The Algona Upper Des Moines from Algona, Iowa on December 12, 1894 · Page 8
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The Algona Upper Des Moines from Algona, Iowa · Page 8

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Algona, Iowa
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Wednesday, December 12, 1894
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< -A;.%"'y*"?""' ,^ w """•»•* "• »' ' if j "I'; 1 -~'*4:'-*^5*' ^'u \- ' '*' '7 ''•'<"'"',>' ' r - j '."•'', ' OTPIfi BBS MOlfflSf ALGONi, IOWA, WfiftMlSBAt fiEOBMBEt 1'J, 18M, 'ASHCAL MMSM1 TAKES UP MAMV ttt* ft tit * lltihks Banking tatt "-SS-3 , 14" |ri- •fetf ,Jtlit Congress bf thetJbiled States: *ra&'8ssfe'mblage within the Nation's legls- .„__. -.. *..e , d with the duty nefltof a gener- people impressively suggest exacting obligation and inexorable f e- Jfsibil'ty involved to theif task. At the if eshold of such labor now to be undet> -Jfeen by the cdngfess of the United States ftfid Ifi the disehaf ge of in-executive dutv eh- jbined by the constitution 1 submit this «6ffimUaidfttion, containing a brief state~lent of the condition of ouf national fairs, and fecomending such legislation seems to irie necessary and expedient. ;Vs „ Foreign Itelntloh*. fy? The Wstofy of our recent dealings with s r othbr nations, and our peaceful relations tf with,them at this tilne,additionally deniou- 3" btf'ate" the advantage of consistently ad•v Jbering to a firm but j nst f of eigii policy, free ^.Sfprn envious of ambitiousnationnl schemes •ji/Und characterized by entire honesty and i - sincerity. ' • 1 have endeavored to impress upon tho ,' Belgian government tho needlessness nnd positive harmfulness of its restrictions i * Upon the importation of certain of our •H footl products, and have strongly urged , that the rigid supervision and inspection • • Under our laws are- amply sufficient to pro, vent the exportation from this country of fc fliseased cattle aud unwholesome meat. ', A gratifying recognition of. the uniform ••» imtartiality of this country toward all :: ioroign states was manifested by the coin- '' nldent request of the Chinese and Japanese '\ yxivernnients that the agents of the United ." States should, within proper limits, afford •4', ' protection to the subjects of the other dur- -,ing the suspension of diplomatic relations due'to a state of war. This delicate office Was accepted, and a misapprehension which gave rise to a belief that in affiord- ' iner this kindly unofficial protection our agents' would exercise the same authority which the withdrawn agents of tbe beligerents had exercised was promptly corrected. Although the war between China nnd Japan endangers no policy of the United States, it deserves our gravest consideration, by reason of its disturbance of our growing commercial interests in tho two :ountrles and the increased dangers Avhich may result to our citizens domicile! or sojourning in the interior of China. Acting nnder a stipulation in our treaty with Koiea (the firnt concluded with a western power) I felt constrained ' at the beginning of the controversy to tender our gcod offices to induce an amicable arrangement of the initial difficulty growing out of the Japanese demands Tor administrative reforms in Korea, but the unhappy precipitation of actual hostilities defeated this kindly pur- ' pose. Deploring tbe destructive war between the two most powerful of the eastern na. tione nnd anxious that our commercial interests in those countries may be preserved nnd that the safety of our citizens there shall not bo jeopardized. I would not hesitate to hoed any intimation that our friendly aid for the honorable termination , of hostilities would bo acceptable to both 'beligerents. France and Germany. Our relations with the republic of Prance conltaue to be such as should exist between nations so long bound together by friendly sympathy and similarity in their form of ' government. The German government has protested against that provision of the customs tariff act which imposes a discriminating duty of one tonth of a cent a pound on sugars coming from countries paying an export bounty thereon, claiming that the action of such duty is in contravention of articles five and nine of the treaty of 1S2S with Prussia. ' ' Early in the present year an agreement ' was reached with Great Britain concerning instructions to be given to tho naval cpm- ^-manders of the two governments in Behring . Sea.andthecoutiguousNortb Pacific Ocean, ' for their guidance in the execution of the award of the Paris tribunal of arbitration and the enforcement of the regnla- 1 tions therein prescribed, for the protection of seal life in the waters mentioned. An understanding has also been reached for the payment by the United States of ?435,000, in full satisfaction of all claims which laay le made by Great Britain for damages growing out of the controversy ap to fur seale in Behring sea, or the seizure pf British vessels engaged in taking seal in those Tvaters, >Thus far only France and Portugal have signified their willingness to adhere to the regulations established under the award of K> ihe Paris tribunal of arbitration. §3", 'Since communicating the voluminous ^correspondence in regard to Hawaii and tbe action taken by the senate and house of *$? &> representatives on certain questions sub- If" jnitted to the judgement and Avider discre- m* tion pf congress, the organization of a gov- Kst 1 eminent in place