What's Behind Current Wave of Bombings in the South? THE latest explosion in the South, this time in a Jewish temple in Atlanta, should serve to blast law-abiding citizens everywhere out of their complacency. It is perhaps fruitless to speculate on the motive of those who for the second Sunday in a row disturbed the peace of the nation with dynamite blasts. Last week it was the integrated school in Clinton, Tenn., a rather obvious attack on a community which was earning out school integration wun apparent success. Vhv the Atlanta temple was marked for destruction is not exactly known, although it fits into a pattern of previous outrages, including the bombing of Jewish places of worship in Miami and Jacksonville, Fla., and Toward Peace Of a Sort IF THE current series of disjointed, unilateral actions which seem to be leading toward peace in the Formosa Straits should indeed bring stability to the area, professional diplomats may well wring their hands in despair for their own future as well as that of their profession. While formal negotiations between U.S. and Communist Chinese diplomats at Warsaw are deadlocked, strategic military retreats in the Quemoy and Matsu area seem to be accomplishing . .1 ...... Wlldl MIC IlCgUllUUt WCIC Sltiviug for. The United States made it clear some weeks ago that it would like a cease-fire in the straits. The' Communists could hardlv accede without loss of face. But thev did stop their artillery bombardment Oct. 5, for one week giving humanitarian reasons, thus carrying out the pretense, at least, that they were ignoring U.S. wishes. The Communists demanded that U.S. convoys to Quemoy be halted. U.S. officials quickly agreed that if there was no bombardment, no convoys were needed, and they were stopped. This week the Communists announced a two-week extension of the cease-fire,and Secretary of Defense Neil McEIroy said that U.S. forces would not remain in the Formosa area indefinitely, and, there were indications that reinforced 7th Fleet units in the a:ea will be cut back soon. The biggest moves are still to be made, however. Both President Eisenhower and Secretary of State Dulles indicated in their most recent policy statements that evacuation of the offshore islands might be expected. In order to accomplish such an evacuation the United States must deal with the bellicose-sounding Nationalist leader, Chiang Kai-shek. It is not likely that United States officials will make their big move without some renunciation bv the Communists W plans to take the mainland of Formosa by force. But at the rate the long-distance-sparring type of diplomacy is progressing, peace of a sort may reign in the Formosa Straits SOOn- Memo from Nikita Khrushchev to Soviet tipplers: Don't drink imperialist shpies may be lishening. Headline Couple Married in Cave. The report fails to mention swhcther the bride was carried over the threshold or dragged by the hair. N Soviet scientists now have pill to take for radiation sickness. Apparently that was easier than achieving a world ban on nuclear test blasts. A Long, Weary Leg ml Battle GOV. ORVAL E. Faubus of Arkansas Monday was refused a Supreme Court review of an injunction barring use of the National Guard at a Little Rock school in 1957. On the same day the Supreme Court agreed to review a decision relative to Virginia laws designed to curb the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. v Also on Monday the high court refused to review decision nullifying a Louisiana law reauiring certificate of eligibility for admission to state educational institutions. One theme stands out in this parade of integration-related decisions by the Supreme Court. The 1954 court decision which ordered integration in public Schools with deliberate speed bore I - Editorials: 00 Nashville, Tenn.JDfficiaIs of the Anti-Defamation League have expressed fears hat a human life may be taken next. In a larger sense, it makes no difference whether - the attack comes against a public school in retaliation for the integration of white and Negro students or against a Jewish place of worship because of anti-Semitism. Anvone who could commit such outrages undoubtedly could respond to the one impetus as well as the other. Public officials, including Gov. Marvin Griffin, have expressed shock over the explosion in Atlanta. Mavor William B. Harts-field says it was done "bv rabble-rousers operating on hate" and cited instances of hate magazines and other literature circulating in little semblance of finality; it was the beginning of what promises to-be a long struggle over integration. The diversity of the cases before the Supreme Court gives some indication of the strategic nature of the struggle and the complexity of the legal problems involved. Because of early ineffectiveness of executive efforts to resolve the integration problems and because of the difficulty of marshaling legislative unity sufficient to deal with the subject, the Battle has become primarily a judicial one. The South's massive resistance program involves state-by-state legal thrusts, some of them directly connected with plans to limit entrance to schools, as in the case of the Louisiana certificates, and some of them only remotely linked, as the Virginia attempt to suppress the NAACP. Valiance is often