The Algona Upper Des Moines from Algona, Iowa on December 16, 1896 · Page 6
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The Algona Upper Des Moines from Algona, Iowa · Page 6

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Wednesday, December 16, 1896
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Wt*4t fetteftt Sfctfcrtetrr trans* d* til* ttoban «t Sottc Length—Jf tot Antoaetn}-—*Wi«ir* ota ttie fart of Spain itlght inrtte On* Int*rfej-ence—the m*nl»n OntmpesAr "Mhirlff abd *Taant*—A Roust tot the Imsts. Washington, D. C., Dec. t.—Presi- dent Cleveland to-day transmitted his annual message to congress. Condensed* it is as follows: To the Congress of the United State?: —As representatives of the people in the legislative branch of their government, you have assembled at a time When the strength and excellence of our free institutions and the fitness of oiir citizens to enjoy popular rule have been again made manifest. A political contest Involving momentous consequences, fraught with feverish apprehension, and creating aggressiveness BO Intense as to approach bitterness and passion, has been waged throughout our land, and determined by the decree of free and independent suffrage, without disturbance of our tran- qulllty or the least sign of weakness in our national structure. When we consider these incidents and contemplate the peaceful obedience and manly submission which have succeeded a heated clash of political opinions, we discover abundant evidence of a determination on the part of our countrymen to abide by every verdict of the popular will, and to be controlled at all times by an abiding faith in the agencies established for the direction of the affairs of their government. Thus our people exhibit a patriotic disposition, which entitles 'them to demand of those who undertake to make and execute their laws such faithful and unselfish service in their behalf as can only be prompted by a serious appreciation of the trust and confidence which the acceptance of public duty invites. , f •In obedience to a constitutional requirement I herein submit to the congress certain information concerning national affairs with the suggestion of ffuch legislation as in my judgment is necessary and expedient. To secure brevity and avoid tiresome narration, I shall omit many details concerning matters within federal control which, though by no means unimportant, are more profitably discussed in departmental reports. I shall also further curtail this communication by omitting a minute recital of many minor Incidents connected with our foreign relations which have heretofore found a place in executive messages but are now contained in a report of the Treasury of State. '• ARMENIAN AFFAIRS. ft I* reptWS&i indeed, Oh rei»|fe authority, that, at the demand of tire eommatider-ln-chlef of the msnrfetjt army, the putative Cuban go**rnm*fct has now siren ap an attempt to «ft* erclse its function*. Irving that government confessedly (what there Is tt*» best reason for supposing it always. to have been in tact} a gorern- tswat awrsly on paper, tf ere tn« Sjpan- i.h armies aMe to meet their antagonists tn the open or In pitched battle, prompt and decisive results might be lookel for. and the immense superiority of the Spanish forces In numbers. discipline, and equipment, could hardly fall to tell greatly to their advantage. But they are called upon to face a foe that shuns general engagements, that can choose and does choose Its own ground, that from the nature of the country is visible or invisible at pleas- *hlch plainly dictate that right Sot m!s*t should be the rule of IttcOfr- ^ ^.t^r-1 am g-t-^g^»fe.^ S, ^fe. 2-va-?3s&te.y*..«i »*»* frtBit W* SfcctM <t**t**t Jfottfcer. though tie United State* IS not a nation to which peace la a neces- It to ifi truth the most pacific of s, *M de*ires nothing SO Mittch to live la amity frith all th« world, Its 0*n ample and diversified domains satisfy an pre&bte longings fof territory. preclude all dreams of "At the outset of a reference to the more important matters affecting our relations with foreign powers, it would afford me satisfaction if I could assure the congress that the disturbed condition in Asiatic Turkey had, during the past year, assumed a less hideous and bloody aspect, and that either as a consequence of the awakening of the Turkish government to the demand of humane civilization, or as the result, of decisive action on the part of the great nations having the right, by treaty, to interfere for the protection of those exposed to the rage of mad bigotry jind cruel fanaticism, the shocking feature of the situation had been mitigated. In- Etead, h- "/ever, of welcoming a softened disposition or protective intervention, we have been afflicted by continued and not unfrequent reports of the wanton destruction of homes and the blooCy butchery of men, women and children, made martyrs to