The Algona Upper Des Moines from Algona, Iowa on October 24, 1894 · Page 2
Get access to this page with a Free Trial

The Algona Upper Des Moines from Algona, Iowa · Page 2

Algona, Iowa
Issue Date:
Wednesday, October 24, 1894
Page 2
Start Free Trial

1 Ml UPPEK BBB HOtNlB! ALGO&A IOWA WEDNESDAY OCTOBEM 24 1804. WEEKLY hfeVlEW OF TRA&6 BV R. Q. DUN & CO. IbigtHfetitlon of Goods to ConSnmfii-s (Joed On fairly, but rricfel. Weaken A Little »—Failures In the United Slates And NfiW Yonft, Oct. 22.—ft. & Dun & tJb.'s Weekly ftovicw of Trade says! "Cotton below 6 cents and wheat "below SS cents, each lower than ever since present classifications were known, export of gold instead of products at such prices in October, are the salient features in business this •week, Distribution of goods to consumers goes on fairly, With gains at neatly all, points in comparison with last year, but not yet at a rate to sustain the present volume of manufacturing production, so that prices weaken a little. The domestic trade reported by railroad earnings in October is 3.4 per cent less than last year, and 13.4 per cent less than in 1892. The payments through the principal clearing houses for the third week of October are 2.3 •per cent greater than last year, but 31.5 per cent less than in 1892. The daily average for the month is 5.6 per cent larger than last year, but 28.3 smaller than in 1802. With many features of encouragement business has not yet reached expectations, and it is evident that the loss of part of the corn crop and the unnaturally low prices of other great staples effect the buying power of millions. "Wheat for October delivery fell to 54.12 cents Wednesday, and in spite of some recovery the average for October thus far is two cents below the lowest monthly average ever made, which •was in September, and was nearly 10 cents below the lowest prior to this year, the October average being 50 cents below that of October, 1891 or '1890. Western receipts are only 4,700,391 bushels for the week, against 6,004,330 last year, and Atlantic ports 631,084 bushels, against 893,343 last year, but the controlling fact is that no demand as yet promises to clear away the enormous surplus. Corn declined J£@l cent during the week with receipts not a quarter of last year and exports not a tenth. Pork products were small and weaker, •with lard a quarter cent lower. Cotton sold at 5.94 cents Thursday, and with Ellison's estimate that the world will consume 8,248,000 bales of American, the stock of 2,000,000 bales in sight, and the estimated yield of over 9,000,000 bales deter buyers. "With this heavy increase in ptir- chases and a decrease in sales of products abroad the market for foreign exchange is in a position to be quickly affected by withdrawals of capital or apprehensions regarding the future peace of Europe. It appears that three trust companies here now hold over $40,000,000 idle money and that eastern mill loans are being taken from New York by New England banks, while the northwestern demand for money is usually small. The treasury is again falling backward in reserve and large imports yield a little less revenue than last year, while internal revenue for the last three weeks is $1,000,000 smaller than a year ago. "The iron and steel business makes a better showing this week. There is a good demand for sheets, and some good bridge contracts are reported. The Pennsylvania railroad reports its material account 50 per cent less than that of last 3'ear up to date. "During the last week the failures have been 253 in the United States, agoinst 341 last year, and forty-three in Canada, against tweuty-njne lust year." Illinois Baptists Hoar Addresses. PONTIAC, 111.,Oct. 22.—Yesterday was a great day for those in attendance at the annual meeting of the Illinois General Uaptist association. The First Baptist church was crowded at all the sessions The exercises were all in charge of the Baptist Young People's •union. The officers made their reports and. many interesting addresses and papers were delivered on vital points each subject being given from ten to fifteen minutes. Multlnley Goes South. CHATTANOOGA, Tenn., Oct. 32.— Gov. MeKinley reached here at 9 o'clock last evening on a special train, en route from Columbus, Ohio, to New Orleans, where he goes to deliver an address under the' auspices of the Louisiana central republican committee. Gov. MeKinley left the car here and addressed a crowd of 4,000 people from the front platform of the depot, lie spoke nearly twenty minutes. Meeting at Populists. CHICAGO, Oct. 23.— The Auditorium was crowded to its utmost capacity last night and many people were turned ftway from hearing the two great advocates of the people's party, Dr. Ed- Tvard JMcGlynn an 4 Clarence S. Darrow. A great crowd went to the lake front where an overflow meeting was held around the Columbus statue. 