Pittsburgh Post-Gazette from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on June 9, 1924 · Page 20
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Pittsburgh Post-Gazette from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania · Page 20

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THE PITTSBURGH GAZETTE TIMES, SUNDAY, MAY 25, 1924. Memorial Day Thoughts By George T. Fleming A Day Sacred to Memory Approaches Its History and Significance Outlined First Formal ( Celebration in Pittsburgh in 1869 P.rief Account Reproduced Prize Poem Appropriate to the Day by a Gazette Man The Tribute Beautiful. M EMORIAL DAT ith its memories and solemn observances is close ai hand, and each year it is both fitting an.l necessary that a story of the day be written, not alone historical in wop. , iut containing a plea for a more ; general observance of the Jay. May 3t is a legal holiday in aU the states -' ma Kiniorifs or trie i nion. un the exception of the Southern states' that seceded in 1S61. Memorial Iavi It n!(ana the nat.on l.r-. ej i:..r I, taw, Ar.d love the p.-t :l?i memories fraught. It meat:- we trvw v.ith wreaths their Kravtsi, Though dead, tn. y u.- r rhM he foifcot. Bennett's poem made a wonderful impression. Si nee then i: has been revivej upon various occasions, and hut reer.t!y in a local publication. Parade of the Veterans. Memorial Day as observed then wus a very solemn occasion. While the exercises , w ere in progress in the way to the Allegheny Cemetery, when the marchers were passing the Arsens.il grounds, minute guns were fired. The bell of a church nearby toiled a funeral measure. An ex:racl from a newspairf-r article written about the exercises 42 years ag.i fo.. tows j Today ! the Sabbath of memory. Today a service, made jacrwi by sorrowful reaiix-uion tc almo.-tt every family, anil by patriot!, to evu-y loye.1 heart, ha? Iwrn perform). Th; fchu'e l ommunily in common with the- nation at lars; ie-iica:ed the l:iy to the wii pl.a.-ure of giving Wi-mi'-al eiprt-ssiori to a beautiful re-ni-m";-Hr-e. Memo-ial I-iy h;; come to u and iias been n.t fittingly otscrved. Noiur: coubibe more be:tutifal an.l nothing; moie touching than tli nrinn- r in w h;. h U.c-day wus marked on our calendar of eoiemniaed occasion. All seemed to join in the ir! tiered duty with a hearune.-e--. Willi a ft rvor. vvt.ii h shov. cd that the dead had not tiled utterly. Our brethren, .itiil lie moat gloriously. In this story of Memorial Pay. was not observed as a holiday in j Academy of Music, a parade, corn-Pennsylvania for Several years manded bv M;tj. Alexander I Cal-arter the institution of the day. j rm mur ,.,.,, ti th(t ee,.,,. . fm wmca was ny me general or.its oi : . r. . 1 i . . 1 the -mru, unis v. 1-0; .wi . I 'in: in j hum m- chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, in That year thero was no formal observance in Pittsburgh.. lut there was an informal strewing of cut , flowers on the soldiers graves in all the cemeteries and churchyards. ; This was on Saturday: the next day . the services in the churches were devoted to memorial exercises, and it then became apparent that a new and sacred holiday had been s-t ' apart, one conceived in patriotism ! and dedicated to those who haj died j . during the Civil War a wir fought j to preserve the American Union. As j the years came on the graves of all j th- soldiers were marked w ith i flowers regardless whether they fell f ir, I . f ! a. . 1 1 ... I itiiririf ii .. 1 i. . nooj. .now. we mar tne graves or 31! soldiers of all wars in which the United states has been involved. This year special efforts will be . niaae to locate and place markers and flowers upon the graves of "Our ' Revolutionary Sires.' The services o" May 30. 1S63, con- aw.. x f . .h- .: of Memorial Day and proved the , first incentive to carry out. literally. Gen. Logan's orders. These orders " are read annually and. after a . prayer. "Reading of Orders" is al-" ways the first number the pro- gram. The sacred character of the day was further enhanced by the wonderful outpourings of the people , on the. Memorial Days of 1S7 and 1871. It day of memories was destined lo be uniaue and stand unique in the an nals of the I nited Mates ot Amer-'tea. ' In The Gazette Times of May 29, 1811. In the local news of the day. baervances of Hay 30. 1883. Single ' column headlines were used as follows: ' MEMORIAL DAT 42 YEARS AGO n physical strength and in visor of manhoood but often can be taken as exemplifications of the fortunes of war. Nevertheless, each year there are faces mtinc in the line and more th,. day "will carry on" until the end comes. Ki Friday next there t art be ric doubt that the annual tributes to thi American sold. era of all our wars, wit be solemnly and dutifully rendercvi As the yars rol! on the sacred char acter of theday seems to hecom more and mote sered and the mem ories invkl, ttitrre and more h;C lowed. The millions who served ovei seas have bruiifiht a new phase t( Memorial D.iy :uil an increasing tlevu tion to duty. The poetry of the Civil War days i voluminous. Occasionally an old poet, turns up which Ins its story. . Indeei this is characteristic of war poem; A woman reader of The Gazette Tinif has sent the writer hereof th.