The Algona Upper Des Moines from Algona, Iowa on February 19, 1896 · Page 6
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The Algona Upper Des Moines from Algona, Iowa · Page 6

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Wednesday, February 19, 1896
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Some Up-to-»at« Hints About Cultivation o* the Soil and Yields Thereof— Horticulture, Viticulture and Florl- tnHnre. FAEI AND (IAUDEN, MATTERS OP INTEREST TO ACRiCULtURIStS. AT VALLEY FQRW. ALLEY Forge is a rough piece of ground on tho banks of the Schuylkill, twenty- one mile from Philadelphia and six from tho nearest large town. As mere land, it is ::ot worth much. But if the Pass of Thermopylae is classic ground, Valley Forgo is classic. If there is one spot on this continent more fit than any other for a final and sufficient monument to the man and to the men of the American Revolution, it is Valley Forge. I do hot refer merely to the hunger, thirst and cold endured there by eleven thousand soldiers, after an exhausting campaign in the field. The worst of all that misery was over in six weeks. Tho suffering was acute while it lasted, but it was followed soon by comparative abundance; then by the cheering news of the French alliance; then by the flight of the enemy from Philadelphia, and the swift pursuit of them by Gen. Washington. What tho troops endured there would alone make the place forever interesting to posterity. But Valley Forge means more than that. It witnessed some of the most important and striking scenes in the war. It was there, too, through the constancy and tireless energy of .the commander-in- chief, that the cause was saved and final victory made possible. Tlie selection of the ground was itself a piece of notable generalship, as daring as it was wise. The occupation of Philadelphia by the British had filled every other town of Pennsylvania with refugees. The middle of December had passed before the army had repulsed the last demonstration of the British, and afforded the American commander breathing time to consider the question of his winter quarters. Then he Bald, in substance, to the troops: Since there is no .town-for us to' retire to, VALtBY FORGE TO-PAY, Jet us create a town for ourselves, here, plpge to the enemy, limiting his range, curtailing his supplies, protecting J»en.BeylvanJa an,d holding ourselves ready to resume the aggressive as soon 08 he abandons tjie city, in, which he Vjll fee by us practically besieged. He ch.os,e Valley Forge, a deep cleft in a ' fty Jyil, with a stream at the bottom it eraptylpg into, the SpJiwylkW. was pthlng }R this valley for except the primeval forest „„„.,.,-,, ,,y covered it apd the streams 4| 4 wjgtfJ 1 that 8,9We4 fey m $ t£ •fc - Jittt' WasfciUgten, him&eif duty, from the major-generals to the drummers. All the tools were fairly divided; each regiment had its ground assigned it; the streets and intervals were marked but, and whon the work was begun the valley was alive with L.sy builders. Each colonel divided his regiment into parties of twelve, gave them their share of axes and shovels, and let thorn know that they were building a homo for themselves. A cabin was to be occupied by twelve ruent Gen. Washington added-the stimulant of a reward to the party that should build the best hut. An order of the day had this interesting passage: "As an encouragement to industry and art, the general promises to reward the party in each regiment which finishes its hut in the quickest and most workmanlike manner with twelve dollars. And as there is reason to believe that boards for covering the huts may be found scarce and difficult to be got, he offers one hundred dollars to any officer or soldier who, ia the opinion of three gentlemen that he shall appoint as judges, shall substitute some other covering that may be cheaper and more quickly made, and will in every respect answer tho end." The huts were fourteen feet by sixteen, and six and a half feet high. The officers' huts were ranged in a line behind those of the soldiers, and only generals were accorded tho convenience of having a whole house to themselves. Gen. Washington inhabited a cabin of one room until later, in the season, when a second was added for the accommodation of Mrs. Washington. Ho said, in another order of the day, thpc "the general himself will share in the hardships and partake of every inconvenience." It does not appear that any one invented a better roofing than slabs, -nor has any one recorded what company of soldiers won the twelve-dollar prlz<i>. We only know that the cabin-building