66ts »a Speed* »n Kentucky. X, Ky., Oct. 2?.— Gov. Me- made his first speech }n Ken- last evening, speaking for ten -j»Jn.utes at the Cincinnati Southern y 3,ooo enthujjstic people • Of. tienitlln'i Abdnfctlofi Story to tooniy fielletcd. CASsoPolis, Mich., Oct. 22.— One oi the most remarkable things in connection With the return of Dr. Conklin, after an absence of Weeks, is the fact that his story of abduction, travel, change of captors, release and all is almost universally believed here, where he always bore a good reputation. The abduction, if abduction it Was, stands out as far as the public knows, as one of the craeiest of Schemes, That Conklin has had hard usage is certain. His good clothes arc gone, his mustache is gotte, he is sunburned and Weather beaten, and, most of all, he is haggard and careworn. lie talks freely, earnestly and with apparent honesty. His wife, mourning him as dead, had moved to Manchester, where Dr. Conklin joined her j'esterday. ANOTHER BRUTAL OHIO NEGRO t« Identified by the Victim, Who Has Slightly Recovered. NEWABK, Ohio, Oct. 22.— A negro came to the home of Mrs. Catherine Niebling, a widow, asjed 53, in the outskirts of the city yesterday afternoon, stepped in the door and asked the time of day. She turned from her ironing to look at the clock. The negro knocked her insensible, tied her hands, end gagged her with stt-ips of clothing that she had been ironing, outraged her, threw her into the cellar, and disappeared. Half an hour later she recovered, crawled to a neighbor's, and gave the alarm. She is badly hurt. The police immediately arrested Sam Magrucler and his brother and Ben Ward, a stranger who boarded with them. Mrs. Niebling identified Ward as her assailant. He is in jail heavily guarded. The excitement is intense, but there are no apprehensions of an attempt at lynching. Boy Pays tho Penalty for Ills Crime, FORT MADISON, Iowa, Oct. 22. — The first legal hanging that has been had in Iowa for eight years took place in the penitentiary at this place at 12:15 yesterday, when James O. Doolcy suffered the death penalty for the murder of his aunt and cousin. Dooley's neck was not broken by the drop and it was twenty minutes before life was pronounced extinct. Dooley, who was but 10 years old, was employed as a farm hand by W. II. Coons, his uncle by marriage, on a farm a mile or so out from Corning. Charged With Causing Soo Wrecks. MEBRir.L, Wis., Oct. 23.— Frank Williams and Leverett Hazeltine will be brought into court here to-day and will be charged with causing the two recent wrecks which occurred on the Soo railroad. The sheriff has collected a strong chain of circumstantial evidence connecting the men with the wrecks and is confident he has the men who caused all the recent troubles on the Soo. The men refuse to say anything, Tammany's New Candidate. NEW YORK, Oct. 22.— Hugh J. Grant was named as Tammany's candidate for Mayor, vice Nathan Straus, withdrawn, at the meeting of the executive committee in Tammany hall yesterday afternoon. The ex-Mayor said in the morning he would not . accept a nomination, but-he changed his mind after a long conference with a committee. He will commence the campaign at once. Wilson Well Koceivcd at Parsons. PAKSONS, Kan., Oct. 22.— William L. Wilson reached this place yesterday morning at 8 o'clock, after an early start from Elkins, where he spent Thursday. Mr. Wilson's address was short, but he covered the points in his tariff argument to the satisfaction of his audience. At night he addressed a lai-ge meeting of lumbermen and farmers at Davis. Interest in Wisconsin Y, M. C. A. JANESVILI,E, Wis., Oct. 32.—The strong interest in the work of the Wisconsin Y. M. C. A. is manifested in the state convention, which opened yesterday. Six new associations have been established in the last year and 143 conversions reported. John M. Whitehead of Jiinesville will serve as president during 1895. Twelve Hundred Kndeavorurs Meet, GALESBUHG, 111., Oct. 33.—The proceedings of the Illinois Christian Endeavor Union yesterday were marked by enthusiasm and earnestness. The delegates now here number 1,200. The Civic Federation movement in cities was indorsed, and young Christians were urged to talce an active part in civic affairs. Big Bombs round in Barcelona, BARCELONA, Oct. 32. — Two dynamite bombs powerful enough to blow up the whole quarter of the city where they were found were discovered yesterday near the engine of a large manufactory where a number of anarchists were formerly employed. Consternation was caused in the city by the find Uncle Sam's Alleged flint to Mexico,. GUATEMALA, Oct. 33. — It is reported the United States government ha& privately assured Mexico it would not be averse to seeing Mexico take charge of Central America, preserve the peace and prptec^ American citizens, stm-Hscrs foil THE * BUI <J WS , Back. Bu«4. PJBOTU, Qpt, 83i— The lower house of the