of the provisional £V .arrangement which followed the deposition ^•pf tbe queen has been announced with evi- v^4ence of its effective operation. The re'••''•'cognition usual in such cases has been ac- isl 'J •gprded the new government. pppdwill, fostered by many interests in ' common has marked our relations '" '" our nearest southern neighbor, -^™ ...,, being restored along her northern ^frontier) Mexico has asked the punishment iflf the late disturbers of, her tranquility. ought to be, a new treaty ofcom- nd navigation with that country to T _J place of the one which terminated , &wteen years pgo, The friendliness of the antercpurse between the two countries is /attested by the fact that during this long ^fjerjpd, the commerce of each 1ms steadily Jncreflsed nnder the rule of mutual consid- ^gration, being neither stimulated by eon- '' —tio&al arrangements nor retarded by ir ^am rivalries or selfish distrust. 1 -ifbe problem of the storage aud use of jvaters of the Rio Grande for irrigation JM fee eplved by appropriate concurrent pjj of tbe two interested countries. JiluelJeUls Incident, rpmwent among • tbe questions of the Fwij tfee Bluefields incident, in what is >JKH" §s t^P Jtosqnitp Indian strip, bor- z on ' the Atlantic ocean and within .riedjptjpn Nicaragua, By the treaty pejt-vyeeu Great Britain and test tower gpyer»rne»t expressly d |be f overeigjity of the latter stvip.a&d * limited form of self guaranteed to the JIps- ejBXprpised. according to customs fpr themselves and lim Its limits, Tbe gpyernment, v?Jjic}i t>»tfi««lstifli8 cttefit eoUWofled by dtt* fttftSfM, we M* fast ftif that feSSonchAt- lettge thefigBlfalsovefeigntyof Nicafagna tfW tfiis iapoftftflt Mr t of her doififtin. , Fdf Sdtn-6 &6fitn6 ofct>, and dnf ing pftffc b! tfeS time two, 6f bat natal ship* have beea stationed isA maeftelds fof the ptotfictiofl of all legitimate ihtef ests bf ouf citizens. Ifi September last the government at Managua expelled ffoffi its tef ritory twelve of mofe fof eighef s, including tw6 Amef i- cafas, tot ft,U4ged participation in the seditious' bf revolutionary , movement against the republic at BlueQelds already mentioned; but through the eafneatfemon- stf ance of this government the two Americans have been perinHted to return to the the peaceful management of their business. Ouf fittval commanders at the scene of these distnfbaftceSj by theif constant exhibition of firmness and good judgment, contributed lafgely to the pfevention of more sefious eohseqtiences and to the restoration of quiet And 6rd»f. I regret that in the midst of these occuMeiices there happened a most gfave and irritating failUfe of Nicauraguan justice. An American citizen named Wilson, residing at Rama, in the Mosquito tefritof y, was murdered by otie Arguello, the acting governor of the town. After some delay the inufderef was afrested but so insecurely confined or guarded that he escaped, and notwithstanding ottf repeated demands it is claimed that his recapture has been impossible by reason of his flight beyond Nicarnguan jusisdiction. Tho Nicarnguan authorities having given notice of forfeiture of their concession to the catml company on grounds purely technical ond not embraced in the contract, have receded from, that position. Trouble with Spain. Unreasonable and unjust fines imposed by Spain on the vessels and commerce of the United States have demanded from time to time during tbe last twenty years earnest remonstrance on the part of our government. In the immediate past exorbitant penalties have been imposed upon pur vessels and goods by customs authorities of Cuba and Porto Rico, for clerical errors of the most trivial character in the manifests or bills of lading. In some cases fines amounting to thousands of dollars have been levied upon cargoes or the carrying vessels, when the goods in question were entitled to free entry. Finos have been exacted even when the error had been detected and the Spanish authorities notified before the arrival of tho goods in port. This conduct is in strange contrast witn the considerate nnd liberal treatment extended to Spanish vessels and cargoes in our ports in like cases. No satisfactory settlement of those vexatious questions has yet been reached. Kclatlons -with Turkey. In my last annual message I adverted to the tlaini on tho part of Turkey of the right to expel, as persons undesirable and dangerous, Armenians naturalised in the Unite! States and returning to Turkish jurisdiction. Numerous questions in this relation have arisen. While this government acquiesces in the asserted right of expulsion it would not consent that Armenians may be imprisoned or otherwise punished for no other reason than having cojuh'ed •without imperial consent American citizenship.. Three of the assailants of Miss Melton, an American teacher in Mosul, have been convicted by the Ottoman courts, and I am advised that an appeal against tho acquittal of tbe remaining five has been taken by the Turkish prosecuting officer. Sumoau Affairs. In my last annual message I referred briefly to the unsatisf actorv state of affairs in Samoa under the operation of the Berlin treaty as signally illustrating the im- policy of entangling alliances with foreign powers, and on Ma> 9, 1894, in response to a resolution of the senate, I sent special message and documents to that body on the same subject, which emphasized my previously expressed opinions. _ Later occurrences, the correspondence in regard to which will be laid before congress, further demonstrate that tho government which was devised by the throe powers and forced upon the Sarnoans against their inveterate hostility can be maintained only by continued presence of foreign military force and at no small sacrifice of life and treasure. The suppression of the Wataffa insurrection by the powers, nnd the subsequent banishment of tho leader and eleven other chiefs, as recited in my last message, did not bring lasting peace to the islands. Formidable uprisings continued, and finally a rebellion brolie out in the capital island, Upolo, heade-1 in Aana. the western district, by the younger Tanmsese, and in Atua, the eastern district, by other leaders. 