was begun early in.the morning of December 19, and that most of the army would have eaten th'bir Christmas dinner in their cabins if there had been any Christmas dinner to .eat. It was just then that 'the : .worst of the starving time began. While the men were building their cabin city they lived chiefly upon cakes, made of flour and water, and there was a lamentable scarcity of all the most necfessary supplies—shoes, clothes, 'blankets and straw. Nothing saved the.army from absolution but the fiery remonstrances and energetic action of th n "nmmandev- in-chief. There is preserved at Philadelphia a.hand-bill issued by him while ths army was building Its huts, " In this he notified the farmers to thrash out their, grain with all convenient opeed, on pain of having the sheaves seized by the commissaries and paid for at the. price pf straw. The conduct of the commander during these agonizing week.s can only be estimated aright by persons familiarly acquainted with the circumstances. No man ever gave a higher example either of fortitude or wisdom; and it was directly through the exercise of those virtues by him that the army was saved. While the men were busy building, news was brought to the camp that a force of the enemy W 8S approaching. The troops were in such dire need of food and shoes that they were unable to stir. There was not a pound of meat In the camp, and not a ration of flour per man, It was while he was contending with such dffllculties as these that the intrigue to supplant the general was most active and the clamor loudest for a. winter campaign, "I CO* assure tb&S9 gentleman." wrote the general, '<tJ>at }t is a. much •ftftfl Jess Stressing thing to jwgnjtr/iaoes, J ~ wrote for him. If I were asked to mention the finest exhibition that -a commander has ever given-of great qualities, both of heart and'mind, I should answer: Washington at Valley Forge. One unexpected consolation that ho enjoyed at this period was the affectionate enthusiasm of Lafayette, then just recovering from his .wound received at Brandywine. The young and ardent Frenchman, in his letters to his'wife and family, gives the warmest expression to his love and admiration. He speaks of Washington as 'a man expressly "made for" the work: he was doing,, he' alone having the patience and tact to conciliate the discordant elements. "Every day, 1 ' wrote the marquis, "I admire more the beauty of his character and of his soul. Jealous intriguers wish to tarnish his reputation, but his name will be revered in all ages by every one who loves liberty and humanity." ' Many such passages, written in one of the log-cabins of Valley Forge, I notice in the family letters of the youthful enthusiast. In such circumstances, the American army was reconstructed; reinforced, becomingly clad, well drilled, and at last abundantly supplied, while the English were circumscribed so closely that it required two regiments to escort a foraging party; 1 if it went more than two miles into, the country. ^Valley Forge it was that' rendered tho possession of Philadelphia 1 a 'trap instead of a capture. June 18,' 1778, Gen. Washington received infor-: mation that the British had secretly and suddenly evacuated Philadelphia. Ho was in such perfect readiness for the news, that, within an hour, six brigades were on the march for the Delaware river. The next day, he himself joined the advance. Ten days after the first troops left their cabins in Pennsylvania, he fought the battle of Monmouth, which turned their retreat into a flight and shut them up in' New York. If neither congress nor Pennsylvania shows an inclination to possess the scene of so many memorable events, then let some patriotic capital-,' 1st convert it into a summer resort, mmttPAtnf IP. feed than it a6w t eceite& Geod groom* itig undoubtedly aids digestion, fts tub- bing the body promotes digestion in people, and'is an excellent substitute for exercise for those who do little muscular work.