their profession of Christian faith. While none of our citizens in Turkey have thus far been killed or wounded, though often in the midst of dreadful scenes of danger, their safety in the future is by no means assured. Our government at home and our minister at Constantinople have left nothing undone to protect our missionaries in Ottoman territory, who constitute nearly all the Individuals residing,'>ere who have a - right to claim our protection on the score of American citizenship. Our efforts in this direction will not be relaxed; but the deep feeling and sympathy that have been aroused among our people ought not to so far blind their reason and judgment as to lead them to demand impossible things, 'i he outbreaks of blind fury which lead to murder and pillage in Turkey occur suddenly and without notice, and an attempt on our part to force such a hostile presence there as might be effective for prevention or protection would not only be resisted by the Ottoman government but would be retarded as an interruption of their clans by the great nations who assert their exclusive right to intervene in their own time and method for the security of life and property in Tur ; ItlyT I do not believe that the present somber prospect In Turkey will be long permitted to offend the sight of Christendom. It so mars the humane enlightened civilization that be- WIIB* to the close of the nineteenth century th&t It seems hardly possible thtt the eaVnest demand of good people throughout the Christ an world for tt» corrective treatment will remain unanswered* _ SPAIN ANP CUBA. yuv J»Miw*crJo»" '» Cuba, ," The insurrection In Cuba still continues-with all Us perplexities. It Is -",lt to perceive that any progress hus far been made toward the -' of the island or that the Of affairs as depicted in my ai message has in the least If Spain still holds Havana eanorts and »H the consider* insurgents still roam at. i#st two thirds of the country, If the determination *-- put flown the insurrection t-i ti,~_v w |£jj I-JJQ j^pse • un)w!' increased _..„, . the task , JQ I>eil6vp that :aArie4M P^W^Pl ure. and that fights only from cade and when all the advantages of position and numbers are on its side. In a country where atl that Is Ihdi?- pensable to lite in the way of food. clothing and shelter is so easily obtainable. especlallv by those born and bred on the soil, it Is obvious that there is hardly a limit to the time during which hostilities of this sort may be prolonged. Meanwhile, as in all cases of protracted civil strife, the passions of the combatants grow more and more Inflamed and excesses on both sides become more frequent and mar? deplorable. They are also participated in by bands of marauders who now in the name of one party and now in the name of the other as may best suit the occasion, harry the country at will and plunder Its wretched inhabi* tants for their own advantage. Such a condition of things would Inevitably entail immense destruction of property even if It were the policy of both parties to prevent it as far as practicable. But while such seemed to be the original policy of the Spanish government, It has now apparently abandoned it and is acting 1 upon the same- theory as the insurgent?, namely: that the exigencies of the contest require the wholesale annihilation of property that It may not prove of use and advantage to the enemy. Decay of Cuban Indnitty. It is to the same end that In pursuance of general orders Spanish garrl- I sons are now being- withdrawn from ' plantations and the rural population required to concentrate Itself In the towns. The sure result would seem to be that the Industrial value of the island is fast diminishing, and that unless .there is a speedy and radical change in existing conditions it will soon disappear altogether. That value consists very largely, of course, in Ha -apacity to.. produce sugar— a. 'capacity si'ready much reduced by the interruptions to tillage which have taken place dur'ng the last two years. It Is re- •Hafc ' asserted that should these interruptions continue during the current year and practically extend, as is now threatened, to the entire sugar producing territory of the island so much time and so much money will be required to restore the land to Its normal productiveness that it is extremely doubtful if capital can be Induced to even make the attempt. The spectacle of the utter ruin of an adjoining country. by nature one of the most fertile and charming on the globe, would engage the serious attention of the government and the people of the United States in any circumstances. In point of fact, they have a concern with it which Is by no means of a "wholly sentimental or philanthropic character. -It lies so near to us as to be hardly separated from our territory. Our actual pecuniary Interest in it is second only to that of the people and governmem of Spain. It is reasonably estimated