attributed to the military, seldom to the judiciary. In consideration of the total effort in the evolution toward integration it appears that the courts may well earn the accolade. The Kremlin has entered the winner of the Russian Derby in the Washington International at Laurel Park, and a sportsman down the street wants to know what a two-ruble ticket was worth to Ivan on the horse's last out ing. When we read about the sale at auction of abandoned country schools, we always wonder if the best spellers and sharpest penmen of 40 or 50 years ago are able to outbid their contemporaries who flunked. The Right Way To Win Friends DEVELOPMENTS in the two-week-old African state of Guinea tend to accentuate the need for a more vigorous, better-designed program to win friends and influence people abroad for the United States.' Guinea was the only one of the French territories voting for independence in the momentous election called by French Premier Charles de Gaulle Sept. 28 for approval of his new constitution and key territorial matters. The Soviet Union quickly recognized the newly - independent African state and offered aid. So far the United States has done neither. Guinea's leader, Sekou Toure, is a Marxist with no apparent link to Moscow. He has so far declined Soviet offers of aid. But he is being urged to accept by another African state in which the newness of independence has not vet worn off Ghana. There are new rumblings of nationalism in Africa. A cold shoulder from France might turn Guinea to Moscow. Too much sympathy might convince the other territories that independ-erice is preferable if French support is forthcoming anvbow. Should these other territories choose independence, the economic cold war fronts would be multiplied. The United States can ill afford to ignore the needs of such nations and drive, them to communism. Monetary aid, by itself, is probably not the answer. Reports from Latin American countries, where both the Americans and the Soviets are vying for goodwill, indicate that Moscow radio programs are preferred to those presented by the United States, even though the propaganda intent from Moscow is recognized. A U.S. foreign policy better attuned to the culture of tlc, various nations is imperative if America is to keep pace with the Moscow campaign for public approbation in Africa " and Latin America. rs nions the city. The moral in all this seems so simple, it is almost painful to draw k that is, that lawless elements, always ready to take advantage of civil commotion and emergencies, have been encouraged by the defiance of the law displayed by political leaders, the so-called white citizens' councils and other reputable people. Political leaders who have made public and unrestrained ' attacks on the Supreme Court and lower federal courts and have pledged "massive resistance" to the law of the land cannot escape the responsibility for the present wave of dynamitings, even though they sincerely abhor such violence. Respect for the law, like freedom itself, is not indivisible. Exchange Table " ' Minus and Plus In TV Teaching Christian Science Monitor WHEN the student on the other end of Mark Hopkins' log began to multiply by hundreds in university classes a generation ago the lecture hall and quiz-section method came into being. Then also was born the waggish comment that the notes of the professor became the notes of the student without passing through the minds of either. Without the quiz section, even though conducted by groping graduate students, this "wise crack" about the lecture method would be uncomfortably valid. With the quiz section, even though conducted by capable instructors, the lecture method never quite fills a yawning gap. In what mav have been the first test of TV instruction imposed by emergency during the closing of the Little Rock high schools the same gap was evident. Perhaps it was even more 'evident because neither the pupils nor the teachers were hardened to the lecture method. The teachers found a phrase for it: one-way education. The gap is the absence of give and take. "Boring." said some of the students. "It's tough when you can't ask questions." But teachers, trying to pitch their instruction at a level which would not lose those who needed to ask, questions met the comment from the keener students, "It's too elementary." Here is the great weakness of TV teaching. To bring it even up to the level of the college lecture system, the equivalent or better of the face-to-face quiz section must be provided. Where this is done it can have one strong point: Like the big lecture hall, it can bring above-average presentation of a subject to an average class of students. As for kibitzing parents who don't have to worry about pass- ing examinations or whether they're being prepared for college work they loved it! IN THE HERALD 25 YEARS AGO TODAY VOLUNTEER workers are carrying the Illinois Agricultural Association's tax reduction drive into every corner of Macon County under the leadership of directors of the County Farm Bureau. Petitions asking that Governor Homer call a special session of the Legislature for amending the revenue statutes are being circulated.' CONSTRUCTION of a $600,000 brewing plant to be operated by the Consumers Ice and Brewing Corp., a new