Judge W. F. Stirman on ; charges of parking on a paved' street between the hours of two YEARS AGO , ; We had the pleasure on .Thursday last of shaking the .hands of many of our old com- "rades in arms. "The days that tried men's souls" were brought vividly to mind. The boys who wore the gray and stood "shoulder to shoulder" battling for include a color guard, color bearers, and a firing squad provided by members of the National Guard. and six a.m., blocking the street sweeper. A resolution condemning the unwarranted severity of highway department officials here in pouncing upon and embarrassing tourists and out-of- stalc visitors for violations of local traffic ordinances was adopted today noon by the Lions Club. our beautiful and beloved South, will never forget that four year itruggle for independence. Butter is now selling at this place at 15 cents per pound and eggs at 8 cents a doz. How is that for low? Keep cool-by drinking Con- ner'i ice-cold lemonade. They'll Do It Every Time BttSfK/CAN SOLVE Au-KoeLEMSiHO INS THE POWER. SOWHOGOSSTO 8OTMIHTHETV 60*6 Â»U. BUST? solation and that is no matter who wins we will be rid of one of them. Now, concerning Mr. Fulbright's hate for the military, he had better change his mind. In the first place we are heading for a great fall with our volunteer Army. We are getting people of low character and people who join:, for the money. What all Americans had better know is that every man should be required to serve in the armed forces, with no exceptions. We have to have a strong military or we are dead. All the liberal do-gooders in the world will not change Russia and China in their race to bury America. Mr. Fulbright and Mr. Thomas had better honor the Military and men like Col. Holland. He and his kind stood in the way of the foreign hordes that would have buried us in the past generation while Fulbright and Thomas were talking their heads off saying nothing. No one regrets the war in Vietnam more than I, but I never did change my mind about it, from its inception. I say the worst thing that came out of it was the demoralizing of the character of the American soldiers. Some of those who walked back are still worse off than some who were killed. There are things worse than death. Tom Lavender Fayetteville And Apathy To the Editor: I appreciated the scope and 74, "Political Preference in intent of your editorial of 5-16- NWA." Journalists, s c h o l a r s , a n d political analysts have frequently proffered the concepts of "party loyalty" and a "loyal opposition" as guarantees for responsible, representative government. However, we are all aware of the fact that even during hotly contested elections, e.g., the U.S. Senate race here in Arkansas, only half of the people really give "politics" more than a second thought (witness the "record" turnouts for state, local and special-district elections). This is not to lament Mr. Auspitz (of Harvard) and his critique of the "independent voter." He is probably correct In his assessment of the independent voter in the political process -- who "bitches more frequently than he votes" (my paraphrase). The fact is, however, that there is a tendency in the country today for one to call him-herself an "independent" rather than admit to a party identity. (In addition to our "incidental" findings, sec The Gallup Opinion Index, Sept. 1973). What this seems to suggest is that, indeed, only about half of the people are interested enough in the nation's political well-being to take a stand and support-defend a political party. As much as we might like to think that most citizens take more than a passing interest in politics, it just ain't so! Kenneth D. Bailey (Director. Opinion Survey-Research Corp.) Fayetteville P.S.: Tne following data shows the trend for party Identification in NWA: Rep. Dem. Ind. Hay 74 17 12 47 Apr 14 13 34 SI Jan '74 16 28 5i Nor '73 16 M 48 Oct '73 18 Jl 45 In addition, there wai an average of about 5 per cent. minent. Because many Greeks distrust the United States for its support of the repressive regime, experts say, the next leaders of Greece may be hostile. Storm warnings were up as recently as January, when a congressional study mission returned from Athens and reported that "the present government cannot long endure." Former Greek officials also have visited the United States to ask American support for some sort of "democratic restoration." Nicholas Makarezos, a vice premier under Prime Minister G e o r g e Papadopoulos, for example, urged U.S. backing for the return of former Prime Karamanlis. now living in Paris. And John Zighdis, a prominent parliamentarian, proffered his warnings before Congress at great personal risk. GREENBACK SHOWER Uncle Sam's largesse toward the oil barons is legendary, but now he may have outdone himself. A recent Federal E n e r g y Administration r u l i n g will shower $1.7 million in government greenbacks upon Shell and and Mohawk oil companies, which arc hardly needy enterprises. The ruling was made, an FEA spokesman deadpanned, in order to make oil pricing regulations more consistent. The new ruling allows the two oil firms to buy Navy oil for about $5 per barrel, instead of about $9 per barrel. Not only must the Navy give Strange Appetite up $4 per barrel for the sake of consistency, the FEA has