-" follow intr verses which she stated were .. "Scrap from Grandmother's Fcrap hook." The date of their pubiicatioi is given as December 4. 1S05. In ful the verses are as follows: KCHti:s OK THK CIVIL W Alt. r'our huniie.l lhousncJ m-n, Th Itrave the K1 the true. In tantrU-l in monnljn frier. ln battle plain, !n prison pen. t.ic -it':.! for me mitt you! Four hui.(!re-i thousan.l of tne trave lii.ve matie our ran)tned their grave. For me : nd you; i-Oo'i fnin-i. for me und you' In niutiy a fevered swunif, tty ninny a black bayou, In many a cold and frozen camp The Miarieri uentimi eeamsl liia tran.p nl dud for ni and you! From Wtem pain to ocenn witle A:e -tt'ti ti.d the graves ol ttiose who died For me and you; t'.otwl trietvt. for rue and jou" n ro.iny i- t-lotiv plain T'e ir ready s jiord- they .irew. And poured the life-blood like- the !..!;. A tMtlie heritage to PHili, To iriui for rue ;ino vou! 'M;r brotlirrs musttred by our .d' Tbev marched and foufrht .and biave!y died h'or me and -you; :ood fr'end, fur mo and you' MARSHAL OF FIRST MEMORIAL DAY PARADE story oi Memorial Day. yjars ago, rtprinte-1 13 yeHrs ago, we read again today the tributes and the reverence of thousands who have long since received the same tributes and reverence from others. In the more than half century that has elapsed the marchers and other participants in the exercises of the day, in its earliest observances, have passed from earth. The soldier of the Civil War is passing; he will soon be a memory. A few white-haired and 'eeb'e old men will ride to the cemeteries fdi Friday next to pay the last sad tribute to their former comrades in arms and to perform the beautiful rites of the Grand Army of the Ile- rotliti.. Tho T.l nifpctinn of t h., ilaV. a plain to all that thU .. ' '. ,.,,,.., has changed to, "Who rides next Me- ! morial Day?" The marching days are; over for our veterans of 'Gl-'65. j Last Died in Ohio. ! There are some people today who can remember having seen and perhaps known men who served during the Revolutionary War. There arc records to show that some of "Out Revolutionary Sires" were living at I n many a fortress wall They eharsred thoaa boya in bin.--'M'd surging iiri'-We and volleyj bail The brr.veat wers the firjH to fall To fall for me and yout The nobv men. th nation' pride-Four hundred tlkitianj men have di-vl F!r me and you; Good fr.end, for me and you! In feain'3 prison hold fa? ', l fir f ,:f fit ' U ee V I, If .! ! Tht :r martyred srirtj c:mr T" tiiture hie the :nt cf ol i. Writie 'mid axon;e untolt. Tiiey tared for me an I y. a! The k-hnI. the rat. era Hi;d tn- !i 'd. Four bandred tioujnd r;;.n h'-e -!r-: For me htiil you . iv-t frit-nd. for me and you! A deM we lie vr att ty To inerri k jusl.y ijje. An ? lo the nat:r!i i;ile-t H-,y ' 'ur ch.iiren's ( hii ir- ri s .i.: .ay "Tbey ti.td ..r me and y, -j"" K- .ir hua-lrt i irtout'id . ' the 1-ave Mii-ie t i . i i i;r rurij nic.l jej.i. tl; rpr". For me and you; lo,.i tr.i-i;i. for rue ar.d oa! M'uch Data in Verse. There is mui h historical ata in these verses. The figures. 4n.0i0, are an approximate number. The xact number of tnoso who perished in the civil War. in fact in any war. 1 cannot be accurately given. The j losses in the Civil War in the I'niit d i States have been gathered and tabu 'ateri iroril several sources aii'i uiiui r j several lieajis. such a--- "killed in ; battle." "died of wo-e.l- v i juries." "sniicide. homicide and ex- j ecutions," "died of disease" ;tnd ' "unknown causes." These arc lo.-s. sj by death and are apportioned under the various heads among the Regulars, white volunteers and colored troops. Then there arc the naval losses to be considered. On-; set of statistics was compiled by the l'ro-vost Marshal-General of the Army. Gen. James 15. Fry. and submitted to the Secretary of War in March. 1S6C. His total of losses by death was 279, 73i. Next we huva the re- i War-time Poem Presents Sombre Facts to Be I Remembered The Passing1 of the Soldiers of j Former Wars Records of Our Revolutionary Sires Accurately Kept Two Notable I Obituaries Statistics of Losses by Death in Union Army. sl.OIIld be were l.uri allowance Glided the number who d at their homes and an made for those whose re- mains were never lound. A sum- niary of the several statements made by the War D-'partnient makes tht revised total 31.3Si. The Adjutant-General reports that 26.165 men i I died while prisoners of war in the hands of the enemy. In any war fervice, from time to time, men disappear and are never heurd of again. hence are marked "un accounted for." An allowance one-tenth of 1 per err.', or. more ap-proximatt iy. two m n for each regimental organisation for losses of this nature, will increase the Adjutant-General's total to 313. 0A men in round numbers, which is about 11 per cent of the total number enrolled during the Civil War. When we consider also the numbers of men broken in health or wounds, who died of hostility s. "four men, wl.o died is no; an :nipossi- ALKXAXUKR I. CA1JA1W. iiiripinal Knpraving in The People's Monthly. January. H72.) nort of the Adjutant-General of the I nited States Armv, submitted to j ho came horn the Secrttary of War in February, j suffering from isca ll.r,,r .l is "U4H The revt tatter the close war the Adjutant-Central furnished I hundred tlimisand t..:titel Ht.