'ihe insurgents ravaged the com: try and a fought the government's troops up to tho very doors of Apia. ' The king again appealed to the powers for help, and the combined British and German naval forces reduced the Atuans to apparent subjection, not, however, without cousiderable loss to the natives. A few days later Tauiasese and his adherents fearing the ships and the marines, professed submission. Reports received from our agents at Apia do not justify the belief that the peace thus brought about will be of long duration. It is their conviction that the natives are at heart hostile to the present government; that such of them as profess loyalty to it do so from fear of the powers, and that -it would speedily go to pieces if the warships were withdrawn. In reporting to his government on the unsatisfactory situation since the suppression of the late revolt by foreign armed forces, 'the German consul at Apia stated : ''That peace will be lasting is hardly to be presumed. The lesson given by firing on Atua was not sufficiently sharp and in- : cisive to leave a lasting impression on the forgetful Samoan temperament. In fact. conditions are existing which show that peace will not last and is not seriously intended, Malietoa, the king, and his chiefs, are convinced that the departure of .the warships will be a -signal for a renewal.pf •war. The circumstance that the representatives of the villages of all ''the districts which were opposed tp;[the government have already withdrawn to Atua to hold meetings,' and that both Atua and Aana have forbidden inhabitants of those districts which fought an the side of the government tp return to their ^villages and have already partly burned down the latter, indicates' that a real conciliation pf the parties fc.stJU far The Country's Finances. The secretory of the treasury reports that the receipts of tbe government from all sources of revenue during the fiscal year ending June 30,J894,amounting to $372.803,498.29,and its expenditures to $443,1505,758.8.7, leaving a deficit oE $69,S03;S00.58. There was a decrease of £15,052,074.06 in the ordinary expenses of the government, as compared with the fiscal year of 1893. Tnere woe collected from customs ,$181,818,530,(53, and, fvpm internal revenue $141,168.449.70. Tne balance of the income for the year, amounting to |93,815 ( 5l7,97i was I delved from the sales p| lands .#ud, other sources. yajue of pur tptel dutiable imports the jmpprtfjstipns free pf cjuty, anjpunted tp ttttmW, Wqg IflfcWW Jess &»» dur- % TO p*ec«Jteg ye w- Tbe rfsejpts f rpm, 1? "1Q,48641 less and. f j-p TO ,„,„._„ ..&,$ft&$.»Uew than in **§<?' yeftf.; Loans and dlgcotmts were |16l.&06> 028 mote than at the same time the pfe- rlottt yeftf, and .checks ftttd ^thef tsasn items were m8i9,063 inofe. The total f 6- sonf ces of the banks at the date mentioned amounted to $8.47o.022,OS5, &J against 18,10^,668.284.86 ift 18(k the War ttopnfttnent. fr? oni the f epof t ol the secf etafy of tte.f it appe&fs that th6 stfefagth of the army on Sept. 80, 1894, ^a« 2485 officers and 35,703 enlisted men. This is apparently A very slight decrease compafed with the previous yeaf . The execution of the policy of concen- tf atittg the af my at important centers of population and transportation, foreshadowed Ih the last annual f epoft of the secretary fhas resulted itt the abandonment of fifteen of the smdllef posts, which Was effected under a plan which assembles of' ganizations of the same f eglmeiits hithef tb Widely separated. This f endefs our small forces mofe readily effective for any sef- vice Which they may bo called upon to pef • form, increases the extent of the terfitofy Under protection without 'diminishiug the security hefetof of e afforded to any locality) improves the discipline, training and esprit de corps of the army, besides considerably decreasing the costof its maintenance. While the maximum legal strength of the army is ' 25,003 men, the eff Ctive strength, through various causes, is but little over 20,000 men. The purpose of congress does not therefore seem to be fully attained by tho existing Condition, While no considerable increase in the army is, in my judgment, demanded by recent events, it is hardly necessary to recall the fact that in obedience to the commands of the constitution and the laws, and for the purpose of protecting tho property of the United States, aiding the process of the Federal courts and removing lawless obstructions to tho performance by the government of its.legltimate functions, it became necessary in various localities during the year, to employ a considerable portion of tho regular troops. The duty was discharged promptly, courageously and with marked discretion by the officers and men, and tho most