—American Cultivator, Importance of Gteen Manuring. The agricultural department at Washington gathers in a bulletin the following results of experience in the practice of green manuring for the improvement or the preservation of the fertility of land: Green manuring improves the physical properties of the soil by making the soil more porous aiid adding to its sup,ply of humus. It brings up the dor- HE strawberry crop of the season of 1895 was, taking all in all, the most un- satisfa c t o r y for many years. In the south there was a j man t .plant food from deep down in very large crop and the soil and deposits it near the surface, where it can be used by plants feedltig near the surface. Green manuring with • buckwheat, Hungarian grass, and other non-leguminous plants adds practically nothing to the soil which was not there before, except a mass of vegetable matter, which decays and goes to form humus. Green manuring with clovers, peas, beans, lupines, etc. (leguminous crops), actually enrich the soil in nitrogen drawn from the air. These plants can grow with very little soil nitrogen. They store up the nitrogen of the air as they grow, and when plowed under give it up to the soil and prices ruled very low and returns Were very unsatisfactory. In the iorth and northwest frosts ruined nearly the entire crop, and the results .were very discouraging. Yet with all , these discouragements we must see a great advantage. , It should stimulate planting in large quantities with better care and by being more careful in selecting varieties that are best adapted to our different soilc and losatlons, and above all things don'.t neglect mulching. In New Jersey and other states where marsh hay can be secured it makes an | to £uture c .. ops . it i s the cheapest WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS ' AT VALLEY FORGE. carefully restoring the old camp roads, marking all the sites and making the place an object-lesson in history,— James Parton in New York Ledger. cujty, a, sow, .Jn^k WU, WA.0IHB u *~~ -""^.iwfl Iftpr' wi&eut «jo,tA*« Washington 1 * Varmlng Oppratlons. Washington inherited Mount Vernon in 1759 from his half-brother, Lawrence Washington, who died in 1757. This brother had a daughter Sarah, who wag bejress to the estate, but she died two years later and the property then re» verted to George, who was then just 87 years old, The estate then comprised Jess than 3,000 acres, but soon after he came Into possession he added 5,500 acres by purchase, which gave him ten miles of river front. Then began the system of improvements and cultivation which subsequently made Mount Vernon the »ost valuable lande4 property in Virginia. Re drained the land excellent mulch; in the southern states Where pine (tags) straw is plentiful and where labor is so cheap it is unnecessary to market any dirty berries; the cost of putting it on your berries is worth more than it costs for manure alone. 1 have tried both and know Whereof I 'speak. In the west where prairie hay and plenty of wheat straw is thrown away, in no place will it pay better than mulching strawberries. But whichever is used, be careful to have the same as free from grass and weeds as possible, that are liable to come up among the plants, particularly if the plants have to stand over another year. For my part I do not advise carrying a bed over two years. There is a peculiarity about an old bed north and south I do not understand. In Ohio an old bed will have berries on to pick some days before a new bed, but here in Virginia it is the reverse. Will some one explain to me the reason ? Varieties that have done best with me the past season are many, but I must put the four leading kinds, Tennessee Prolific, No Name, Rix, and Lady Thompson, flrst. These varieties are now thoroughly tested all over ihe United States, and the plants can be bought very reasonably, so that one can afford to plant them even for the garden or for commercial purposes, and as they all have a perfect blossom, can be planted alone, and for fertilizing Haverland, Bubach No. 5 and Warfield No. 2 none are better and few as good. Of new ones for late, Sunny Side is simply wonderful. Its shape, color and productiveness is wonderful and bound-to please everyone. I notice the New York experimental station at Geneva in the 1893 reports says it is the most productive berry on its grounds that year. It will produce ten quarts to Gaudy's om and being so late extends the season si long. Fendrick.—This is a berry not yet introduced. I have it on trial. It resembles the Nilson, but such healthy foliage, has a perfect blossom and in productiveness is simply wonderful in earliness. I have not seen a borry that would pick as many at one picking. Earliest.—This is a seedling of Michael's Early and resembles it in plant and fruit, such a beautiful' shape and color, makes plants quite freely. I have had it on trial for two years. It has a perfect blossom. Clarence.