-.lement f 'os.e i.v'ior Hie and j death. The total had increased to j ble total. 303.4. The surgeon-Ge.u -rai s re- First Marshal Was Mayor. port is not compbte and not con- ... sidered reliable. November 12. 1.70. Let as think of them' today .r, his report shows a total, o, 271.355. reverence it for only one minute at This does not include those who d.ed noon and give the same en- th o while prisoners of war or those who time to all the soldi-rs of ,,;e I n... d died while at home on furlough. Stales who followed !., in .A Then again we have the statistics our wars and fed in it defend . Of the Quartermaster-General or the j having returned home in the four, Arrny. who estimated that there of nature have parsed from us and ..j-.ba Miik ikitii ninn ca m it i i n ii I f - in the National cemeteries. To this) Alexander marshal of the lirst Memorial Day procession, was mayor of the former city of Allegheny. 1S70-1S72. During the war he served in the One Hundred and Second Regiment of iViinsy lvania Volunteers and attained the rank of adjutant- Alfred U. Tearson was one of ItttshurgVs 'jest-known soldiers, who was coloael of the one Hundred and Kitty-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers and was ?iven the rank of brevet major-gen-ral of volunteers for meritorious of services. Hartley T. i.'.-impbcll is mentioned as having bet n an unsuccessful competitor. n, uas subsequently famous as a plavw right. His chief succcsws in that line were: "My Partner," "The Galley Slave" and a number of his poems were published in The People's Monthly, a magazine first issued in Pittsburgh in June. 1871. by Charb-s McKuight and David Lewry. but was discontinued within two years after the first appearance. Campbell was one of the best-known newspaper men of those years and was on the staff of several Pittsburgh papers. His lust known poem was written for The People's printed in the 171. Its Tuscaloo." Monthly and was October number1 for title is "That Baby in The Rev. Dr. Howard 1 Cal'.ow, who wa was the pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, the church edifice at I'inn and Seventh .street. John M. Kirkpatrick was subsequently jutlge in our civil courts. The Promise of Peace By Frank H. Simonds Arrival of Real Tranquility in Flurope Appears Inevitable Old Leaders Swept Aside to Give Way to Men Who Have Hroader f Ideas and Who Desire Peace. the First Observance in Pittsburgh Was Solemn Orrmfdon and All Participated. newspiprrmn lonp-iru i. Barty Campbell, Playwright, and j Other, Vu Successful. OW that the surprise over , hf rvative the French election returni has passed away it is both possible and perhaps useful to examine this amaz ing phenomenon at close range. It cannot, however, be studied by itself. wing vt the Tory party. statesmanship was engaged in depriv- j Rritain or ing b ranee or Her legitimate rights under the Treaty of Versailles. All France. sieaking generally backed the occupation of the ltuhr and was thus committed to Poincarc. New Situation. When. however. Rritish wer parsed to Ramsay MaclKna!d a new j the tim of our Civil War. There is i an uncertainty regarding the exact j for it was unmistakably the result of i date when the last survivor died. It things which in part took place out-i has been claimed that the last sur-, se f France, notably the arrival of vivor died in Noble eountv. Ohio, in ; a Labor government in urcar uruain 186S alas! bis name haa been for- , nd the appearance of a Dawes report gotten. i in Paris- i In old historical records such as ', Five and a half years ago the World Hazard's "Register of Pennsylvania" j War having come to its end rather . r,.l ViVs' "Weelclv Reeister" there aorupuy, men mnu woiuru iu hmid The Gazette Times story proceeds ! can be found obituary lists of Revo-as follows: i lutionary soldiers and also of the "There are not a few pitisburghers ! widows cf Revolutionary soldiers, who recall the first observance of This also was a feature in various Memorial Day in this city 42 years j "Historical Collections," a style of aaOL On that occasion ail business ! work, common a century ago. a cupy ! I countries were discusninar the future in terms of the past, which had been well-nigh intolerable. Mr. Wilson's famous phrase about "making the world safe for democracy" was on many millions of tongues, and people snsnended. It va. not. however, ' of uch a work is at hand, printed a holiday, but one of duty. The gen- at Concord, N. H., in ls2t. a most vai. " era exercises wera held in the old Academy of Music Building, where tS9 children from the Soldiers' Orphan Home at Cn ion town. Pa., sang patriotic songs. John M. Kirkpatrick delivered the principal address, the Rev. Dr. "IV. I- Howard offered prayer and the order of the lay was read . by Gen. A. I. Pearson. "Sometime previous to the first observance of the day a committee had been appointed to select a Memorial Day poem. A number of efforts were presented, among them being one of Bartley