gratifying proof was thus afforded that the. army deserves that com- plete'Confideucd in its efficiency and discipline which the country has at all times manifested. The total enrollment of the militia of the several states is 117,583 officers and enlisted men, an increase of fi,843 over the number reported at the close of the previous year. In recognition of tho long and distinguished military services of and faithful discharge of delicate and responsible civil duties by Major-Geiieral John M. Schofield, now the general commanding the army, it is suggested to congress that the temporary revival of the grauo o£ lioutennnt-geueral in his behalf wo'uld bo a just and gracious act. '' Unloh Pacific Hallway. < A. subject of pressing moment referred to by the attorney -general is the reorganization of the Union Pacific railway company on a basis equitable as regards ail private interests and as favorable to the government as existing conditions will permit. The operation of a railroad by a court through a receiver is an : aaomalous state of things which should be terminated,on all grounds, public and private, at the earliest possible moment. Besides, not to enact the needed enabling legislation at the present session postpones the whole matter until the assembling cf anew congress and inovitably increases all the complications of the situation, and could not but be regarded as a signal failure, to solve a problem which has pending a more complete re£orm,praetically been before the present congress ever since its organization. rootolllce Department. Tne report bf the postmaster-general presents a comprehensive .statement of the, operations oi! the postoffice department for the last flscalyenr. • ' • The receipts of the department during the year amounted to $75,080,479.04 and the expenditures to $84,824,414.15. The transactions of the postal service indicate with barometric certauity the fluctuation iu. the business of the country. The postmaster-general states that the deficit is unnecessary and might be obviated at once if the liw regulating rates upon mail matter of the second-class .was modified. The rate received for the transmission of this second-class matter is 1 cent per pound, while the cost of such transmission to tho government is eight times that amount. ; Iu tho general terms of the law this rate covers newspapers and periodicals. The extensions of the moaning of these terms from time to time have admitted to the privileges intended for legitimate newspapers and 'periodicals a surprising range of publications and created abuses, the cost of which amount in the aggregate to the total deficiency of the postofUce department. Pretended newspapers are started, by business houses for the mere purpose of advertising goods, complying with the law in form only and discontinuing the publications as soon as the period of advertising is over. "Sample copies" of pretended newspapers are issued ia great., numbers for a like purpose only. The iresult is a great loss of revenue to the government, besides its humiliating, Use as an agency to aid in carrying out the scheme of a business house to advertise its goods by means of a trick upon both its rival houses and tho regular and legitimate newspapers. Paper covered literature con- slhting mainly of trashy novels to the ex- tejit of many thousands of tons is sent through the 'mails at one cent per pound, while the publishers of standard works are i required to ,pay eight times that amount in sending their publications. About the Navy. Attention is called to the report of the secretary of the navy, which shows very gratifying progress in the construction of of ships. 'for our now navy. All the vessels now building, including the three torpedo boats authorized at the last session of congress, end excepting the first class battle ship Iowa, will probably be completed during the coming fiscal year. The, estimates for the increase of the navy for the year ending June 80. 1890, are large", but they include practically the eu- tirs sum necessaryto complete and equip all the iiew ships not now in commission, so that unless new ships are authorized the appvopriatipjis for the naval service ,*or the fiscal year ending June 80, 1897, should fall below tbe estimates for the coming year by at least Sia.OO^OOO. • The secretary presents with much earnestness a plea for the authorization of three additional battleships and ten or twelve 'torpedo bouts. While the unarmored vessels heretofore authorized, including those now pearing completion, will constitute ft fleet, which it }s believed is sufficient for ordinary crusing puposes in time of peace, we Uave now completed and in process of construction- but four first ojass battleships and but few torpedo boats. Jf we are to have a navy for warlike operatipns, offensive and defensive, we certainly ought to increase both, the number of ba> tlesbips and torpedo boats, The vigorous, action of Rear-Admiral Benhjam, i» protecting the personal and, cornmerpjal rights of our- citizens during the disturbed conditjops in. Brazil afforded results which -vyiU, it is believed, haye a/ faT-rea.cbing an4 wliojeepme influence whenever in Jlke 1 circurnslauees It may become »ece,sgary for our nayal oomm»nders to ipterf ere <j« behalf of our people }u f or- BQ-VK Jto progress, Japan; jjfis, revered }t jpa$cU $gh$ vessels Jo ft 18 eattinated that the pnWW still rsmaifcihg Amounts to ft little jnofe thSfi 600,1 OJ.COJ 