prevent -fty casting ot cofetotti upon neighboring regions, no*' e*er attractive. That our conduct to* ward Spain and ber dominions has «m*""nted rto exception to this nation* al deposition, is made manifest by the course of our government, not only thus fair during the present Insurrection, but during the ten years that followed the rising at Tara in 1868. No other great power, It may safely be saM. tinder circumstances of similar perplexity, would have manifested th« same restraint and the same patient endurance. It may also be said that this persistent attitude of the United States toward Spain In connection wit!. Cuba, unquestionably evinces no slight respect and regard for Spain on the part of the American people. They in truth do not forget her connection with the discovery of the western hemisphere, nor do they underestimate the great qualities of the Spanish people, nor fail to fully recognize their splendid patriotism and their chivalrous devotion to the na* tional honor. They view with wonder and admiration the cheerful resolution with which vast bodies of men are sent across thousands of miles of ocean and an enormous debt accumulated that the costly possession of the gem of the Antilles may still hold its place in the Spanish crown. And if neither the government nor the people of the United States have shut their eyes to the course of events in Cuba or have failed to realize the existence of conceded grievances which have led to the present revolt from the authority of Spain —grievances recognized by the queen regent and by the cortes. Voiced by the most patriotic and enlightened of Snan- Ish statesmen without regard to party, and demonstrated by reforms proposed by the executive and approved by the legislative branch of the Spanish government. It Is In the assumed temper and disposition of the Spanish government to remedy these grievances, fortified by indications of influential public opinion In Spain, that this government has hoped to discover the most promising' and effective means of composing the present strife, with honor and advantage to Spain and with the achievement of ail the reasonable objects of the Insurrection. A Hint to Spain. It would seem that if Spain should offer to Cuba genuine autonomy— a measure of home rule which, 'while preserving the sovereignty of Spain, would satisfy all rational requirements of her Spanish subjects— there should be no just reason why the pacification of the island might not be effected on that basis. • Such a result • would appear to be in the true interest of all. concerned. It would at once stop the conflict which is now consuming the resources ~ of the island, and making it worthless for' whichever party may ultimately prevail. " It would keep :ln- tact the possessions of Spain without touching her honor, .which will be consulted rather than impugned by the adequate redress of admitted grievances. It would put the prosperity of the island and the fortunes of Its In' jitants within their own- control,-/. -hout severing the natural and ancl' - ties .which bind them', to the .mo!' - e country; and would yet '.enable th' • to test their capacity for self' .. ernment under the most /favorable •jndltions. It has been objected on fhe one side that Spain should not promise autonomy until her .insurgent and in n&f SW6 wiffi, «« •«*"» ,«"•» .tirsr"~» Iy co-op a ratlon. When the Inability of Spain to deal successfully with tae insurrection has foece*ie manifest, and It Is demonstrated that Mf soVefetfn* ty IS extinct In Cuba fdf all purfooses of its rightful existence, and *h*fc * hopeless struggle fot Its f-e-estabtteh* ment has degenerated Into a strife which means- nothing rtof* than the useless sacrifice of human life and the utfr destruction of the very subject- matter of the conflict, a situation will he presented in which our obligations o the sovereignty of Spain will be superseded by higher obligations, which we can hardly hesitate to recog- nizs and discharge. Deferring the choice of ways and methods until the flme for action ar* rives, we should make them depend upon the precise conditions than exist* ng; and they should not be determined upon without giving careful het- to every consideration. Involving our honor and interest, or the International duty we owe to Spain. Until we face the contingencies suggested, or the sit" uatlon is by other incidents Impera* ively changed, we should continue in he line of conduct heretofore pursued, hus in all circumstances exhibitirr our obedience to the requirements .' public law and our regard for the du y enjoined upon Us by the positiqn ve occupy in the family of nations. A contemplation of emergencies that may arise should plainly lead us to avoid heir creation either through a care- ess disregard of present duty or even an undue stimulation and ill-timed expression of feeling. But I have deemed t not amiss to remind the congress .hat a time may arise when a correct jollcy and care for our Interests as well as a regard for the, interests of other nations and their citizens joined >y considerations of humanity and a desire to see a rich and fertile conn- try, intimately related to us saved 'rom complete devastation will con- itraln our government to such action as will subserve the Interests thu%j Involved and at the same time promise o Cuba and Its inhabitants an opportunity to enjoy the blessings of pfeace. TREASURY DEPARTMENT. Treasury Receipts, Etc. The secretary of the treasury reports ihat during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1896, the receipts of the government, •rom all sources, amounted to $409,475,408.78. During the ss»*" %e period its expenditures were $434/ ,3,654.48, the excess of expenditures over receipts thus amounting to $25,203,245.70. The ordinary expenditures during the year were (4,015,852.21 less than during the preceding fiscal year. Of the • receipts mentioned there was derived from customs the sum of $180,021,751.67, and from internal revenue $146,830,615.66. The receipts from customs show an increase of $7,863,134.22 over those Irom the same source for the fiscal year endIng: June 30, 1895, and the receipts from Internal revenue an in'crease of $8,584,- that at least from $30,000,000 to $50,000,- j subjects lay down their arms. But the 000 of American capital are invested In ' ' ' ' ' has fl the ' 'M> plantations and in railroad, mining and other business enterprises on the island. The volume of trade between thfi United States and Cuba, which ijj 1889 amounted to about $64,000,000, rose in 1893 to about $103.000,000, and in ^894, the year before the present insurrection broke out, amounted to nearly $96,000.000. Besides this large pecuniary stake in the fortunes of Cuba) the United States finds itself inextricably Involved in the present contest in other ways both vexatious and costly. Filibustering Expeditions. Many Cubans reside in this country and indirectly promote the insurrection through the press, by public meetings, by the purchase and shipment of arms, by the raising of funds, and by> other means, which the spirit of our; institutions and the tenor of our laws do not permit to be made the subject of criminal prosecutions. Some of them, though Cubans at heart and In all their feelings and interests have taken'.out papers as naturalized? citizens of -the United States, a proceeding resorted to with a view to possible protection by this government, and not unnaturally regarded with much indignation by the country of their origin. The insurgents are undoubtedly encouraged and supported by the widespread sympathy the people of this country always and instinctively feel for every struggle for better and freer government; and which, in the case of the more adventurous and restless elements of our population leads in only tp.p many instances to active participation in the contest. The result is that this government is constantly called upon, tp protect American citizens to claim damages for Injuries to persons and property now estimated at 1 many millions of dollars and to ask'explanations^and apologies for the acts of Spanish officials whose zeal for the repression of rebellion sometimes blinds them to the immunities belonging to the .unorfend- ing citizens of a friendly power. It follows from the same causes that the United States is compelled to actively police along the line» of sea-coast against unlawful expeditions, the ed- cape of which the utmost vigilance will not always suffice to Prevent. These Inevitable entanglements of the United States, with the f rebellion in Cuba,,the large American property interests, af, fected, and considerations ot 'philanthropy and humanity In-general, have led to a vehement demand in various iea to » r gome gort Qf pOB}tlve j nter on the pan Pf the TT-.I^I possible. it was at flvst propose^ that erent rights , should be .accorded ,tp_th ? States. proposition' JP because' untimely. and in prac tical operation cjearly 'perilous and Jn, W PUF pwn interests. Jt has been and is now sometimes i eon.' . that the inaepenaeope of the In should be, recognized, Jm, reasonableness of a requirement by Spain, of unconditional surrender- on the part of the Insurgent Cubans before their autonomy ., is conceded, is not ; altogether apparent. It .ignores important features of the situation—the. stability two years' duration has given to the insurrection; the feasibility of its indefinite prolongation In the nature of.things, and as shown by past experience; the utter and Imminent' ruin of the island, unless the present' strife is speedily composed; above'all, the rank abuses which all parties in Spain, all branches of 'her government arid all her leading public men concede to exist and profess a desire to remove. .Facing such '.circumstances to withhold the proffei* 'of needed reforms