Campbell, the famous Pittsburgh playwright, but the one ac- " cepted mi by Oliver H. Bennett, the first shorthand reporter to be em-Tdoyed on a Pittsburgh paper. Bennett was then on the staff of the old Coirunercial, now The Gazette Times. His poem, as it was read on that great day by H. A. Collier, a nephew nf the late Judge Frederick IL Collier, was as follows: First Memorial Day Poem. Ha!f-iBayt the ffajt. and moftte t he ifnilr.. And march w-.ta a mournful tread; Alt boor nost sacred to freedom has ram As with garland we honor our dead. Te battle' cry. the eannon's ntr. The sound a of combat and war's dread fray, Are borne cpon the breese no more. Peace roles our happy land today. f We gather now from srenea of toil. To drop th nwer with wot lowing tear?". And with mournful tVtujrhts. we tarry wbUe, Our mem'rie turn lo bygone years. ' We ape again the stalwart fortws Of those who were eur nation's, pride. Who answered th- cslt. "To arms' ' And iai the be.ttle bravely died. W see again the gathering rlou.l. That stretched acrsw the southern sky; We hear again the thunder loud. That called our soldiers out to die. We stand again with heating heart. To listen to the saddenine; news. To fee! the dreadful paio that darta, Aad human comforts il refuse. We sea again the dear ones brocg'ut, to triumph from the gory fl--1 i. . Wr.ere bravely tn the front they fousht. fvefusuur u the taat to yield. r reaVfo th open graves we store!. Aw) heard the harshly rattling etc!. Anrt wept a only mourners couM, Wb:!e patriot souls went UK to God. i-sutd sach !d heart thht thmJia tciay. jta mou-nful, weary story tell. For mouldering heaps of lifeleej. etay. What leaves tie record, sa-i would swell. But they have gore to the better Ian 1. Their weil-Jsnewn forme we'U see nu more, tiKedicnt to a h'ah temmand. They diedi and crossed lo the gulden shore. Vn more apoti the picket line. Nor in tie battle' awfui strife. Sor in the rifle p:t ai.4 mine, " offered up the freeman's life. 'er many a grare the sod has grown. And many a ffr.wer i olootami; where Th ed hv kindly baud was sown Aad watered Ly many a sacre.1 tear. F;irt many more. a!as: tcere are, Who steep in unknown, unmarked tombs. From homes and friends and Kindred fjr. ed o'er Uieir graves thj a lid floaer blooms re-iay me meet with hearts of Tore. To honor all the rat:or:a dead. . A M.l strew wilo Cowers the grour i aitove. I no spot where reau the patriot head. what mean the gathering thrones that meet, b4 saa re h as in an army line, Vr4 W the crowded city's street, he flotrerr ef !o anj hope to twtr? Kitti'ilmn ev.A Dm!,,!, k.. which reduced in tht? signmeant name i . , . . of "Die-hard." Then power nassed ponP ,lneral- raaicu. wnat you may to Bonar Law. who had beep the j P'ae to call it. In any way it had titular leader of the old Tory party: j broken with the war and the war from him tr devolved upon Stanley policy, it had chonen a pacifist a pre-Bald win, lw a "die-hard." while the I mier and thin pcifl?t was in turn Foreign Office and foreign policy : committed to a policy of pacification. pasf.ed to the control of Viscount ; f m the other hand he disclosed the Curzoa of the name Tory tradition. ; fact that be was animated by no hos-Thus, beginning with the "Khaki ! tility to rYance, that he was honest. Election" of December, 1918. and last- j straightforward and simple. Before ing right down to the general elee- i he had been in office many weeks he tion of last autumn, a period of five j had a good press in Paris and was year, reaction dominated in Great ' popu!ar in France as Lloyd George Drituin. and. following the Ronar j had not l-en since the end of the war. Law election late in 1922. its control j Meantime; all France was suffering has been uhtailute. ! unmistakably from the fact that the The situation in France was rm as- j world, .speaking generally bail come urably different. Clenienceau was a J to regard IVMncare as a militarist, radical, but in the last analysis lie j and France as a reactionary country was lerneneeau and he dominated ! given over to a policy of revenge and of most nations were hoping and be-, by virtue of the fact that he w a i determined to destroy France, ustni: uable work now. The editor of this work published tables of longevity in his monthty register of death3, and where the descendent had been a soldier of the Revolution this fact was noted. For instance, the following , notice of local importance will servt j as an example of the style of record: i "Near Washington, Penna., Andrew j Swearingen. Esq., 7S. He was among j the earliest settlers of the county, j having emmigrated from Old Virginia '-.eving that the peace which was to ! (Temeneeau. When he retired, after he made would be a peace w hich the Treaty of Versailles, he was de- would register the triumph of demo-eratic ideas) and open the way to a world dominated by liberal conceptions. The thing did not turn out as people hoped and believed. Instead all the great democracies of the West, including our own, were swept by a wave of reaction. The parliaments elected in Britain, immediately after the armistice in December, 1918, that 1772. He. took a very active part ! chosen in France after the making of .n settling tne disturDea state or ai-fairs occasioned by the inroads of the savages, and soon became a leader was a captain in Mcintosh's campaign was at Wheeling Fort when invested by the Indiarfs; and, indeed, on almost every dangerous expedition against them, until the commenre-ment of the Revolutionary War. He then received a captain's commis sion. Men of War of 1812. Under the "Munthly Register of Deaths" the balanee of the head'ine read3, "with concise biographical notices. The Swearingen notice alone fully attests tins fact. In the list from which the latter was taken, the second obituary is that of the cele- the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 and finally the Congress and the President chosen in the United States in 190 represented conservative and, so far as Kurope was concerned, reacy tionary principles. Radicals Gain. It is patent that events in Russia materially contributed to the character of the governments chosen in western nations and even more to the policies pursued by western democracies for the first years of peace. The men who dominated in France and in Great Britain were men who had little real sympathy or even patience with the ideas Mr. Wilson had championed and the Russian peril gave point to i their apprehensions. Aside from Russia the first nations go" democratic or perhaps more v . . ci,..!.. TK. .munn Recrrtnry Ullltm V 1 1 HI ! -I , ......... .-. J . OI ail me umamuiai -.'... "v"' ...ellv eo.li.,.1 r..mn. ocH ,-alue ;"' uaiy. now tar tne ij"rman cqange w ho died at ttte age of Sa. The v of this old work must be acknowledged-Weil within the memory of many thousands, are the appearances of the last survivors of the War of 1S12 in Pittsburgh, when on public occasions these venerable men rode in open carriages at the head of the processions; the names of somev of them can be recalled. John W. Heisley. F.dward F Pratt, many yetrs a messenger of Pittsburgh Council, and other;-i. In deed, it is not much over a decade that i the newspapers recorded the death of the last survivor of the war or H12 and the date of his service was authenticated by the pub'ic records. This soldier's name was Hiram Cronk. who had reached the age of 112. He was a resident of Wayne county. N. Y. An occasional newspaper item records the death of a Civil War veteran who lias come close to the tentury mark. Rut recently Gen. Horatio O. Gibson. I. S. A, du d in Washington. iWn. Gibson graduated at West Point in 1S1". Others could be named who served in the Mexican War and through the Civil War; who reached advanced years. On the other hand. in comparison, tne number oi tnose who died young is appalling. Kvery day. almost, we read of some young soldior who died from the effects of his service overseas. "He was gassed m France." has become a trite sentence ia soldier obituaries. Passing Rapidly. The soldiers of all our wars are passing rapidly. The advanced ages do not alwavs indicate the survival of the ftttet fthat is to say the fittest was real, how far a deliberate effort to deceive the conqueror, and Invite easier terms is a matter for debate. Certainly the reality fell short of the ipjiearance. At the outset only Italy seemed to have gone the whole dis- tance and to have Invited Socialism ! 'n a form which had direct inspira-I t'on from Moscow. I Then, by an odd coincidence, at ! ast, the countries which had gone rauical began to turn conservative. We saw the coming of Mussolini with nled the presidency benattse he had refused to follow the advico of Foch and Clenienceau in making th-' treaty of peace, that Is. to put it aim ply, he had listened to Lloyd George and Woodrow Wilson rather than to Frenchmen of the Poincarc and Foch opinion. Reactionaries in France. But the French Parliament chosen in 1919 was a reactionary parliament comparable in the main to that chosen in England in the Khaki election, some months earlier. It was parliament committed to maintaining for France thefruits of the victory, such fruits as remained after the Treaty of Versailles. It began with a MillcranJ cabinet, but Millerand shortly after became president of the republic, then came a Ieygues cabinet which was but a makeshift, then came Brians. Now Rriand is by political habit a conservative radical. He started as a Socialist of the extreme type as did Millerand, but like thi President he has been marching to the right all the time he has been climbing to the top. But all things considered he is a moderate, vastly morcsaod erate than the Chamber of which for a time sustained more moderate than Poincare, who presently overturned him. French Angered. Briand fell because the French people as a whole and the French Chamber in particular felt that Lloyd George was steadily depriving France of the fruits of her gigantic sacrifices and playing a German game against her. It became the : settled conviction of the FTench I Chamber that only Poincare could I cope with Llovd George. So finally I Poincare was called and his rule en- i Deities hiW far his Facismo. seizing power by soint 'hing closely approximating a revo- j d tired as long as the lif.i of the sit- ution. but a revolution made