reiehstag, by a large ma- jprity, decided tp recommit the bill providing lor freedom pf worship to the bous,e Of magnates for apcept&nce ttrtlifccn, <he Cld'A Conrncrc— An OIiI-Tlmo IlonfdlnB School— A Word lor the <««»>•». What Bucephalus Was to Alexander Bnbleca was to the Oid— a faithful servant, a devoted friend, nnd a sharer of nil his Hungers on many a battlefield. Snys the New York World. Babieca is snid to have been more like a rational being thnn like an nuinini. The Old when a youth nsked his god^ father, Don Pepre Pringos, to give him a colt, and they wont into the paddock, to choose one. llodrlgo (that was the Cid's name) let all the horses and colts pas by nnd took none until the lost of nil, a very ugly colt, mid he chose that one. His (.'odfathor was un- gry nnd said, "Booby!" ("Bnblieca") "you have mnde a bnil choice.' 1 The horse kept tile name, but did not deserve it, for it served his master faithfully for forty-two years. His first battle was with the Moors when his master was only twenty years old; nnd after that his nclven- ttires were many and varied. Once the queen led him up. for the Ckl to mount, because she wanted to do him honor. Babieca no doubted enjoyed himself. In nil •• the wars with the Moors nnd in nil the Cid's private adventures, which were numberless, this wonderful horse went with his master nnd though he must have been wounded in battle more than once, ho nl- wnys recovered nnd seemed not to lose his strength or show any signs of age. He understood his master's slightest touch on tho rein and was as obedient as ho was brave. After a while the Cid became very ill and knew that ho was going to die. He left directions which were to be 'if. The Clil'M Horse. followed after his death. He told them to saddle Babieca and tie his dead body on his back, that they might go out once more to battle. He said also that Babieca when he died was to be carefully burled, "that no dogs should eat the flesh of him who had trodden down so much dogs' flesh of Moors." Ou the twelfth day after the Cid's death they led for Babieca. They set the Cid's body ou his back, strapping it firmly to the saddle and tying his feet to the stirrups. The bishop of Valencia led Babieca by one rein and Gil Diaz his master's servant, by the other. So Babieca carried his master into battle for the last time. The Moors were beaten nnd the trio went on their way to Castile. Wherever they halted on the road they took the Cid's body from Babieca's back and Bet it on, a wooden horse that was made for the purpose. Babieca lived two years after this, carefully attended by Gil Diaz, who never allowed any one to mount the horse that had carried his master so faithfully. When the animal died at last he was buried before the gate of the monastry, Inside of which his master's body lay. Courage. Besides the regular tamers of wild tiensts, of whom the public know from having seen them at their work there are some more obscure heroes in a wild beast show, namely, the grooms. Those nre the men who live among the wild beasts; who go into their cages every day, and sleep within a few feet of the Iron bars in order to be ready for any emergency. Cleveland Moffett, in McClure's Magazine, says that from living thus in an atmosphere of perpetual danger, the grooms come to have a curious indifference to claws and faigs. Every one must admire a man who c,-:n bear pain and faco danger. The Uan-tnmer, William Philadelphia, is sflch a man. Many times had I watched him In his "act" with Black Prince, nnd wondered whether the lion was really in earnest when he struck and roared with such apparr-nt vicioiisness, or whether he had simply been trained to play a part. Certainly the lion looked as if his one desire was to kill the little man who .teased him so with rod and whip, smiling all the time under his yellow mustache. One iilght Black Prince sprang ten feet through the air straight at Philadelphia, who saved his life by dodging, but did not. escape the sweep of the lion's forearm- No one knew that, however, for the tamer showed no sign of injury, but brought bis heavy'whip down with u stinging cut over the lion's head «n4 went through ttye "act," holding n, band* kerchief to wls face now and 'then, but smiling as before. When ho left the ring It was found (but one of the llon'jj cluws bad I;il4 uls cheek open almost from eye to lip; and yet'tjjo man was smiling, "Ho meant to fclU me," gaffi Philn, delphia, as his face was being b.oun4 up. '»We will uovep ebmv that Uon a£a}nt" .paid tlio manner, mucU excited, "Qb, yes, we will," flus\we<} tl>e tower, MX iY lU njijkja Wis., Who cpnfegsed tP fls to do his worst. Alt Oict-'fijftfe nwnrdJnj? Here is a glimpse of nn old-fashion PI! boarding school for young ladies Which may well make our itiodcM girls equal* ly thankful for the present scientific" methods of Instructing their minds and for the