until the parties demanding them put themselves at meVcy by throwing down their arms'has the appearance of neglecting the gravest of, perils and inviting suspicion as to the sincerity of any professed:.willingness to grant reform. The,objection on behalf of the Insurgents—that promised reforms cannot be relied upon must of course be considered, though we .have no right to sume and no reason .for assuming that anything Spain 'undertakes to do for the-.relief of ,Cuba .will not be done according to both the spirit and the letter of the undertaking. :' Our Offer to Spain Nevertheless, realizing that suspicions and precautions on the.part of the weaker of two combatants are always natural and not always unjustifiable—being- sincerely desirors, In the Interest of both as well as on Its own account, that the Cuban problem should be solved with the least possible delay —it was intimated by this government to .the months government of ago that, if a Spain some satisfactory measure of homo rule were tendered the Cuban insurgents, and would be accepted by them upon a guaranty of its execution, the United States would endeavor to find a way not objectionable to Spain of furnishing such guaranty. While no definite response to this Intimation has yet been received from the Spanish government, it is believed to pe not altogether unwelcome, while, as already suggested, no reason is perceived why it should nPt be approved TOY the insurgents. Neither party can fall to see the importance of early fiction, and both must realize that tq prolong the present state of things for even a short period will add enormously to the time and labor and expenditure necessary to bring about the m» dustrlal recuperation of the Island. Jl Is, therefore, fervently hpped on all grounds that earnest efforts for healing the breech between Spain and the ln» gurgent Cubans upon the lines above indicated may be at once inaugurated and pushed to an lmme4Jate and successful issue. The friendly offices of the Vnltefl states, either in the. nwn» ner above outline^ or tfl any othep way consistent with our constitution an,<3 , •laws, will ^ways beat the dlspQ^J of fitter party, Whatever circumstances) pay a,rlse, ow? policy and l0 ur Jnteves. W would constrain us to. objept to the-ae he Island or an nterfer WJtEQl by,, any . . that Jtpannpt Uffled/. tMt the Wtfce fce* «filfm«ris4 crlittftf gUn-bmfet hare a»t» fcgf Id. Tft* Idwa, ahottief • battleship, . iHfl be completed about March 1, and ft least four more fcuhboStB Will be ready for seft Ift the early iprlhfc ,. ^ It 19 grattfylfrf to itatd tfeat otrf SWp3 aftd their outfits arTS beufrHd \A be equal to the best that daft be manufactured elsewhere, and that such notable reductions naVe b&efi Blade ift thelf cost as to Justify tfis statemeftt that quite a number of vessels a«i how beihf constructed at fatefi a* lot* as the e that prevail ift European slilp* The value of our imported dutiable merchandise during the last fiscal year was $369,757,470. and the value of free gocds Imported $409,967,470, being an increase of $6,523,675 in the value of dutiable goods and $41.231,034 in the value of free goods over the preceding: year/ 1 Our exports of merchandise, foreign and domestic, amounted in value to $882.606,938, being an increase over the preceding year of $76,068,773. The average ad valorem duty paid on dutiable goods imported during the year was 39.94 per cent, and on free and dutiable goods taken together 20.55 per cent. .The cost of collecting our internal revenue was 2.78 per cent, as against 2.81 per cent for the fiscal year ending June 30. 1895. The total production of distilled spirits, exclusive of fruit brandies, was 86,588,703 taxable gallons, being an increase of 6,639,108 gallons over the preceding year. There was also an increase of 1,443,676 gallons of spirits, produced from fruit, as compared with the preceding year. The number of barrel? of beer produced was 35,£59,250, as against 33,589.784 produced in the preceding fiscal year, being an increase of 2,269,460 barrels. The Precious Metals. The total amount of gold exported during the last fiscal year was $112,409,947, and of silver $60,541,670, being an Increase of $45,941,466 of gold and $13,246,384 of silver over the exportations of the preceding fiscal year. The imports of gold were $33,525,065 and of silver $28,777,186, being $2,859,695 less of gold and $8,566,007 more' of sliver than during the preceding year. The total stock of metallic money in the United States at the close on the last fiscal year, ended on the 30th day of June, 1896, was $1,228,326,035, of which $599,597,964 was In gold and $628,728,071 in silver. On the first day of November, 1896, the total stock of money of all kinds in the country was $2,285,410,590, and the amount in circulation, not including that in the treasury holdings, was $1,627,055,641, being $22.63 per capita upon an estimated population of 71,902,000. The production of the precious metals in the United States during the calendar year 1895 Is estimated to have been 2,254,760 fine ounces of gold of the value of $46,610,000, and 55,727,000 fine ounces of silver of the commercial value of $36,445,000, and the coinage value of $72,051,000, The estimated production of these metals throughout the world during the same period was 9,688,821 fine ounces of gold, amounting to $200,285,700 In value, and 169,189,249 fine ounces of silver, of the commercla value of $110,654,000, and of the coinage value of $218,738,100 accord!