by the ting chamber Itself, (tight, by the conservatives and Poincare nroved able to cope with inaily legalized by the still recent Lloyd George, and less than a year Italian election. Then we Raw the 'after he came to power Lloyd drift to right in Germany moving i George fell, largely because of the steadily and impressively until it 'skilful maneuvering of Poincare. "ulminated in the recent election, I The fall was a good thing for the which was a tran."rformation the ex- J world be cause as long as Lloyd tent of which remains difficult to j George remained In Downing Street measure, but the direction of which jail chance of Franco-British friend-was and is patent. i ship was at an end. But when Poin- frnr,7i Xtrr,nfh I rm- ,hf! Germans, encouraged " j -- - -... ... . Meantime in England Lloyd George, mainly hupported by Tories, ruled for four i years. Little by little he lost the support of the Liberals; that of Labog was lost from the start. In the end he became solely the creature not merely of the Tories, but of Tory principles, although in his cwn heart by British ujid French quarrelings. had refused to contrnue reparations payments, and the occupation of the j lluhr had become inevitable. ! The occupation of the Kuhr. how-' ever, jermaneiitly alienated Britain ' from France, while Poincare remained , Crim'- Minister. British hostility to I Poincare promptly took on the na- 1". was alway s hoping for a c hance tional character that French hostility to form a middle, moderate party j to Lloyd George had long had. But drawing from Liberal and Tory. it was impossible that France should In the tnd this aspiration wrecked i dismiss Poincare while the Ruhr con-hlm; failing abroad, he was over-1 fiict was going on. or while French thrown at home by the more con- conviction continued thnt British ine treaty ot Versailles as a weapon and the occupation or the Ruhr as an opportunity, Poincare became as a world figure more sinister than Bis marck, himself. All of this was inexact to the point of the grotewiue. but nevertheless Franee suffered for it and felt it. Moreover Poincare showed himself increasingly rigid and obstinate and made grave blunders oa domestic policy which were only atoned for by 'he fact that in the field of foreign iffairs he ju expressed the will of France, albeit with a degree of provocation which gave seeming confirma-'ion to the foreign estimate of him. Moreover, and the fact is of utmost significance. France was steadily becoming more and more anxious for peace, that is for a settlement. Dawes Wrecked Poincare. It was the Dawes Commission, for which Poincare was mainly responsible, which in the end wrecked th-Lorramcr. As long as the case seemed to Frenchmen to be one of supporting the French claim atainst a world which sought to deprive r ranee of her rights, of security and reparation, which appeared to hr wining to let Germany go scot-free and France to fall into defenseless bankruptcy, France, all parties, or enough of the members of each party, stood by Poincare. B.ut the Dawes report for the first time gave the French financial claims and French reparation rights a satisfactory international foundation on the economic side. It declared tha Germany could pay largely and provided ways and means for the payment. The debate over the ability of Germany was ended. French claims vindicated not in a political court but in a conference of economic x- perts. Poincare had said Germany could pay, he had held his ground in the face of all the argument that Germany was bankrupt and reparations a figment of the imagination But when the Dawes Committee had vindatated the Poincare claim tin n the real usefulness of Poincarc had terminated. At last the moment bad arrived when the French could dispense with the strong man. necessary, to defend their rights; strength unfortunately aroused British and ven American criticism arid roused c, rmrui reaction to the war pilch. Poincare co-jld r.ot get along with Britain, or mort xactly Britain could not get along with Poincare, but here in the Dawes report was a basis of co-operation between the two countries, with a satisfactory promise of the substan tial payment by ( !-rmany of the necessary reparations. W'liat simpler then than to drop Poincare as Clrni- t nceau had. in fact been dropiwd? Opinion Has Effect. Bear in mind tint tiie muss ot the Frenchmen during the period of brtak between Great Britain ;uul France had made up their minda that France must in the end work with :et nothing. Bear in mind also that a surprising number oi Frenchmen had come to the conclusion that at least a basis of economic co-oicration between France and Germany was essential to France as to Germany i-iid it must liccomc evident with what apprehension Frenchmen looked at the prejudice aad even worse against Poincare in both Britain and Geruimy. France liad turned lo Poincare in 1922 as she had turned to Clemenceau in 1917. not because of any popularly; neither man enjoyed popularity in th ordinary sense of the word, save as Clemence.au won it with the war and for a moment, but because in each case these seemed the necessary men. But in th end she dropped Poincare as she had