Page 10 article text (OCR)
ALL EDITIONS THE ARIZONA REPUBLIC '»««» Phoenix, Monday, July 2,1973 ^tere ThetSftfji Of TteLvrd to, Tfon t» ani PHOENIX 1» E. V«ri Bdfcn. Photnu. AfjttHii MOM . PUUI AM, Courts must *hal)la Ingles 9 -. .,.--•• •:••" •-• - ;• - • ..-.,, .-•••• .-,-,. -...-• - • -O.-~ •••:':" -w '• if .y6ti dph r t understand English VJ yw c*n't serve on a jury in Arizona. '^''Thl^^iWhihlprirSense lav/was up';Md by. the Ariz on a Supreme ;.- C6urt. Ifist. week.'Arnulfo M, Cor- ^6ya h«Mi >sked the Court to upset ' convictioni for Celling marijua- COrddva claimed, he had been e", to ..get a fair trial because a JexicarirAmericans unable to "speak "English were excluded from ^ v ihe.;.jury. :; ,;..'- ", ; " :...,.. rt.a -part of ; the charm of Arizona lies in the Latino flavor of its citizens and its history. For some 15 per cent of the population of the *~18tatev -Spanish is the native language. English is a second language. ' " ^-^ pUririg recent years there has ./.been a big push, at least.Ipartly ', successful, TO ' give -new impor* jv tarice to the|Spariish language in ;,Ajrjzona. 'A4|Ability .t;0 read artd ;^ yunderstarid English is ; np longer a •;' •;*eguirement lot 'voters';; in' some >v predominantly Mjixtca'n school dis- iV'tricts^ Spanish: is being used as a ' .teaching tool "for those learning ',' : ';;English. : ..-Mr,."- -•• .- : .. Or wiped out I '.Seventy years ago, there were .an estimated 50,000 tigers in In! dia. > Today, it is believed that there only about 1,800 left. " : Evidently, .a lot of people took '.that "Put a tiger in your tank" • slogan seriously. ., . /'.However,- we believe the push fbr biriin'gualisfn can be bVejrdpne. Certainly it would be absurd to demand , a quota of non-English speaking jurors iiievefy trial 6f a Mexican-American.. Such action would double the length of court time, by requiring the translation of every statement made in court, . and would necessitate the .hiring , of translators, Spanish-speaking stenographers, etc. . . V .The cost of bi-Hngualism is evident '. in Montreal,, where ..elevator operators in hotels have to call out floor numbers i n English and French; in Barcelona, where Catalan and Spanish exist side-by-side; i n Johannesburg, where all official documents must be-in Afrikaans and in English. There is no reason to put Phoe- nix.into that sort of straitjacket. 'Justice James Duke Ciameron, in: .writing the Arizona Supreme: ; Court's decision, said: ". "English is the language of our state courts and it is imperative that those who participate in our judicial system have a working knowledge of the English language." Interpreters are provided when someone Who can't speak English gets into court. That's as it should be. But to implant a bi-lingual system in the courts—or in any other official sector—would be a mistake. Let's keep Spanish as a second language, available to those who want it, offering a wider world to those who seek to learn it. But let's not complicate government by'trying to put any foreign language on a par with English. Cambodia compromise filV^resident Nixon and the Con- ijigress have compromised their 4i.f? 'ferences over the bombing of The resulting legislation will permit the U.S. to bomb Cambodia until Aug. 15. Thereafter Congress must approve any such bombing. There is a tacit understanding that the bombing of North Vietnam, will not be resumed. ,-...-. This compromise does not satisfy 4 i ,the : doves.".' pemocratic Senate " ; ieaders, including Mike Mansfield and Ted Kennedy, called it a con- i: ,:'.'gressional.; capitulation .to the ex- >^vecutiye branch.of the government. .,'".'• tn "a way,, they are right. The ? : :F i re;siden.t;has;.nianaged to hang on ^ to a rnajor part of the executive 1 •power"; a : power"the Democrats support only when there is a Democrat in the White House. But what the Aug. 15 cutoff date does is give Cambodia at least a fighting chance of survival. In t 4he. .next six weeks the monsoon* winds will shift, and most of Indochina will enter the dry sea- ffi. son,: Without the cover of typhoon rains, infiltration from North Vietnam will be infinitely more diffi- ' cult. Aug. 15 is equally important because by then South Vietnam will be able to send troops to help Cambodia if it so desires. Such an arrangement may already have been made. Whether it has or not, the threat of 'South Vietnamese intervention may well persuade North Vietnam to withdraw its own. troops, from Cambodia. It is obvious that neither the. .White House nor the Pentagon wants to continue the bombing indefinitely. However, the immediate collapse of. Cambodia is . desired only by those who want the entire Vietnamese War to go dowi> in history as a terrible American defeat. : The collapse will be postponed, and perhaps completely avoided, by the breathing space provided by the Aug. 15 cutoff date. :. The bigger problem of executive vs. congressional power will depend on a good many uncertain factors including the outcome of the Watergate hearings. Important Arab-Jewish summit "''., I'Accdrdbg to reliable reports "' .'published in the European press, t,,'Israel and Tunisia are about to f /.