- 3 to oui ratio, The coinage of these metals in the various countries of the world during the same calendar year amounted to $232,701,438 in gold and $121,996,219 in silver. The total coinage at the mints of the United States during the fisca year ended June 30, 1896, amounted to $71.188,468,53, of which $58,878,490 was Jn gold coins and $12,7.09,978.52 in standarc silver dollars, subsidiary cpins and minor coins, ' The number of national banks organized frPm the time the law authorizing their creatlPn was passed, up to Octo° her 31, 1896, was 5,051, a'nd of this number 3.379 were at the date last mentioned in active operation, having authorizec SSPife 1 1 took ,_ 0 , f ?65°,014,895, held by <!88,903 shareholders, and circulating notes amounting to $211.412,630. THE NAVY. . The work of the navy department and Its present condition are fully exhibited in the report of the secretary. The con» Btructlon of vessels for our new nuvy haa beep energetically prosecuted bv the present administration upon the general lines previously adopted, the department haying seen np necessity for radical change? in prior methods under which the work was found to be PrPSTesslng in a manner ftlghly scvtls faptoiy, » l*as been decided, Iwwovei' tp provide In every 6hip-bulldln« contract fh#t the b w naer should pay aU trial expenses, ana Jt has also been de" teraluea to pay.np, speea premiums'in future contracts. - The premiums re y wnea an4 f ome yet 1,0 he, ae ars feMures pf tUe cowaot before {JUS cpnolHSlqi} T#(ts ched. > > ' ! &arph 4,,J88'S/ there were in, op bjlLtafo. flvmor^a, vegaels, tlje manufacturing facilities aff at this time atnpte fof all possible naval contingencies. Three of our government navy yards, those at Mare Island, Cal., Norfolk, Va., and Brooklyn, N. Y.. at« equipped fof Ship building, oUrotdhahce plant in Washington is equal to any In the world, and at the trrpedo Station we are successfully making the highest grades of shiokelesS powder. Three first-class private ship yards, at Newport News, Philadelphia, ahd Sah Francisco, are building battle ships; eleven contractors, situated Ih the states of Maine, Rjode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, 'Virginia, ahd he state of Washington, are construet- ng gtin*boats or torpedo boats, Two plants are manufacturing large quantities of first-class armor, and American factories are producing aa- .omobide torpedoes, powder projec- ..iles, rapid-fire guns, and everything else necessary for the complete outfit of naval vessels. There have been authorized by con- ress since March, 1893. five battleships, six light draft gunboats, sixteen orpedo boats and one sub-marine torpedo boat. Contracts for the building of all of them have been let. The secretary expresses the opinion that. We lave for the present a sufficient sup- jly of cruisers and gunboats, and that ipreafter the construction of battleships and torpedo . boats will supply our needs. . Much attention has been given to the methods of carrying on departmental justness. Important modifications m the regulations have been made, tending to unify the control of ship-building, as far as may be, under the bureau of construction and repair, and also to Improve the mode of purchasing supplies for the navy by the bureau of supplies and accounts. The establishment. under recent acts of congress, of a supply fund with which to purchase these supplies in large quantities, and other modifications of methods, have tended materially to their cheapening and better quality. _ Pensions. The diminution of our enormous pension roll and the decrease of pension expenditure which have been 30 often confidently foretold, still fail in material realization. The number of pensioners on the rolls at the close of the fiscal year, ended June 30, 1896, was 9iO,6i8. This is the largest number ever reported. The amount paid exclusively for the pensions during the year was $1«8.214,761.94, a slight decrease from that of the preceding year, while the total expenditures on account of pensions, including the cost of maintaining the department and expenses attending pension distribution amounted to $142,206,550.59, or within a very small fraction of one-third of the entire expense of supporting the government during the same year.' The number of new pension certificates