denied Clemenceau the presidency, because the necessity bad passed and the asset had iitcome a liability. The French Viewpoint The Frenchman would say. I be-ieve. that Clemeneesu had won the war and tnereiore ueservea wen ox he republic despite his later failures, .le would in the same way say that Poincare, by overturning Lloyd George aild by occupying the Ruhr, had saved France's rights both to reparation and to security. But he would say. also, that since Po.ncare had come to appear as militaristic, whatever that might be. that since he bad become a symbol of trouble, in apparent barrier t European neace, and since, in any- event his task w hs done, it was time to .choose other Vnen to negotiate with both Britain and Germany. Now. if France had been at heart militaristic, as has been so often al-eged. she would cot have turned iway from Pointar at this moment. On the surface it was as wild an ex-tteriment as the British choice of MacDonald a few short months before. But in reality both countries being equally democratic at bottom, the same popular sentiment doubtless operated to produce a similar result. Masses of British subjects, weary of the failures of both parties, turned to a new party, a new man; they wanted Elirope settled and they felt that the Tory and the Liberal had faned at the job hopelessly. ;Now the French situation is vastly different from the British. France being exposed to land attack can take fewer chances. Any French prime minister will have to give his first concern to French safety and since the war his next to the tol'.ection from Germany of reparations. But while France is always prepared under national or radical rule to insist upon her claims to reparations by-force if necessary most Frenchmen have come to realize that force will not collect reparations, and that once the claim is established by force, if necessary, the payments will have to be provided by peaceful agreement. Both Parties Liberal. The' new men who have come to power in France are not, in the main radical in our Bolshevist sense; nor Socialistic in the German sense even, just as the British Labor Party is millions of miles removed from the Bussian brand of radicalism. Doth parties are essentially nationalistic, as. witness Labor accepting the air program of the Tories and launching a rival program of its own. But both are liberal in the sense of building their policy without intent of aggression. To put it more ex actly, in America the majority of British Tories and French radicals would be out and out pacifists, and in Europe they travel in this direction as far as their unfortunate situations permit. Now, obviously, between a McDonald Labor government in London and a Herriot or Herriot-Painllve-Briand government in France, there iun be vastly more cooperation, than between a foinoare ministry and a Lloyd George ministry or a Poincare ministry and a MacDonald ministry, tor on both sides of the channel there wiil be now- a clear perception that men of the butw general sympathies, belief and aspirations, but national conditions. l'k1 ailh seeking a with different are with equal solution. Cains Are Made. That is the great gain which 1 see in the French decision. France, tjie French democracy, has met the British half way insofar as the choice of men to govern ia concerned. Mac-Donald can talk with llerriol, with Briand or with Painleve as he never could have talked with Poincare. Remember. however, that any one of these three men will have to say to MacDonald much that Poincare would hare said, but the difference in personalities is incalculable, A Labor England and a Radical France radical in the French sense, cot in ours can probably get on together better than any other combination imaginable. What then of Germany, which has gone in the oppe.site direction with a resounding bang? In reality nothing mui h of importance, because whenever Britain and France can agree Germany must accept the terms provided. But there are at least a certain number of Germans as weary of war of war in peace as are the majority of Britons and Frenchmen. For them there has be n no apparent way out with Poincare in the saddle and France in the Ruhr, perhaps immovably. If the Nationalists won a great victory in the recent elections they did not gain a majority: moreover they are themselves divided between extremists and moderates. If Poincare had won the French election the chances are that the Moderate parties in Germany, the Centre, the Peoples and the Democratic, might in despair have joined with the Nationalists in a reactionary government. But the chances are now that they will join with the Socialists in a moderate government. Grant that the German view of Poincare were inexact, even preposterous, the fact remains that these views were held widely as masses of Ger-nans believed Poincare was determined with the backing of the majority of his fellow countrymen to annihilate Germany. Therefore the hopelessness of the situation for these was unmistakable. Present Situation. Nqw we have in .Europe this situation. Britain has a Labor Govern ment; France will shortly have a Radical-Socia'ist Government'. , Germany, despite her recent reaction, can