66*68. including, h«we*ef, about 860,000,050 acf es ia Alaska, as «ell as militaffr resefvations and failrofid and othef selections ol lands yet unadjndieated. The selection of swamp lands and that takefa as indeminty thefefof since the pas- saw of the act providing fof the same in 1849. amounting to nearly or quite iO,SOO,000 acres, of Which 68.000,000 hare beeri patented to stated. About 133,000 acres were patented during the last year. Neatly three hundred and twenty thousand acres of school and education grants were approved during the year, and at its close i ,- i50,863.81 acres remained unadjusted. It appears that the appropriation for the current year on account of special service for the protection of the public lands .and the timber thereon is much less than those of pr< ions years and inadequate fof an efficient performance of the -work. A larger Earn of money than has been appfb^ prlated during a number of years past of tuis account has been returned to-the Government as a result of the labors of those employed in the particular service mentioned, and I hope it will not be crippled by insufficient appropriation. I fully endorse the recommendation of the secretary that adequate protection be provided for our forest reserves and that a comprehensive forestry system be inaugurated, I concur in the opinion that the commissioner of the general land office should be relieved from the duty of deciding litigated land cases; that a nonpartisnn court should be created to pass - on such cases, and that the decisions oi th:si court should be flnnl, at least so far as the decisions of the department are now final. TJio Indians. Though the condition of the Indians shows a steady and healthy progress, their situation is not satisfactory at all points. Sjmeof them to whom allotments of land have been made are found to be unable or disinclined to follow agricultural pursuits or to otherwise beneficially manage their land. This is especially true of the Cheyennos and Arapaboes, who, ns it appears by reports of their agent, have in many instances never been located upon their allotments, and in some cases do not even know whore thoir allotments are. Their condition has deteriorated. They are not self supporting, and they live in camps and spend their time in idlenessi I nave always believed that allotments of reservation lands to Indians in severalty should be made sparingly, or at least slowly, and with the utmost caution. In < hese days when white agriculturists and stock raisers uf experience ond Intelligence find their lot a hard one, we ought not to expect Indinns, unless far advanced in civilization and habits of industry, to support themselves on the small tracts of land usually allotted to thorn. If the self supporting scheme by allotment fails the wretched pauperism of the allottees which results is worse than thoir original cO"dition of regulated dependence. It is evident that the evil consequences of ill advised allotment are intensified in cases where the false step can not bs retreated the new US63 to which it is constantly being appropriated. The e*pofts oi ftgrictfitflral Idtfda6te iffflfc the trailed States fof the fiscal leaf ending Jane 80,< 1894, amounted to 1628,863.033, being 7-2.28 Uef cent of Afnef ic&fi experts of evefy description, and the united kingdom of Great Britain took more than 64 pet cent of all farm products find ing foreign markets. Ahihial IndnstHleg. The Scientific inquiries of the bureau oi aniraaHbdustry have progressed steadily during the year. Much tubefculon and mallein have been furnished to state authorities for me in the agricultural colleges and experiment stations fof the treatment of tuberculosis and glanders. . Quite recently this department has published the results of this investigation Of bovine tuberculosis and its f osearches will be Vigorously continued. Certain herds in the District of Columbia will be thoroughly inspected and will probably supply adequate scope fof the department to intelligently prosecute its scientific work and furnish sufficient material fof purposes of illustration, description and definition. The recommendation Contained in the report of the seefetnry for 1893, that ihe vicious system of promiscuous ffee distribution of its departmental documents be abandoned is again urged. These publications may well be furnished without cost, to public libraries, educational institutions, and the officers ond libraries Of states and of the federal government, but from all individuals applying for them a price covering the cost of the document asked for should be required. The secretary also ngain recommends that the gratuitous distribution of seeds cease, and that no money be appropriated for that purpose except to experiment rtations. A further important utility in agricultural statistics is found in their elucidation of the relation of the supply of farm products to the demand for them in the markets of Ihe United States and of the world. It is deemed possible that on agricultural census may be taken each year through the agents of the statistical division of the department. Such a course is commended for trial by the chief of that division. Its scope would be: ' 1. The nrea under each of the more important crops. 2. The aggregate products of each of such crops. 