^nnouiice a summit conference be- j;,, twesep the .chief executives of the *"" two'states'— Tunisian President Habib Bourguiba and Israeli Prime Minister Mrs. Gplda Meir. ,-viTbUi unusual summit is to take ?-"place- : very soon, on the neutral •?'•• territory of Switzerland, w hose /i--government has acted as an inter' lf mediary between Israeli iand Tunj- ;• sian negotiators* a."is an Arab state that >„„„ ^J4i'-in. the past, against Israel arid.)with the other Arab states in trie long-drawn Middle ^ ! pist conflict. But President *?• 5Bdurguiba is ia very experienced • •' and very wise statesman, who has ?: followed a foreign -policy of mod- \ eration and reconciliation. T/ •-, Bourguiba has maintained —we 15 :-4hink rightly. — that the Arabs cv..mu.st djop their unrealistic atti- «ii tude toward the new Jewish state. The A r a b s, Bourguiba says, should stop pretending Israel does '••' fiqt" exist. They should recognize •*';-.its' existence and start negotia- for an Arab-Israel peace .which would benefit all Arab states. In, addition to Tunisia, two other i Arab states, Jordan and Lebanon, are ready to recognize Israel and to negotiate with the Israeli government. Saudi Arabia is known to be wavering on the subject, -while Morocco and. the rest of the Arab world are certain.to follow the decision of the majority. Only .Egypt, Libya, and Syria are still holding to their old and obsolete views that Israel should not be recognized arid that the- Arabs should, .never negotiate with the- Israel government,. . . .. ; Years ago most Arab leaders were so angry with Bourguiba that they called him a "traitor" to the Arab cause and sent several gang terrorists and assassins into Tunisia with" specific orders to "liquidate" the "pro-Israeli" Tunisia president. • -;;• Fortunately for Tunisia -T- and for the Arab world — all these assassination attempts failed. Today Bourguiba's standing in the Arab world is stronger than ever. His coming summit talks with Mrs. Golda Meir provide convincing proof that T u n i s i a 's more moderate and realistic policy toward Israel is gaining ground in the whole Arab world, including — we hope—Egypt, Syria and Libya. 'But officer, sewage is a part of* life |; ;; state of affairs ,. if 1 .-. WASH1NQTOJI '-, These fist two weeks have produced the usual end-ottcrnV .crunch at IB* .U.8...'fitt-v preme Court. It, wjll.be. : a whlle,bc* "fore .even, the most diilgeri't court; watcners* can absorb the \fast-minute flood, but thiV modest appraisal can be ventured: The court Is acting, Iri'gen- eral, jtist as conservatives had taped arid as liberals had feared. It Is a delightful state df affairs. ; ;; The term just ended saw roughly 150 '" easels' disposed of by formal oplnipns, 1 ' ' • ' •' fj* , p ,J. ••,'''•' ( •';'•'• . From a .newspaperman's point of ? view, 4he. court has its .faults. One .misses the electric tensions that used to' .-. crackle .up and -down the. bench .when Frankfurter, /Black and Harlan ..were v ther.e..i' Douglas now ; ;provides the only color; in- an otherwise cplprless court. !, -Most .of the- justices,- alas, as. lawyers. write with peris, that are dipped ,in library paste. Not one of these Olympian figures cab hurl tne lightning sentenced .that illuminates the judicial landscape •down below-. •"••• • '.-..'" -••-' .' .../. «!. */•• • . ;:'.•-. Yet one finds cornpensatibns. Under . .' Chief Justice Warren Burger,' we are getting opinions usually marked by sta- • bility,, solid law, and Old-fashioned common sense. This is better, r in the long. view, than the actiyismrjudicial legislation, arid high-flown -theory we" us'ed to. 1 get under Earl Warren. j" These characteristics could be seen on Jane rt; %hen the court divided 6-3 on t couple of state ^apportionment cases, one. from Connecticut; <the other from Texas. The decisions v "(by Justice White) were in no sense monumental decisions, but they were typical of the good work the. court, is doing in grounding the wild-blue flights'of the Warren years. In Connecticut, a state apportionment board came iip with a plan that produced .an.average deviation of only 0.45 per cent in 36 Senate districtsiand 1.9 per cent in 151 House districts. The maximum deviation from, perfect equality ranged ff.om 3.9 .jjter; cent under..to, 3.9 per. Cent over. The state board anight deliberately to preserve the'integrity of niosl, of 'ConnecticuCs 189 towns, arid it sought also to achieve a rough political : fairness in terms.of Democratic aiid.Re- pUblican division.: A lower court held the plan' unconstitutional. -"In" Texas, a state legislative•redistrlct- Ing board 1 recommended that Me "150- member House of Representatives be divided into 90 districts that' varied from the/mathematical ideal by a total of 9.9 ••• per cent. A lower three-judge cqurt found the. variation too. great and threw the plan put. .