ruled, but the Navy must also reimburse the two. compeniea for oil they purchased at the higher price since last October. Not that the admirals are eager to sell off the crude from the Naval Petroleum Reserves, mind you. They are compelled by law to pump the oil. supposedly to keep the field ready in case of a military emergency. The admirals cant even choose the purchaser. They are forced to sell the oil to Shell and Mohawk only. Previously, the FEA permitted the Navy to sell its oil at prevailing market prices. But the new ruling decrees that the Navy crude came from wells' existing before the Arab oil embargo and. therefore, must be sold at pre-embargo prices. Bot the Navy and Rep. John Moss, D-Calif., have raised a howl over the ruling. But the FEA won't reverse^ Itself. A spokesman claimed that the ruling would help the consumers, since the oilmen are required to pass their savings on to the public. LUCRE FOR LITTON: Apparently, President Nixon has given his personal approval to a scheme which would eliminate thousands of civilian employes on military bases and turn their work over to big defense contractors. The giants of the industry, such as Lockheed, RCA and ITT, would take over such functions as transportation, food A Potpourri Excerpts From The World Of Thought services, hospitals, engineering, postal services tnd aircraft maintenance on the bases. The idea of letting commercial contractors handle the "operational support services w a s concocted by tha president's budget slashers, whose boss is Roy Ash. One of the chief benefactors of the scheme, it Is expected, will be Litton Industries, the firm founded by Ash. He left Litton IB months ago to join the White House. When we first told about the contracting scheme last December, the budget office claimed the matter was so routine that Ash was not aware of It. But now it turns out that Presiden Nixon himself is pushing it.Â· This is apparent from a packet of documents which D e p u t y Defense Secretary William Clements r e c e n t l y distributed to the various military services. Among the papers, explaining the new contracting concept, is a "Dear Jim" letter from the president to Defense Secretary James Schlesinger. The letter applauds the "management program that we launched a year ago." FOOTNOTB: T h e "contracting out" plan has outraged Rep. Jerome Waldie, D-Calif.. who is investigating it. "It is nothing more than a cover-up for the administration's basic Big Business Was," he told us. He charged that the contractors would work on a "cost-plus' 1 basis, which would "inevitably cost the taxpayers more money than if career civil servants do the Job." Lowering The Moral P E R S I A N GULF CONFRONTATION. Stanley Karnow, "Confrontation in the Persian Gulf," The New Republic, May 4, 1974, pp. 15-17. "The purported aim of the Nixon doctrine is to lower the American profile in Uie world as the U.S. and its adversaries turn from Cold War confrontation to 'the era of negotiation.' In reality the administration continues to assert its global ambitions indirectly by arming and encouraging surrogates to pursue policies the U.S. is supposed to have abandoned." "Nowhere is this double- edged policy being carried out more strenuously than in the Persian Gulf. The U.S. is supplying Iran. Saudi Arabia and "other states with huge quantities of sophisticated weapons as well as with advisers and technical assistance, and, in the process, transforming the a r e a into a bristling arsenal." "Matching the buildup is a Pentagon effort to get permanent U.S. naval forces into the nearby Indian Ocean, which until now has been outside tlie sphere of American interests. The Implications of this military push are considerable. The U.S. is increasingly courting the risk of involvement in local disputes between its clients and their neighbors and could become committed to the defense of regimes threatened internally. AD this has prompted a Soviet response that seems to be steering us back to stormy seas the President and Secretary of State KiÂ»sin- ger sometimes suggest are behind a*. FOREIGN POLICY JARGON. lSÂ«TDÂ»i Cvnta, "The De- njntiQcatioa of U.S. Foreign Policy," Saturday Review- World, May 4, 1974, p. 4. "The entire field of foreign p o l i c y is becoming the mysterious and mystifying domain of think-tank planners, computer specialists, war-game theoreticians a n d military academicians. There is a fascination with obscurantism and a preoccupation with abstractions. U.S. foreign policy is becoming so overloaded with murkly language and gobbledygook that it is losing all connection with the American people" "In a free society, the government has a mandate to state its underlying objectives in terms that are not just understandable but resonant The rarefied concepts--no less than the terminology--of the think- tank specialists are unworkable precisely because they lack lines of solid connection to the people in whose name the concepts are being advanced. Phrases like 'total mega tonnage,' 'graduated deterrents,' 'risk acceptances,' are of interest only to think-tank specialists on the other side." ' ' T h e de-mystification of American foreign policy should be an essential ingredient of any program designed to strengthen public understanding of and support for our actions in the world arena. So