issued was 90,640. Of these, 40,374 represent original allowances of claims and 15,878 Increases of existing pensions. The number of persons receiving pensions from the United States, but residing in foreign countries at the close of the last fiscal year, was 3,781, and the amount paid to them during the year was $582,735.38. The sum appropriated for the payment of pensions for the current fiscal year ending June 30, 1897, is $40,000,OO, and for thes ucceeding' year it is estimated that the same amount will be necessary. : Civil Service Reform. The progress made in civil service reform furnishes a cause for the utmost congratulation. It has survived the doubts of its friends as well as the rancor of its enemies and has gained a permanent place among the agencies destined to cleanse our politics and to improve, economize and elevate the public service. There are now in the competitive classified service upward of eighty-four thousand places. More than half of these have been Included from time to time since March 4, 1S93. A most radical and sweeping: extension was made by executive" order dated the 6th day of May, 1S96, and if fourth class post- masterships are ' not included In the statement it may be said that practically aH positions contemplated by the civil service law are now classified. Abundant reasons exist for including these postmasterships, based upon economy, improved service and the peace and quiet of neighborhoods. If, however, obstacles prevent such action at present, I earnestly hope tTVat congress will, without increasing post- office appropriations, so adjust them .as to permit in proper cases a consolidation of these postofflees, to the end that through this process the result desired may to a limited extent be accomplished. __ TARIFF AN_D_FINANCES. I desire to recur to the statements elsewhere made concerning the government's recejpts and expenditures for the purpose of venturing upon some suggestions touching our present tariff law and its operation. This statute took effect on the 28th day of August, 1S94. Whatever may be its shortcomings as a complete measure of tariff reform, it must be conceded that it has opened the way to a freer and greater exchange of commodities between us and other countries, and thus furnished a wider markets for products and manu- facturins'- The only entire fiscal year during which this law has been }n force ended on -the 30th day -of June, 1896, In that year our imports increased over those of the previous year more than $6,6QO,» 000, while the value of the domestic products we exported, and which found markets Abroad, WAH. nearly $70,000,000 more than during the preceding year. Those who Insist that the cost to our people of articles coming to them from abroad for their needful use should only, be increased through tariff charges to an ex-tent necessary to meet the expenses of the government, as well as those who claim that tariff charges r ay be laid upon such articles beyond the necessities of government revenue, and with the additional purpose of so increasing their price in our markets as to give American manufacturers and producers better and more profitable opportunities, must agree that our tar-? Iff .laws are only primarily justified as sources of revenue to enable th,e government to meet the necessary expense? of Us maintenance. Considered, as to Us efficiency in this aspMt. the present Iftw can by no means fail under just condemnation, puriner' the only complete fiscal year of J^s operation .It has yielded neavjy js.aoo^oqq jnpre revenue thpin was ri&pelved from. tariff tjntjes in the preee4ln# year. There was, n i evert,hele§9, ft geflejt- be* tween pu.r receipts and sxnendHur » Uttle'ropre than fftgpo.QQp, ' ., w§s flQt WQxn,e,ojt«d,.> 88m* afHf ttifji.i cfeachlfcf ofl Mi this reference ttt ttig pfospefttii of ottf- fe>ef« an atttteioft of the System opposed to ev finance and shown by *J*h the gravest the ment more than thirty brought In its train the de property, the Wasting of i try's substance, and the es-m of brethren. These are how veu forgotten. Even the distressingH life the conflict entailed is but a' memory, which fosters patriotic ment and keeps alive a tender re for those who nobly died. And yet i remains with us to-day In full stn> and activity as an incident of tremendous struggle, a feature financial necessities, not only to our present circumstances, b festly a disturbing menace to security and an ever-present monetary distress. Because we may be enjoying a ts*n porary relief'from its depressingSi fluence, this should not lull us Into » false security nor lead us to forget thi suddenness of past visitations. I am more convinced than ever'that we . can have no assured.financial p and safety until the government rency obligations Upon which gold \ be demanded from the treasury m withdrawn from circulation and ca»u celled. This might be done, as haa beS heretofore recommended by their «« i change for long term bonds bearhurY t?