8. The quantity of wheat and corn in the hands of farmers at a date after the spring sowings and plantings and before the beginning of harvest; and also the quantity of cotton and tobacco remaining in the hands of planters, either at the same date or at some other designated time. The cost of the work is estimated at $500,000, Civil Service Kcform. The advantages of the public service of an adherence to the principles of civil service reform are constantly more apparent and nothing is so enco'arugiug to those in official life who honestly desire good government as tho increasing appreciation by our people of those advantages. A vast majority of the voters of the land are ready to insist that the time and at- wnere me zaise step can not 00 reueuiuu -™-y „ ., —, , , . » ,. on account of tho pVrhnsa by the govern- tention of those they select to perform tor • - .. f . . •' . . b -. them important public duties should not be distracted by doling out minor offices, and ment of reservation lands remaining after allotments are made and the disposition of such remaining lands to settlors or purchasers from the government. I am convinced that the prcp3r solution of the Indian problem an'* the success of every step token in tbab direction depend to a very large extent upon the intelligence and honesty of the reservation agents and the interest they have in their work. The intelligent Indian school management of the past year has been followed by gratifying results. Efforts have been made to advance the work in a sound and practical manner. Five institutes of Indian teachers have been held during tho year and proved very beneficial through the views exchanged and methods discussed particularly applicable to Indian education. Efforts are being made in the direction of a gradual reduction in the number of Indian contract schools so that in a comparatively short time they may give way altogether to government srtiools, nnd it is hoped that the change may be so gradual as to be perfected without too great, expense to the government or undue disregard of investments made by those who have established and are maintaining such contract schools. Tho Pension Rolls, At the close of the last fiscal year, on the 30th day of June. 1894, there were 089,544 persons on our ponsion rolls, being a net increase of 8,f>83 over the number reported at the end of the previous year. Tho commissioner of pensions is of the opinion that the year 1595, • being the thirtieth after the close of the war of the rebellion, must according to all sensible human calculation see the highest limit of the a pension c roll, and after that year it must begin to decline. • The claims pending in the bureau have decreased more than 90,000 during tho year. A large proportion of the new claims filed are for increase of pension by those now on the rolls, The accusation that an effort to detect pension frauds is evidence of unfriendly- ness toward our worthy veterans and a denial to their claims to tho generosity of the government suggests an unfortunate indifference to the commission of anyoffense which has for its motive the securing of a pension and indicates a willingness to bo blind to the existence of mean and treacherous crimes whio h play upon demagogic fears and make sport of the patriotic impulse of a grateful people, Tlio Eleventh Census. The completion of the eleventh census is now in cnarge of the commissioner of labor. The total disbursements on a"count of the worlr for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891, amounted to $10,805,070,81. At the close of the year the number of persons employed in the census office was 079. At present there are about 400, The whole number of volumes necessary TO comprehend tbe eleventh census will be twenty-five, and they will contain 23,370 printed pages. U he assurance is confidently made that before the close of the present calendar year the material still incomplete will be practically to hand, and the census can certainly be closed by March 4, 1805. After that the revision and proof reading necessary to bring out the volumes will still be required. 'J he census is being prepared according to the theory that it is designed to collect facts and certify them to the public— not to elaborate arguments or to present personal views, Our Farming Interests. The secretary of agriculture in his report reviews the operations of his department for the last fiscal year, apd makes recommendations for tbe further extension pf its usefulness. £e reports a saving in expenditures during the year of $600,000 which is covered back into tbe treasury, This sum is 28 per cent of the entire appropriation, A special study has been made of the demand tov American farm products in all fp.eign markets, especially Great Britain. That country received from the United States during the nine months ending Sept. 80, J894, 805.W Jive, fceof oat^Jo rafted, at £$1,500.000 tt t 1898. , as ajgaiust 1S».GU the ed. they are growing to be unanimous in gnrding party organization as something that should be used in establishing party principles instead of dictating the distribution of public places as rewards of partisan activity. Numerous additional offices and places have lately been brought within civil service rules and regulations nnd some others will probably.soon be included. The report of the commissioners will be submitted to congress, and 1 invite careful attention to tho recommendations it contains. The National Health. I am entirely convinced that we ought not to be longer -without a national board of health or national health officer, charged with no other duties than such as