cor-, poration, will be begun about the middle of November. GENEVA A threat that Germany will withdraw from the disarmament conference, and perhaps from the League of Nations if she is not permitted to negotiate freely, tightened yesterday the arms knot with which world statesmen are struggling. WORKMANSHIP Stunning in the sun sheen stands the stone bowl of Babylonian artistsv. Light-splinters shed their luster upon this black diorite bowl, papidary artifact of incised design with walls ground down to the thinness of translucence in sunlight splendor flint fragment of a moment more durable than the rude rock-mass some modern might toss in saucy nonchalance at the sky and hope the hopeless dream that from its heights there will unfurl in the wind-gusts of posterity the banner of his name. Sebastian Falcone. O.F.M. CAP. In The New York Times DECATUR 'You Fellows Forget I Was Shanghaied' Knowland Fights By BERTRAM BENEDICT Washington ! IF WILLIAM-F. Knowland, Republican, wins his uphill fight for the governorship of California, his victory will be laid largely to his advocacy of a "right-to-work" law for the state. In the Nov. 4 referendum on the proposal, a "No" vote is being urged not only by the Democratic candidate for governor, Edmund G. "Pat" Brown, but also by Gov. Goodwin Border Dispute On the Missouri By HOLLIS LIMPRECHT Omaha NOT all border disputes in volve' nations these days. A lively one is under way between Nebras ka and Iowa and although com missions have been formed to set tle the argument amicably, they aren't making much headway. I he meandering Missouri Riv er which separates the two states is the cause of the dispute. During 80-odd years of state hood, the river has wandered back and torth across a flood plain sev eral miles wide. The river banks were designated as the original boundary between the states. But every time the river has wandered or changed its course it has left some of Iowa on the Nebraska side of the river or some of Nebraska in Iowa. One of the most valuable pieces of Iowa on the Nebraska side of the river is Carter Lake, la., a vil lage of some 1 ,600 population. Carter Lake, still Iowan terri tory found itself on the Ncbras- kan side of the river about 60 vears ago when a flood caused a major change in the river s course. Nebraska Irredenta 1 Carter Lake is a thorn in the side of Omaha, Neb., a city of some 320,000 population. The village is located within the Omaha dty limits, and persons wishing to reach the Omaha Municipal Air port from downtown must drive right by it. i What troubles the Nebraskans most is that when Omahans want to do a little after-hours gambling they go to Carter' Lake Iowan territory. Omaha authorities say that Iowa authorities are lax in enforc ing the law in Carter Lake. Stabilization of the Missouri River by the Corps of Engineers in the multimillion - dollar Mis souri basin development program has brought up the subject of reestablishing the border. Gov. Victor Anderson of Nebraska has suggested that the center line of the river be the boun dary. Many Iowans oppose this, as it would place Carter Lake in Nebraska. Tying Down the 'Mo' If the two states' boundary com missions can agree by the first of the year, t heir recommendations will go to the two legislatures for action. Although Iowa and Nebraska certainly will do a good deal of wrangling before reaching a decision, all concerned are hap py to see the Corps of Engineers tie down the Muddv Mo. It would mean the river could never do a repeat on the costly trick it pulled six years ago. Ona-wa, la., and Decatur, Neb., financed and buik bridge over the river to connect the two cities. Shortly after the bridge was finished' the river went on one of its rampages. When the flood water receded, the river had moved its channel several miles into Iowa, leaving the bridge high and drv. It rook nearly three years to get the river back under the bridge. HERALD Uphill Battle Over California Right-to-Work Issue J. Knight; G.O.P. candidate to succeed Knowland in the Senate. Another Califomian, Vice Presi dent Nixon, refuses to take sides on the issue." So does President Eisenhower, who said at his Oct. 1 press conference: "I believe it's the state's business and I am not going to get into it." However, his Secretary of Labor, James P. Mitchell, stands firmly against right-to-work laws. Republican national chairman Meade Alcorn said on Sept. 23 the- G.O.P. GOV. GOODWIN I. KNIGHT Urges 'No' Vote Anyone for Chess? - Brooklyn Teen-Ager Wants to Be By FRANKIE SHARP Of The Associated Press New York THERE'S a Batman comic book on his bedside table and a rock V roll program blaring over his radio. He s slouchy, gangly and crew-cut. cut Batman is sprawled over an open chess book and his nail-bitten fingers are deftly moving chess pieces over the black and white board which means more to him than anything else in his life. Bobby Fischer doesn't want to be a baseball star or a football player or the most popular fellow at the prom. He wants to be chess champion of the world and it seems a pretty sure bet he will be. l' : "1"- f v " V ' ' t y v , t 15-YEAR-OLD CHESS MASTER BOBBY FISCHER Can He Beat the Russians? Strength Through Hatred Anti-U.S. Propaganda Spurs Mainland Chinese By JOHN STROHM New York COMMUNIST China 