™ rat . e ° f invest or by their redem> ' tlon with the proceeds of such bondt Even if only United States notS , known as greenbacks were thus retlrSl it is probable that the treasury notes™ sued in payment of silver purchai«« under the act of July 14, 1890. now pSji:! in gold when demanded would not! I create much disturbance as they might I from 'time to time when received In I the-treasury by redemption In gold'oril otherwise be gradually and prudentlr I replaced by silver coin. This plan ofT Issuing bonds for the purpose of re- ! | demption certainly appears to be the most, effective and direct path to the needed reform. : In default of this, however, it would be a step in the right direction if cur- . rency obligations redeemable In gold 1 whenever so redeemed, should be can- 'I celled Instead of being reissued. This <| operation would be a slow remedy, but ?! it would Improve present condition. I National banks should redeem their own notes. They should be allowed to issue circulation to the par value ot ' bonds deposited as security for its retirement of" United States notes ana demption, and the tax on their clrcu- tre.asury notes issued under the law lation should be reduced to one-fourth of one per cent. In considering projects. for the retirement of United States notes and' treasury notes issued, under the law of 1890, I am of the opinion that we havo placed too much stress upon the danger of contracting the currency and have calculated too little upon the gold that would be added to our circulation if invited to us by letter and safer financial methods. It Is not so much a contraction of our currency that' should be avoided as its unequal distribution. This might be obviated and any fear of harmful contraction at the same time removed, by allowing the organization of smaller banks and in less populous communities than are now permitted, and also authorizing existing banks to establish branches In small communities under proper restrictions. Another topic in which our people rightfully take.a deep interest may here be briefly considered. I refer to the existence of trusts 'and other huge aggregations of capital, the object of which is to secure the monopoly of some particular bransh of trade. Industry or commerce, and so stifle wholesome competition. When these are defended it is usually on the ground' that though they Increase profits they also reduce prices, and thus may benefit the public. It must be remembered, however, that a reduction of prices to the people is not one of the real objecfp of these organizations, nor Is their tendency necessarily in that direction. It it occurs in a particular case it is only because it accords with the purpose or interest of those managing the scheme. Trusts Get a Roast. Such occasional results fall far short of compensating the palpable evils charged to the account of trusts and monopolies. Their tendency is to crush out individual independence and to hinder or preventt he free use of human faculties and the full development of human character, Through them the* farmer, the artisan and the smalls trajJ* , er is in danger of dlslodgment from the, I proud position of being his own master, I watchful of all that touches his coun-, try's prosperity, in which he has an in- I dividual lot and Interested in all that.-I affects the advantages of business or | which he is a factor, to be relegated to .| the level of a- mere appurtenance to ft -H great machine, with little free will., with no duty but of passive^bedi—,,. „ and with little hope, of opportunity ot I ri"ing in the scale of responsible and I TO tne jnsvMiunv- belief that such)? the inevitable trend of trusts and nw* nopplies is due the widespread and deep-seated popular aversion In whioft they are held and the not imreasonaW* Stence, that whatever may be the incidental economic advantages, Tnw seneral effect upon personal character, projects and usefulness can not bJ otherwise than injurious. Though congress has attempted w deal with this matter by legislation ttj laws passed for that purppse thu-tH have proved ineffective, npt because « any lack of disposition or attempt W enforce them, but simply because fl». faws themselves ^interpreted.by H*. courts do not reach the difficulty, th the insufficiencies °* ^ 8t W&Hnn*S= be remedied by fwther leglslatiOB,« should be done. The f»ct must ue r|^» ognized, however, that &U * e ^r, a 'ffic islatlon on this sublet may *»» f $*, of its purpose because of JnJ»^ reot JK stacles; and also because Qf the pw»Pg* character of our governm,epta]! Wfffil it does, not follovi however. HiW'WSw is the limit of the remedy -W MS^WKfflBlW » sr?n«»«vs?f s severa} states to ftot °« t «««vriv in premises, an3 : there fon to APUM their « -' —'-- exercise- gu~ .tfes ^vwwrj^g 1

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