pertain to the protection of our country from the invasion of pestilence and disease. There seems to be at this time a decided inclination to discuss measures of protection against contagious diseases in international conference with a view of adopting means of mutual assistance. The Labor Troubles. By virtue of a statute of the United States passed in 1888, I appointed in July last, Hon. John D. Kern an of the state of New York, and Hon. Nicholas E. Worthington of tho state of Illinois to form with Hon. Carroll D. Wright, commissioner of labor, who was designated by said statute, a commission for the purpose of making careful inquiry into the causes of the controversies between certain railroads and their employes, which hod resulted in an extensive and destructive strike, accom- pauied by much violence and dangerous disturbance, with considerable loss of life and great destruction oC property. The report of the commissioners has been submitted to me and will be transmitted to tho congress with the evidence taken up on their investigation. 1 Their work has been well done, and their standing and intelligence give assurance that the report and suggestions they make are worthy of careful consideration. The Tariff Hill. The tariff act passed at the last sessio n of the congress needs important amend' ments if it is to be executed effectively and with certainty. In addition to such ueaes- sary amendments as will not change rates of duty, I am still very decidedly in favor of putting coal and iron upon the free list. So far as the sugar schedule is concerned, I would be glad, under existing aggravations to see every particle of differential duty in favor of refined sugar stricken out of our tariff law. If, with all tbe favor now recorded the sugar refining interest in our tariff laws, it still languishes to the extent of closing refineries and thousands of discharged workmen, it would seem to present a hopeless case for reasonable legislative aid. Whatever else is done or omitted, I earnestly repeat here the recommendation " have made in another portion of this communication that the additional duty of . one- tenth of a cent per pound laid upon sugar imported from countries paying a bounty on its export be abrqgated. It seems tome that exceedingly important considerations point to tbe propriety of this amendment, With the advent of a new tariff policy not only calculated to relieve the consumers of our land in the cost of their daily life but to invite a better development of American thrift and create for us closer and more profitable commercial relations with the rest of the world, it follows as a logical and. imperative necessity that we should at once remove vne chief if not the only obstacle which has go long prevented our participation in the foreign carrying trade of the sea. A tariff built upon the theory tfeflit it ia well to check imports and that a, home market should bound the industry and, effort pf Aniej-ipan producers, was fitly supplemented, by ft f ef usal tp allow American registry tp vessels puilt abroad though pwned, ftftd navigated by our people, thus exhibiting a willingness tp abandon all contest f°r the advantages of .American trans oceanic carriage. Our new tariff policy, built wppn we theory that »is we}l to' pttcourage, such. Jrnpoa't&tipas a» e need. a»d Uwrt P»r prpa,upi8,an4 urere slipujd. find mi'Mpts in every part of the h.aM»bte gJabe, is oQ^stetenHy supp4ewe#$M toy Jh,e greatest pwwttto Jib- ej-Jy t« o,HV pit^enji in the ownership exists findef tW . ft statute of th6 United Stftt®, recommend its t$f oai|it f epeal. 0u* Gold P.uflng• tte last month ,the go in the treasnfy fof the purpose of redeftJS- ing the notes of the government cirdulftt" ing as money in the hands of the peojoIB . ible 5i& _ng as money in i,~v -- ., ~ became so reduced, and its fufthef depletion in the near future seemed to ceftaia, that in the exefelse of propef cafe for ttU» public welfare it became necessary to fft- olenish the f esef ve and thus maintain poti- ulaf faith in the ability and determihfttiptt of the government to meet, as agreed, Its toectiniai-y obligations. It would have ocett well If ih this emergency authofity had . existed to issue the bonds of the gov* erntoent beafing a low fate of intefest and maturing within a short period; but the congress having .failed to .• eemer such authority, resoft was necespaflly had to the resumption act of 1876, and pursttttUt . to its provisions bonds were issued df awing interest at the rate of 5 per cent ^pef annum and maturing ten years af tef tbeif issue, that being the shortest time authorized by the act. I am glad to lay, however, that on the sale of these bonds the premium received operated to reduce thft rate of interest to be paid by the government to less than 3 per cent. Nothing could be worse or further removod < frotu sensible finance than the relations existing between the currency the Government has issued, the gold held for its redemption, and the means which must be resorted to for the purpose of replenishing such redemption fund when impaired. Even if the claims upon this fund were confined to tho obligations originally intended and if the redemption of those obligations meant their cancellation, the fund would bo very small. But these obligations when received and redeemed in, gold are not canceled but are reissued and may do duty many times by way of drawing gold from the treasury. Thus we have an endless claim in