liberty and nthletlc training nccdrded to their bodies. The unfortu nate little maiden of ten who records her impressions asa pupil was not, happily for herself and the world long condemned to such a repressive existence, She Was in after years krown as Mary Somcrville, the great mathematician. "Although Miss Primrose was not unkind, she had nn habitual frown which even the elder girls dreaded. My future companions, who were nil older thnn 1, cntne round me like n swnrm of bees, nnd nsked if my father had a title, what \vns the nnmo of our estate, If wo If we kopt n carriage and other such questions, which first made me feel the difference of station. However, the girls were very kind, and often bathed my eyes to prevent our stern mistress from seelug that I was perpetually in tears. "A few days after my arrival, although perfectly straight and wcll- lundc, I wns enclosed in stiff stays with a steel busk In front, while, above my frock bands drew my shoulders back till the shoulder-blades met. Then a steel rod, with a semicircle which wont under the chin, was clasped to tho steel busk In my stays. "In this constrained state I, and most of the younger girls, had to prepare our lessons. The chief thing I had to do was to learn by heart a page of Johnson's dictionary, not only to spell the words, give their parts of speech and meaning, but as an exercise of memory to remember their order of succession. Besides, I had to learn the first principles of writing and the rudiments of French and English grammar." And this was the best to be had for the instruction of the most powerfully intellectual woman of her time! It is pleasant to think that she lived to hail, in her old age, the establishment of the Glrton College, for Ladies at Cambridge, to which, after her death, her scientific library was appropriately presented. A Word for tlic Boyn. The manly, energetic boy, is the ono who aserts his right to bo in the world, and who promises to be of still greater service when maturity has ripened his faculties to their fullness, and strength ened his mental and physical powers. Such a boy is the hope of the future and he justifies that hope. He may not be an immature intellectual marvel, and it is far better that he Is not, for these youthful pheuomens are usually a disappointment as they grow older, falling to realize the high anticipations they have aroused and often, like too early ripening fruit, as quickly and unreasonably going to decay. There Is a place in the Avorld .for a good, healthj r , industrious boy, who Is fond of recreation, in its season, and v/0io is helpful, courteous and obedient at all times. Such a boy enters with as cheery a smile Into the performances of the home chores as he does into the boyish games and pastimes, and his bright, cheerful disposition Is like a gleam of sunshine to all who know him. There is n jocund ring In his voice, and an honest sincerity In face and word. He Is a natural, healthy boy, brimful of youthful spirit and enthusiasm, and of the buoyant, sanguine- temperament that becomes bis years. He is not aself-sufllcient miniature old man, who knows more than his parents. The latter Is not a boy at all, however his years may classify him, for he has developed Into a sort of nondescript, neither boy nor man, and a nuisance'generally. All honor to the bright, helpful spirited boy, the joy of the present and the hope of the future! He Is the one who Is properly fitting himself to take up the serious business of life when comes the time that we have to retire and resign it into his younger and more vigorous bauds. California's Q,itcur Cavern. On the north side of Table raoiuiv tain and near its top is an opening In the lava that has since its early days been known as the "lion's den." It was so named from the fact that for years It was the lair of a band of ferocious California lions, that, when the country was largely devoted to sheep raising, made mighty depredations upon the flocks and caused the owners much annoyance and loss. •••• When pursued, the animals would seek refuge In this deu find no hunter would dare to enter It. The ground about (.he entrance was covered with the bones and remnants of sheep and other animals. With tho increase of population the lions have gradually disappeared, although as late, as last spring two of the animals were seen to eater the cave. A party of youug men have made arrangements to explore It, and If possl» ble penetrate to Its bottom. That It is of great depth Is certain, for one can staud at the opening and heave groat stones down the declivity and the spunci will gradually die away in the distance. Economy nnd Artifice. The Puohess of Buckingham Jn her "Glimpses of the Four Continents," tells «n amusing.Maori story belonging to the period when these natives were at wav wjtb England. All spvts of tricks w e Rt on,, such as are not only fair but