—This is one of the most peculiar berries, much needed owing to its firmness and shipping qualities. It is without exception the best shipper I have yet seen. When it commences to ripen it has little scarlet streaks running all around it and as soon as they appear is ready to pick. It will keep for days and ripen all over alike in one or two days after picking; it has a most beautiful light crim-' son color and is so firm that it can bo shipped hundreds of miles. If you do not wish to ship them you can pick . them green and they will ripen just as pretty as when picked from'the vines Edith Pistilate,—This is still the largest berry I have yet seen, but yet Samuel Miller of Bluff ton, Mo., writes me Sept, 29, 1895, that he measured one that was ten inches one way and seven and one-fourth the other in circumference, and weighed two and three- fourths ounces, Havorland, Bubach No 5 and Warfleld No. 2 still have their places as old standard varieties. Carie is a seedling of Haverland and is simply wonderful and again leads the parent, both in making plants, productiveness of fruit, color and firmness Timbrell, Luella, Jessie, Hatfleld, A6- coimw, Bidweli, Bonlta, Bowman, Burt or Capt. Jack, Palsy, Fulton, Glendale' Lady Rusk, Leader, Lydia, Manchester' and many others of the old standard sorts have been plowed under.—M, T. Thompson, Sr,, in Farmers' Review, means of manuring the soil, with nitrogen. But animals, as well as plants^ require nitrogen for food. By feeding' the crops of clover, cowpea, etc., only about one-fourth of the fertilizing materials of the crops is lost if the manure is properly cared for. As the nitrogen of the air is the cheapest source of nitrogen for plants, so it is the cheapest source of protein (nitrogen) for animals. The leguminous crop is best utilized when it is fed out on the farm, and the manure saved and applied to the soil. The greatest profit is thus secured, and nearly the same fertility is maintained as in green manuring. For renovating worn or barren soils, and for maintaining the fertility when the barnyard manure is not properly cared for, green manuring with such leguminous crops as cowpea, clover, and lupines is recommended. A dressing of potash and phosphates will usually be sufficient for the green manuring crop. It has been proved sufficiently that, while clover, peas and other crops of the leguminous are the most valuable for this use, yet they are most useful on at least moderately fertile soil, and will not grow sufficiently on poor land. For such land, then, it is necessary to grow less exacting crops, as buckwheat, or even a crop of weeds, and turn these under, thus filling the soil with humus and decayed vegetable matters,on which the nitrogen germs may feed, and thus prepare the way for clover and its related crops, which then complete the process of improvement. The practice of green manuring on medium and better classes of soil is irrational and wasteful. The farmer should mend his system so that the barnyard manure will be as well cared for as any other farm product. Loss from surface washing, leaching, fermentation, and decay should be guarded against. Then the feeding of richer food will mean richer manure and better and cheaper crops. The system of soiling or feeding green crops in the barn in place of pasturage enables a larger number of animals to be. kept on a given area of land and the manure to be more completely saved, For this purpose leguminous crops are extremely valuable. Hay from leguminous crops is about twice as rich in protein as hay from grasses. In one case this protein (nitrogen) is obtained very largely from the atmosphere; in the other it is drawn from the fertility of the soil. Leguminous crops yield larger crops of hay to the acre than grasses. Hence the production of food materials on an acre, especially protein, is several times larger with leguminous crops. If allowed to ripen, the seed of the cowpea and soja bean furnishes an extremely rich concentrated feed which can be ground and fed in place of expensive commercial feeds. The straw for it is richer than ordinary hay. Grow more leguminous crops. They furnish the cheapest food for stock and remaining may be fed as coarse fodder, the cheapest manure for the soil. They do this because they obtain from the air a substance necessary for plants and animals alike/which posts in the form of fertilizers and feeding stuffs from 15 to 25 cents a pound.