is the need for evidence that our foreign policy has a reasonable consistency and is the source, rather than the consequence, of military planning." MEXICAN DEVELOPMENT. Mirth C. Needier, "Mexico's G r o w i n g Pains," Current History. May 1174, pp. 193-1M. "It may be, as some observers have argued, that many countries of Latin America, Asia and Africa can bÂ» called 'developing' only by courtesy. If any country deserves to be called 'developing.' however, Mexico is the one. In fact, it is impossible to understand Mexico except as a country that is developing, that is. changing steadily in the direction of higher per capita income, more modern attitudes, and a greater degree of national integration." "Development in this sense is shown in a variety of indicators: the spectacular annual increases of between 7 and 10 per cent in gross national product over the last 15 or 20 years; the steady drop in the percentage of illiterates until today illiterates make up less than a quarter of the population: the movement to the cities, which has left more than half of all Mexicans urban, at least by census definition. Indicators of development also abound in the political system. ' Thus, the percentage of the population voting in presidential elections has steadily risen... The influence of the military i n politics has steadily d e c r e a s e d , with generals disappearing in sequence from the presidency, the ministries in the Cabinet not concerned with the armed forces, and the governorships." "But development has not been smooth and painless. On the contrary. Mexico has encountered severe problems-social, political and economic-and indeed the difficulties Uw country is passing through at present could fairly be termed a crisis. It would be mistaken, however, to ten the story of Mexico only In terms of the problems, the difficulties, and the cost*. The achievement* are real; they an cumulative; and en most accountings they outweigh the cost* of tha process." Standards By ART BUCHWALD WASHINGTON - The Environmental Morality Agency has just announced that it was lowering its moral standards for the next two years. Fosdick Fleigenheimer told me, "We feel we can lower the. moral level of the country without its becoming hazardous to anyone's health." "But why?" I protested. "The whole idea behind the Environ- m e n t a l Morality Agency mandate was to clean up the political pollution in the country." "We don't like to lower tha standards." Fleigenheimer said, "but we have no choice. If we raise the levels of morality in 1974, we could cause massive unemployment on Capitol Hill in November. We also feel that Congress and the administration need more time to study the best way of doing away with political pollution. I assure you the agency is still very concerned about the problem, but we do have to consider the costs." "WHAT ABOUT the public? They were counting on higher moral standards after Watergate." "We've done some extensive testing in our laboratories, and we've discovered that tha average American can take far more lying from his government than anyone thought he could. We know that we can increase the dose of false statements and contradictions three times the present level, and people could still live with it. While cleaning up the Watergate atmosphere is an ideal goal, Congress and the president do not want to Uirow out the baby with Uie bath water." "That ; s well put," I told Fleigenheimer. "But aien't you going to have.to do something within the next two years to show the country you are sincere about instituting higher m o r a l standards in tha government?" "I assure you we're doing everything we can within reason. The do-gooders want us to destroy the whole system in the name of morality. But it can't be done overnight. The important thing to remember is that we have been living very well with low morality level* for a long time. Some peopl* have even thrived on them." WHO SETS the morality standards for the country?" I asked. "The president of the United States. He is in the best position to know just how much morality the country can stand." "But according to the transcripts, the president was shown to have very low moral standards. Isn't it dangerous to let one man have that much power?" "Possibly. But as Father McLaughlin, who is the White House adviser, put it, 'Who wants a saint in the White House?' " "That's true. But in 1968 President Nixon said he would clean up the political climate produced by the Democrats by 1972. Now it turns out the atmosphere is so bad you can choke on it." "NOBODY'S PERFECT," Fleigenheimer said defensively. "If the president of the United States can live with lower moral standards, so can the rest of the country." "Suppose Ralph Nader or John Gardner sues your agency for not carrying out the provisions of the Political Clean Air Act. What will you do then?" "We'd hare to defend ours e l v e s . Well tap their telephones, audit their income taxes, break into their offices a n d ^ steal their doctors' records." "That should do It," I said. Fleigenheimer said, "Yon hare to keep m mind political expediency in Washington must always have priority orer unrealistic moral standnds. Otherwise everyone hi thai town would be out of a Job." - -- t.
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