*.*.* Kevin Phillip* Richardson could weaken Justice Department The Supreme Court reversed the lower •courts in both cases. The six-member majority made it clear, as to state legis- ; latiires, that relatively minor deviations . from, perfect, equality up'to a maximum of roughly 10 per cent are not to he held ^violations of the equal protection clause. •,Sueh variations will demand no particular justification in court. Larger differ' erices very likely will'demand Judicial /jfevjew, but as a general rule, the states ' are to" make their own decisions and federal judges are to keep their hands .off. . WASHINGTON Ramsey Clark is back in the Justice Department d i s- guised as Elliot Richardson. Or so it would appear from the sociology- course brand of "law enforcement" promised by the new attorney general in an., extraordinary 'Dearly'June press briefing that somehow got lost in the ; Watergate shuffle. « - Richardson's words seem to spell an end to tough-minded criminology and a return to the affluent, liberal guilt syndrome of the '60s. Part .of the explanation may lie in his upper-class Bostonian background, .with its nobles.se objige. Ac'• cording to a.'May flfeVYprk_Tirhes,arti- cle On the new Justice ''Department chief, one of "the two or three formative figures in his life (was) a social worker named Marguerite Brown whom Richardson and his oldest friends all remember with awed affection." . son sterns "to want'to. make the..attorney. general into a social worker. In. his . .briefing be promised to-give'the Justice';.; .Department a new slant as "the national agency concerned with responding to an interrelated set of social needs and social problems." Law and order is out, he said, and "social consciousness" is in. Emphasis upon crihie and -punish- , ment will be yielding to concern for the social causes of crime. And to add insult..to injury,.-.Richardson, a-former Health, Education , and /^Welfare secretary, has .declared a /'demonstrable .link"; between.-hi?' JffiW-.',' experience., ancj f the. approach, v he ; . will. . take'as attorney general. •_.•"'•'•'*"•• '•'•?.'• : '• '.' .' . ^ ".--.' I -.;-- -"^M. ' As might be expected, liberals aw;be-.-, side themselves with approval and exul-.-. tataon. A story in the'attorney.'general's Jiometown' paper/ the ^Boston Globe, de- claredt '.'RichardEon..recited; the identi- , . caj. theme..pjEten, .advanced. ; by..Ramsey . .park. when', he. .was attorney', general '" during the'Johnson admmistration and for which Clark was denounced as a 'jelly fish'on law enforcement." v dent, and liberals are playing upon this same appetite. *• * Although Richardson may be a codfish ' • Ramsey Clark, he is no jellyfish. On the . * * * contrary, he-is a brilliant administrator : What is so disturbing is that Richard- with a compelling hunger to be presi- Not Jong, ago,. a Washington.columnist ; with close ties to the Liberal Establishment floated an intriguing and important trial balloon: Elliot Richardson had an opportunity, the pundit said, to cut him-, self loose from the grubby Middle Americans of the Nixon administration, set. the Justice Department on an independent course and receive the plaudits of right-thinking people (i.e., : a good press). •'"'' •••' ' •• '••-' . Judging :by .the sharp-policy, turnabout .he has., announced .at the. v Justiqe Depart-", ment, Richardson—whose political fiexi-" bility has earned him the "sobriquet ""movable. Brahmin" — seems to have accepted the offer. Richardson's new sociology is just what fashionable liberals can be expected to applaud. On the other hand, ; ' Richardson's, .declared intent is a complete breach of the ,' commitments;, made by the Nixon admin- ' istration in the 1968 and 1972 campaigns — campaigns in which the Bostonian took a part. However; while conservatives within the White House are growing angry at Richrdson, transparently .little can be done so Jong-as the President is under the Watergate cloud. The continuing goal, White emphasized, is fair and effective representation, "but surely its attainment dpei not in any common sense way depend upon eliminating insignificant population variations.- • -. : .• ••.