—Farmers' Review. wherever needed, be rotated crop*, got th,e test farm implements then ia existence, built i&4 repaired fence*, had bis his ewo 4i»UHery, tod bin toofc, to Grooming Farm Hor«c«, Horses on the farm do not have the sleek look that horses Jn cityliveries have. Neither will they accomplish BO much work. The difference is partly owing to the fact that the horse in the u» B a larger Proportion of grain while the farm horse, even.when working, gets roost of lils nutrition from *»* »«* Brooming has also a good deal to do with too superior sleekness of the city horse's coat. The curry comb It not «o much ueea as it should ho on term hows, we know many places where the brush ftn fl curry comb ar f "Wf» w* 1 sxeopt while the CM ie jtoMlag Its coat. But used at any time it profljp,*" 0 * u - " - - mojttenj Planting Peach Pits—As long as we till land, no matter how little, in a locality where peaches can be grown, we will not fall .to raise, occasionally a few seedlings for budding. This plan gives us good trees without a cash outlay, and we know what we have. Besides, the operation of budding Is easily learned, easily performed, and quite interesting to the amateur. In a recent issue of Country Gentleman the following directions are given for preparing the pits for planting: "Place In moist earth any time after being taken from the peach, and better not let them become dried through it IB desirable that they be placed where they will freeze in winter, and If thev have been kept moist, tho seed of the pit will fill the cavity and freezing will expand the seed so es to open the nit preparatory to its growth. A very good plan to manage a few pits is to place thani rtn tVi« mm ii*-i/l *.„!„ i_ . \ » **v^ their moisture and wllj their ft-eeaing, At not prevent to grow " Scroful Manifests itself ra Mftfry different goitre, swellings, running sores, bolft, rheum and pimples and other erttj Scarcely a man Is wholly free from It, !ft form. It clings tenaciously until the last t of scrofulous poison Is eradicated from the by flood's Sarsaparilla. thousands of vo testimonials tell of suffering from set oful Inherited and most- tenacious, positively fcctly and permanently cured t>f la, o Sarsaparilla The One f ruo Blood ruriner. All druggist Prepared only by C. 1. iiodd & Co., Lowell, I »j» j« *».«.'''act"YiatitUffilbtisly i HOOd S PHIS Hood's Sarsaparilla. J PEC1AL OFFER? Made io Build New Business.! .Atrtal will triflke you our . permanent customer, lOvarfetlosj nn«ij Turnips, rf belles. to cover postac<i '*rA pack, log and recoiv-, this Ta i u . tofmooeBi. irh a good grade ,Vrlto to-day and receive my new Seed and Plant Book) the best published. I guarantee to pleaw. H ill Clip YQ CC Hookf ord Seed Farms, ' i VT, DUlmDLl.| Box 60S BocKTOBD.Itt, 9 9 f CUT"SLASH SMOKING TOBACCO, 2 oz. for 5 Cohts. GUMLASN CHEROOTS-3 for 5 Cents. \ Give a Good, Mellow, Healthy, Pleasant Smoke. Try Them. LYOX & CO. TOBACCO WORKS, Durham, N. C. ROPSY TREATED FREE. Positively Cured with Vegetable Romedlej Hare cured thousands of COPO*. Cure earies pro. nounced hopeless by best physicians. . c rom It rat dost symptoms disappear; in ten days at least two-thirdi all nymotoms remoVed. Send lor tree book testlmo. nlals of mlraoulous cures. Ten day's treatment fro by mall. If you order trial send lOo In stamps to par postage, nn. H. H. GEEKS & SONS, Atlanta, Ga. U you order trial return this advei tlsemeut to us. SMOKE YOUR MEAT WITH .GiRCU LA R,E.KRAUSER& BRO.MIUON.W. went. Sample giving immediate relief, PKEE by mail. Full size, complete euro. 81.00. br mall, prepaid. Writ! PIL.O • CKEAM OINTMENT K CO., Station D, Chicago, ItU B JOHN AV.MOKRIS, _ a Washington, D.Co 'Successfully Prosecutes Claims, I Late Principal Examiner U.S. Pension Bureau, 13yralD last war, ISadjudicatuicolaUiia, attysiiic*, i Morphine Habit Cured In 10 No one is to blame but yourself, ifyour ticket | to St. Joseph, Kansas City,! Denver, Deadwood, Helena | or Butte does not read via | the Burlington Route. The local ticket agent | has tickets viatheBurhng-L toil to these and all other! southern and western cit-l ies. He will furnish you I with one if you ask for it. f But you must ask for it. Letters of inquiry ad-l dressed to the undersigned I will receive prompt atten-| tioii. J. FRANCIS, Qeu'l Pass'r Ag't Omaha, •Neb:! m ?ARLIEST 'DTATO 'IN THE I fORLO our Bailey. DO YOU KNOW,,, That the finest vegetables in the world ml grown front £>{tlzcr'4 9«e^s? Why? #*'( CMW they W? Northern-grown, bred ts j carUnessiancl yprout Qufcklyt grow rapidh and produce enormously! ~ 35 itotaiPB Earliest vegetable Seeds, $ J POTATOES IN 28 DAYS! Just think of thatl You can b*ve thew \>y pljnt, Ing SaUer's seed. Try it Ws year I J WOK AT THB?8 YIBfePS IN IOWA. ;fc^«P»'.». » rowoes. , , , , -, 6»'tll?W^periCK, ! lla^of fl&EH^ tow *™WW*>« .*$ i I'M oi iarner$ nw» your and adjoining st4tt% .• C?iP*C>VSI^li fi|3IIX)X$i < Enormous stwks of clover. |i»9J*y »nd gtm i B8MW!BS&^^ •'te'^»wpa.y«a».i iWPle of Pit JOHNViAUER J&$.

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