'is a nation organized to work and to hate. No human beings have ever taken on a more complete mental and physical bondage in order to leap forward into the 20th Century than the subjects of Mao Tse-tung. Nor has human intelligence ever been brain-washed into a more violent hatred of United States leaders. - I have just traveled 7,500 miles behind the Bamboo Curtain which for 10 years has shielded from American view the massive state that calls itself the People's Republic of China. At the height of the Quemov crisis, I have witnessed . a hate- America campaign that extends to the most remote peasant village Was this what the Red Masters of Peiping wanted me to see when would hurt itself by "aggressive advocacy" of them. . . Five other states hold right-to-work referenda on Nov. 4 Colorado, ' Idaho, Kansas, Ohio, Washington. The key decision may be the one in Ohio, an industrial state. If right-to-work wins there and in California, a r tion - wide agitation might well arise to repeal that section (14b) of the Taft - Hartley act which, while banning the closed shop, sanctions the union shop except in states that bar it by right-to-work laws. Eighteen states now have right-to-work legislation. All are classi fied as non-industnal except In diana, where the legislature enacted a right-to-work law last year. Two states, Delaware and New Hamp shire, have repealed such legislation after enacting it. Back in 1944 a referendum in California rejected a proposed right-to-work law overwhelmingly by about 400,000 votes when the state had many fewer voters than now. However, that was before the McClellan Senate committee had spread before the country glaring cases of corruption and malad ministration in certain labor unions. The committee disclosed also instances in which union members who opposed the union administration had suffered reprisals, physical or economic. These last disclosures struck a blow at the ar,u-ment that workers who don't like the way a union operates can re form it by working from the in Most Americans don't know it, but their honor in an international contest with Russia is riding on the thin shoulders of this 15-year-old boy from Brooklyn. . Bobby is hailed by the experts as the greatest chess mind the world has oroduced in many vears. "He doesn't look like one he looks more like a farmer's boy than an intellectual but he is a genius," says Hans Kmoch, secretary of the Manhattan Chess Club, which is the nerve center of chess in the United States. Youngest Grand Master He has become an international grand master the youngest in the long history of the game and will Decatur, Illinois ABOUT THE AUTHOR John Srrohm, an Illinois newsman and author, has just completed a three-week, 7,500 mile tour of Communist China, the first American journalist to make such a trip with the permission of both the U.S. and Chinese governments. they granted me a visa? Or did they accept my statement that I wanted to visit the hums and factories of the New China the China I had first seen' 21 years ago so I could report to the people of America? Sorting Out Impressions" Back home now, I ask myself these questions while sotting out impressions. But the answer is not clear and it may never be. Enough that it happened that I, John Srrohm of Illinois, walked with only minor incidents in the streets, fields and buildings of Red China, snapping pictures with four side. Since the 1944 referendum in California the labor unions as a whole have made even more effective their efforts for laws they like and against others they dislike. On the other hand, manage ment has recently taken steps to be more ettective in the labor legis lation held. Unions' Views . Labor points out that a contract for a union shop under which new non-union workers must after a period of time join the union to retain their jobs can't be adopted unless favored by a major ity of the workers. And Labor ar gues that to let an emplove enjov union-achieved pay, hours, and other benefits while refusing to pay union dues is like freeing a citizen from school taxes because he doesn't like or use public schools. Management argues that the un ion shop is in effect the closed shop except that compulsory union membership is imposed alter a lit tle delay instead of at once. In either case it may prevent an em- plover from having certain work ers he wants. And war veterans who may benefit from American Legion activities are nevertheless not forced to join the Legion. ACH, VIENNA! THE Viennese waltz is now the least-played music in Vienna. Recent statistics show that 65 per cent of the people prefer the polka, 20 per cent the cna-cha-cha and 10 per cent rock n roll. World Champion meet the world's top seven players this year in a challenger's tourna ment. The exact date and place re-rnain to be determined. The winner will get a crack at the present world champion, Rus sia s Mikhail fjotvinnik. " Bobby who could give a clam lessons on how to keep its mouth shut, won't sav what he thinks of his chances. Nobody else thinks he will make it this time. But then, nobody thought he could win the American chera championship at 14 and nobody expected him to do well at the recent international chess tournament in Yugoslavia. Bobby, plaving in his first in ternational competition, tied