cbmraendable in war. When the Maoris were in want pf bnHets, they used to show n dummy In the busb; of course it was Immediately fired at. A man in the background pulled it down wjtb » saving. "Oh," thought the British soldiers, "we've done fpr him!" . Up came tbe dummy again, cautiously; pang, b^ug, wept tbe British rifles. J5o,wn fel] a,uwmy, and, tMs went; pn till sprae worse ma:rksman than visual cut tbe dummy's rppe. NP Maori would gp up t«,e tree tp spllco it for that Bieijnt 9Ql'tain deatb. Tbe bullets were ail taken out of tbe little earth bank \vblch. tb<? Maoris bad pade bphin4 Jbe jtree wfeew tbe d,u,n> nn,4 were WS«1 pyer sdBim< SIQNS OF J*ROQRfeSS INVENTIONS. A Hicj-cle Run tit Hand Potvcr is Oho of tho Latest Innovations—Aliont Stlffrof Writing—Liquids in Equilibrium— Scientific Notes. E V E R A L A T- tempts have bee.* made to utilize the strength of arms as well as legs for the propulsion of bicycles. One of the latest endeavors was the Valere running machine, which proved to bo only a theoretical success, however, and could not be used practically, It was too difficult to keep it balanced. But here is another solution of the same problem, also a 'French invention, which seems to be very simple. The "Quadrimotive O'Keenan" is an ordinary bicycle to which a second chain is added. This chain unites two pinions; one is on. the nxis of the propelling wheel, the other is placed on a support fastened to the handle bar. Two handles, easily brought into play, work the contrivance.— New York Press. Mirror Writing. Many left-handed people have crreat facilitv in writing in this way, and it is really the natural way in which writing would be done with the left hand. It is taken advantage of by such as can use it freely and readily in writing 1 , say post cards, for it is a simple and easy way of concealing the meaning, so long as those through whose hands the document passes are ignorant of the simple solution. For this it is only necessary ,to hold it before a mirror, when the writing appears as ordinary left to right writing. Hence the name "mirror writing" is the one commonly applied to it As regards its explanation, it is not easy to understand that mirror writing would be naturally used in writing from a copy, because even if -it- were, in an automatic way, a comparison of the copy with the original would at once show the difference; but, on the other hand, in writing without a copy the mental image will, in case of one who reproduces it with the right hand, fall into certain lines and curves produced in a certain way, while if the left hand is used the lines and curves will naturally be written in the reverse way—the way easiest for the left hand. It may be asked, Why,'then does not every one who tries to write with the left hand-not write mirror writing? This, we believe, depends upon the strong association which years of habit have formed between the mental picture of the word and its actual reproduction on paper, an association so strong that the mind, as it were, rebels and forces even the left hand to reproduce the old familiar form. .In left-handed people thid reversed writing is, as we have said, not uncommon whan the left hand is used. In a certain proportion of others who have never written with the left hand the attempt to write a given word with the left hand will naturally be made in the right to left and reversed form. Thus it is sometimes seen in the case of patients who, having lost the use of the right hand, in trying to write with the left naturally write, mirror writing, But it is uncommon, as we have hinted, probably on account of the strength of the bond between the mental image and its concrete symbol. Mutter and Motion. Apart from matter, energy has in reality no existence. We can not conceive of motion unless something moves, of warmth unless something is heated, or of any of the various states or conditions which are indications of energy unless immediately associated with matter, llepca the co-existence of energy with matter is, to our minds, an inevitable conclu^ sion. But now, let us inquire, can' matter for an instance be considered apart from energy? Cuou any one inv : agine a body neither hot nor cold, : neither in motion nor at rest, and not upder the influence of some attraction, some force, or some other form o! energy? No! Should such be the case for e, space of time inconceivably short, that time would suffice for the rending apart of tbe universe. Planets would fly asunder; life would be Instantly destroyed. The very ether would be^ (jQuqe, in pornmqn with all else, ftt 0096 disorganized, and the universe, filled onco more with impalpable world matter, would recommence, as it did millions of centuries ttgo, the building Dp of ne\y systems, new yajr}ouj5nsays, itself tp us. in J-fce'pUysjipist, light,- j ,-.the. of Ih8 physical WoTld" at of transformation of energy