have a government made up of Moderates. The fundamental issut-s have not changed, the basil: policies of the three cations remain the same, but the superficial obstacles have been enormouslv reduced alike be cause of the change in British and French official personnel and because of the arrival of the Dawes report. In a sense, then, the French elec tion has pretty largely deprived the German of its worst possibilities. And that German election, while it was evil in its general character, was not an irrevea'ahle step; the new Reichstag has still a majority of Mod erates; It can easily form a government, or even continue the Marx-Stressemann Ministry and tnter the new negotiations. To me the defeat of Poincare marks ohe more and in a sense the longest step vet taken toward European set. tlement. My readers know I have never shared the British or even the common American view of Poincare But the fact that he was regarded as an obstae'e to settlement, that be had beeome a symbol of war and not of p,acc. made "his removal almost obligatory. His successors are in a better posture than was he when he came to power. They are far more likely to modify bis manner than abandon his real objectives. Gen. Dawes himself has testified that the occupation of the Kuhr was a necessary step to the appointment of his committee. MacDonald's Opportunity. Lloyd George believed that France could be forced to abandon her legitimate rights by a process of isola tion: his policy was to make a European settlement at the expense of France. Thie policy vrroL'ked the Entente, brought Poincare to power aitd le-d to the fall of Lloyd George, Point-are, on his part, undertook to achieve French end's by an independent policy. He worked to make France ttrong enough to obtain her rights without any British co-operation, if necessary. Eut in the end his countrymen came to the conclusion that while France could not surrender her rights to Britain, she could not realize the irreducible min.mum save in the co-operation with her aUfcs of tle World War. - , Now a magnificent opportunity lies at the hands of Ramsay MacDonald and it is entirety unlikely that any consideration of domestic British poli tics wiil be permitted to interfere with his tenure of office until the opportunity has been grasped or lost. France bas followed Britain in the di rection of liberalism in the broadest sense, of democracy in the parliamen tary sense. Both have rejected the two extremes as represented by Sovietism in Russia and Faacismo in Italy. In both countries the war se-ntiment has given place to a dc-, fire for peace, not at any price, but ' at any reasonable price1. The New Conference. Will the double victory have its effect upon Germany? The question of peace or war for Eurue for the next generation turns upon this prob lem. But even here the basis for optimism is reasonably sound. Eu rope will very shortly now meet in a new conference different in temper from anything since Sir Edward Grey's Conference of London in 1S12, called to liquidate the Balkan struggle, the la?t time the. old Europe met in a spirit of ccranriimise. In all human probability the first of the many conferences which must now tak place, culminatine in thu jimuucr bvssiuu tu uie tacague oi canons, wnere uermanys adtmsslca is sure to be urged and probably read ied, its-ill fall in the mrt.th which sees the tenth anniversary of the as sassination of the Archduke Ferdinand at Serajevo, the occasion of thi World War and the fifth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, .which marked its official but alas not its actual termination. And at last, in Britain, in France, all over Western Europe, save only in Germany, the promise of the ar- -ival of real peace is unmistakable. At the very least the present moment is the best since the outbreak of the World War itself, the best In th sense that the chances of real adjustment are better than ever before, "Copyright, lsi. by the McClura Newspaper bynaicate.) . America Best Customer Of Japan's Exporters TOKIO. May 24. A. P.) The United States was by far Japan's best customer during 1923. and also sold Japan more goods than any other country, according to an official sum mary of last year's foreign trade pnb- o.ii evi u . tne uriiariment oi finance. Almost, one-third, or 82:5 per cent, of all Japan's foreign trade for 193 was with the United States. More than two-fifths, or 41.9 per cent, of all Japanese goods sold abroad went to America. .More than a fourth c r Japan's imports came from the United States, which sold Japan 8-7 per cent of ail Ehe bought. The total for foreign trade for t3TZ was 3.430.000.000 yen. Exports totaled 1,44S,OOO,O0O yen. divided as follows: United States 606,000.000 yen; China, 2T2.000.000; India. 100.000,000; Great Britain. 40,000.000; Straits Settlements, 21,000.000; Philippine Islands. 18,000,000; Germany, 3.000,000; ether countries not listed. Japan's imports exceeded export by S34.000.(jO yen. totaling LSSIOO 00. "divided as follows: Unit States, 512.000,000 yen; India, 30f, 000; Great Britain, 37.000,000; Chi! 205.000,000; Germany. 120.MM others not listed.

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