for fifth place winning his place in the star-studded Uiallengers. Bobby has few friends his own age. He comes home from school about 2 o clock and picks up a chess book. Every spare minute, he is either reading about chess, analyzing moves on his bedside chew board or going somewhere to play chess. "Bobby isn't interested in anybody unless they play chess and there just aren't many kids who like it," says Mrs. Fischer. ' Has Few Friends To make friends with Bobby, you not only have to play chess you have to play good chess. Bobby lives with his mother in a small fourth-floor walkup apartment in a neat section of Brooklyn. His 21 -year-old sister, Joan, lived there too until her marriage last month. Their parents separated when Bobby was 2. . ' 1 Mrs. Fischer, a University of Colorado graduate, ; a registered nurse now earning her NLA degree. Bobby, she says, is no disciplinary problem. "There's nothing to discipline him about," Mrs. Fischer explains. "The onlv thtno I An n mo htm to take his note out of his chess! books and go Outside 'for ' some fresh air." Tuesday, October 14, 1958. cameras, talking with whom I chose and visiting schools, faims$ hospitals and landmarks without prior appointment. v For three weeks I traveled, by automobile, boat, train and ir-plane. My davs began at dawn. ended at midnight. Although I saw militiamen train ing everywhere to repel the U.S. Marines who were expected to storm ashore any dav, I do not be lieve there is danger of full-scale-war in the Formosa strait. This backward people has too much to do to hoist its vast e- '. panding bulk upwards toward seemingly impossible social and industrial goals. It cannot afford war, but n cocky self-confidence it is willing to risk war to infuse an apathetic peasantry with nationalistic pride to drive weary bone and muscle to accomplish prodigious works. The Communists sav over and over that they licked Uncle Sam in Korea. People who know nothing of the power of a modern ' sea and air fleet chatter loudly and arrogantly that America is a "paper tiger." Goodwill Poisoned As one who traveled among the Chinese people 21 years ago, I must report sadly that our once vast reservoir of goodwill built up m China bv generations of good deeds bv U.S. citizens and organ-" izations is now being poisoned by a campaign unequaled in the his tory of the world. I arrived at the tail-end of the hate - America demonstrations in Peiping which sent three million people coursing through the streets' shouting "Down with American imperialism. Americans get out of Asia ot be smashed. But this was no window dressing in the capital. Even-where in north, central and south China I' saw my country portrayed as bloody-fanged wolf, a ruthless and ravaging soldier or a dollar-bloated ' Uncle Sam. Even-one I talked with farmer, housewife, factory manager or" official lectured me on the evils of American imperialism. A militiaman in a Nanking factory shouted he was teady to work or go to the front and he shoved his rifle into my stomach to dra-' matize his feelings to the first American he'd ever met. 1 Hatred Into Labor Force He added that his farmers were so indignant they worked 15 davs and nights to overfulfil! die farm, plan clear-cut example of the transmutation of hatred into labor force. v A woman chairman of a neigh- borhood cooperarive in Tientsin said her neighbors were so in-, censed that 130 of the women are learning to shoot rifles to defend their homes against America. As I stepped out of the Church of Christ in Nanking on a Sun-. dav morning a voung man greeted me cordially in English, hut when he found out I was an American he demanded: "Why do vou want to invade China?" I could not persuade him to talk about religion, or anything else. He would only rant against aggressors. j A worker in I lankow tame over and gave me a written protest against "American butchery" when I walked through hog- killing plant. Chinese officials assert that 300 million Chinese have demonstrated against American imperialism." I-rom all I saw, I believe that figure. Satirize America ' On my first day in China I was treated to a street show bv truck- . load of opera students. They first drummed ftp a crowd by bearing on drums and cymbals, then put on a skit with this cast of characters: a corpse, represented by an actor dressed like Criang Kai-shek; a pompous, silk-hatted John Foster Dulles and an Eisenhower, with painted grin, army uniform and golf stick as a cane. Ike says: "Dulles, I authorize you to do the talking." Dulles tries to pump up Chiang with a tire pump filled with dollars. Eut the imperialists are swept away by victoriou Chinese workers "producing 10 million tons of steel this year," by farmers "doubling their crop thi year" and by soldiers who "won the war in Korea." Everybody howls at the gooi clean Communist fun and th show moves on to another stand? ing-room-oniy performance on another street. , - Later I read a Chinese News Agency dispatch which reported with straight face that workers in a tobacco factory in Carlton con pleted 600 such opera skits and folk songs on American aggrestio in just half a day-i-as kingsized blending of art, nicotine and off cial poison as any dicutonhia could ever boast! ':-'
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