operation constantly depleting the treasury's gold and never near a final rest. As if this was not bad enough, we have, by a statutory declaration that it is tho policy of the government to maintain tho parity between gold and silver, aided the force nnd momentum, of this exhautting process and added largely to the currency obligations claiming this peculiar gold redemption. Our small gold reserve is thus subject to drain from every side. Tho demands that increase our dan- gor also increase the necessity of protecting this reserve against depletion, aud it is most unsatisfactory to know that the protection afforded is only a temporary palliation. It is perfectly n"nd palpably plain. that the only way under present conditions by which this reserve when danger- ouslv depleted can bo replenished is through the issue and sale of the bonds. Now Plan for Currency Questions relating to our banks nnd currency nro c'osely connected with the subject just referred to and they also present some unsatisfactory features. Prominent among them are tho lack of elasticity in our currency circulation and its frequent concentration in financial centers when it is most needed in other parts of the country. The absolute divorcement of the government from the business of banking is the ideal relationship of the government to the circulation of the currency of the country. This condition can not be immediately reached; but as a step in that direction and as a means of securing a more elastic currency and obviating other objections to the present arrangement of bank circulation, the secretary of the treasury presents in his report a scheme modifying present banking laws •und providing for the issue of circulating notes by state banks free from taxation under certain limitations. The secretary explains his plan eo plainly and its advantages are developed by him with such remarkable clearness that any effort on my part to present argument in its support would be superfluous. I shall, therefore, content myself with an unqualified indortement of the secretary's proposed changes in the law and a brief and imperfect statement of their prominent feature. It is proposed to repeal all laws providing for the deposit of United States bonds as security for circulatiou; to permit national banks to issue circulating notes not exceeding in amount 75 per cent of their paid up and unimpaired capital, provided tliey deposit witu the government, as a guarantee fund, in United States legal tender notes, including treasury notes of 1890, a sura equal in amount to 30 per cent of the notes they desire to issue, this deposit to be maintained at all times, but whenever any bank retires any port of its' circulation a proportional part of its guarantee fund shall be returned to it; to permit the secretary of the treasury ta prepare and keep on hand, ready for issue in case an increase in circulation is desired, blank national bank notes for each, bank having circulation, and to repeal the provisions of tb e present law imposing limitations and restriction upon banks desiring to reduce, or increase their circulation—thus permiting such increase or reduction within the limit of 75 per cent of capital to be quickly made as emergencies arise. In ad« dition to the guarantee fund required, it is proposed to provide a safety fund for the immediate redemption of the circulating notes of failed banks, by im» posing a small annual' tax, say one half of 1 per cent, upon the average circula tion of each bank until the fund amount to 5 per cent of the total circulation outstanding. When a bank fails its guarantee fund is to be paid into this safety fund and its notes are to be redeemed in the first instance from s_uch safety fund thus augmented—any impairment of siich fund caused thereby to be made good from th<» immediately available cash assets ot said, bank and if these should be insufficient, such impairment to be made good by pro- rats, assessment among the other banks, their contributions constituting a first lien upon the. assets of failed • bank in favor of the contributing banks. As a further security it is contemplated that the existing provision fixing the individual liability of stockholders is to be retained end the band's indebtedness, on. account pf its circulating notes, is to be made a first lieu on all its assets. Another very important feature of thfa pian is tbe exemption of state banks from taxation by the United States ia cases where it is shown to the satisfaction of tlia secretary of the treasury and comptroller of the currency by banks claiming such ex* ernption that they have not had, outstanding their circulating notes exceeding 75 per cent, of their paid up and unimpaired capital; that their stookholders are individually liable for the redemption of their circular ing notes to the full extent of their owner* ship of stock; thftt the liability of said banks, upon their circulating note! cpnstiT tutes under their state law a first lien uppn their assets; t,Uut such, banks baveljept and, maintained a guarantee fund IB United States legal tender notes including ' treasury notes of 18BQ equal to 30 per ceirt of their outstanding circulating notes, and that such, bcmks haye promptly redeemed t^eir circulating not 68 vvhea, x ™ at tnejl' principal or bran usef uJIJy.amended in spnje of jfs 4etai|s"fbut BWJ*ftW!? e !* ^ IttW 8 ^ 8 «t bftsis f 9V ft, yep!' py eB en.t'bft»Wn|[

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