froto form to another. The sum total or energy in this world has never ifl* creased nor diminished. Like th& matter in the universe, it is and wilt always be an unchangeable quantity. —Electrical Age. For Offensive and tiefenalvo Warfare. A new electrical invention soon t* be turned out of the workshop of Edison is probably destined to revolutionize modern warfare. At present it is the dehign of the great electrician to withold all information relative to- this invention, so very little can be authentically written about it. The machine, if such it may be called, is built after the pattern of a modeftt locomotive and is capable of emitting- electricity at the rate of 50,000,000 volts- a second. "If this force," says an authority ott electricity, "were directed at a dense forest of ten thousand acres not a splinter would be left in ten minutes, With such an engine of warfare a'dozen men could in ten. seconds annihilate the largest army ever put on a field. If directed from a warship at a city of two million population, not'a trace would be left in half an hour's tune." It seems rather doubtful, however, that such a- force could be concentrated so as to do effective destruction in times of war. If there really is anything 1 of the kind in prospect it would be the* duty of the governmeni to take it in. hand for defensive purposes. Italian Wages. The British vice consul at Ancona» in a recent report on the trade of that. district, gives an additional instance-. of the low wagea paid in Italian industrial establishments. At the metallurgical works of Messrs. D, Cattro &> Co., a firm giving co .stant employment to over ^00 hands, although wages have increased by about 10 per cent in the last three years, the average rates paid per day of 10% hours- are—to boilermakers, 3s 2d; iron founders, 2s lid; riveters, 2s lid; turners, 3s 3d. The works are being enlarged, and accommodation will be provided for building steamships of any size or tonnage. Coal, coke, pig- iron, and all materials for bbiler making are imported from_Great Britain. Liquids in Equilibrium. It is an interesting feat of color blending-, which can bo performed at the dinner table, where usually all the ingredients can be found. A tall,, narrow stem glass is the best. Four funnels are made of cardboard after the pattern shown in the sketch, ther ends being turned over, so as to form.' a spout-like arrangement The first liquid which is poured into the glass is cold black coffee well sweetened. After this the funnels are used. A like quantity of water comes next, which is poured through a funnel, the bended edge, of which is held close to the edge of the glass. For the third.claret is .used, olive oil for the fourth and alcohol last All the liquids are poured'in as described through the separate funnels. Each of these liquids floats on top of the other, for each is specifically lighter in weight than the proceeding one. •The liquids will remain in repose aa. long as. tho glass is not moved. The secret lies in the careful pouring in of the liquids through ths paper funnels. ' •' Klco Paper, The rice paper tree, one of the most interesting of the flora of China, has recently been successfully experimented with in Florida, where it' now flourishes with other subtropical and •Oriental species of trees and shrubs. When first transplanted in American soil the experimenters expressed doubts of its hardiness, fearing that it would be unable to stand the winters. All those fears have vanished, however, and it is now the universal opinion that it is as well adapted to the climate of this country as to that of the famed Flowery Kingdom. It is a small tree, growing to a height of less than fifty-one feet, with a. trunk or stem from three to five inches in diameter. Its canes, which vary in color according to sea* son, are large, soft and downy, the form somewhat resembling that noticed in that of the castor bean plant, The celebvitled rice paper, the prod- net of this queer tree, is formed of tbin slices of the pith, which is taken from the bpdy of the tree in beautiful cylinders, several inches in length, The Chinese workmen apply t fle blade of a sharp, straight knife to> these cylinders, and turning them. round either by rude machinery or by hand, dexterously pare' tbe pith frpna. circumference to center, This operation makes a roll of extr A quality paper, tbe scroll being of equal thick* ness throughout, Aft ov a oydindep- ba,s thus been pared it is unrolled an d weights are placed upon it until th£ surface is rendered uniformly smooth throughout its entire length. It is altogether probable that if rip* taper making bfcftoojes an » * the United States T Republic.

What members have found on this page

Get access to

  • The largest online newspaper archive
  • 11,200+ newspapers from the 1700s–2000s
  • Millions of additional pages added every month

Try it free