•••-,. .. Mathematical equality no longer is the be-all and end-all. "There are other relevant' factors to be taken into account and other important interests that states may legitimately be mindful of." • • And White made it clear that-political realities, are among these other factors and interests.' ' -" : •' * ' •'•" •"-' - Breiinan, Marshall and Dougjas sputtered in dissent that the majority's action constituted a ''substantial and very unfortunate retreat" from the old days. In my own view, this was indeed a re. treat, but 'a wise and prudent retreat from political thickets where judicial • trespassers were getting ' hiihg' ; up on thorns. ' The Connecticut and Texas opinions were not exciting or bold or dramatic; they simply make good sense-and good law. The country ought to settle happily for that. Victor Kiesel Labor unrest Seethes ^ WASHINGTON-. Though the gags of Soviet Communist party" First- • Secre-•-'•' tary Leonid Brezh- s nev s e e m e d straight from Bob Hope and his antics were early Jerry Lewis, Brezhnev's airiness was as . synthetic as .aerosol . whipped cream. There are documents, some in counterintelligence fields, some in constantly updated research archives,. and;some in the hands of American labor leaders, which disclose bitter labor unrest, actual factory rebellions and in-: dustrial. chaos throughput .the Soviets';, production system., "., .,'.. . Thus there is more than hunger reported ih the Soviet tfnion. Working people everywhere are uptight. There is widespread sabotage,.drunkenness, absenteeism,' loafing and in-plant thievery. The Socialist assembly line'just Is not: working. • v "- :i f *....» .* . '. ;; .; There is documentary 'evidence — .which -more romance, -journalists would dub CIA. .information. —^ that .both Secretary Brezhnev and former secret police' (K<3B) chief Alexander .Shelepin, now chairman-of the All-Union Central Council- of;, Trade Unions, •persqn.ally have ' moved in to whip Russian workers into productivity. • * - - ; • * .. • - ; - •_ • It wa.s Brezhnev himself .who took the podium at the- March 1972 Soviet .Trade, Union's 15th Congress in Moscow .'to exhort the delegates. He warned that the ninth .FiverYear Economic Plan would fail unless there was a-'-spee'qup of the y.S.'S.R. industrial machine. " . . He told them .bluntly'there would have , to be striQter enforcemen.t ottabor disci-. pltae; wider use ; of material and moral incentives to increase production; .greater promotion by unions of "Socialist competition in production" among workers; and speedier introduction of new. technology into the Red industrialism. And then he gave the convention,; which "now-'meets; every five.years, the Order of Lenin. And all the statistical data seeping out of the. U,S.S.R. now shows that these 'who are paid for their labor aren't much . above.- a. starvation wage scale. With prices, especially in food,.up some 80 per cent above the .1961 level, wages nave been cemented down; Leaflets distributed by angry workers report'- the ayerajge wage at 100 rubles a month. • *' * .Comrade Shelepin, who is as cruelly anti-Semitic as he is anti-Zionist, told the closed sessions of the labor congress that there must now come the full use of labor, • materials, equipment and technicians. There must be, said he, the inculcation in workers of the "Communist attitude.towards work" so as to.increase labor productivity and to, fulfill produce tion plans. . ... . . . . One report states that this farmer KGB chief "exhorted" the unions "to continue to educate the trade union ak- tiv;" which are cadres of unpaid "volun-- teer" workers. In pther;words, desperately needed. conscripted labor. ••:',. the value of a ruble depends on where you get it. New York financial circles quote it as anywhere from 38 to 40 cents. Official bank circles quote it at $1.40. Soviet agencies themselves'piit it at anywhere from 75 cents to $l.'Thus ho' matter : how you slice it, the Russian worker can't eat much on it/ An AFlrCIO study quotes the average Soviet Office and factory worker wage at $157. a: month..' So the tacome, befpre taxes in a heavily inflated land; where the ruble has far less to buy and can buy far less than: one can with the dollar, is an average of anywhere $10 to $40 a ..week.'/ -.•:•: :•.,:•. .• . • • ,-,.•• 'Allen f* v< caii; rse race fans warned Attention : hpr.se. racing'fans! Beware of exotic or multiple betting combinations — such as twin doubles, quinellas and trizactas. • ' They. are strong^ Jy prone to criminal fixing. That's the warning of the House Select Committee on Crime on. the basis, of an exhaustive investigation of horse racing and other sports. In its forthcoming four-volume report '.qh'.-."Organized Crime, in .Sports, 1 '', the .gpmmitjtee, headed; by Rep. Claude fep-" ^er r TJ.-FM.,. recommends tb.at .states-impose limits onWultiple-Betting combinations. " . '. the daily double, perfecta and traffica . : are held "generally reputable" by the- commjtte^. , «**...,. . . But manifold betting combinations should be barred, in the committee's op-, inion, because they are conducive to criminal control and manipulation. These types of races yield higher profits . than individually placed bets, and as a consequence there is a gowerful incentive .'for. uri^erwQrld glemen'ts. to-, bribe or intimidate horse owners, trainers/and jockeys, and drug the thoroughbreds. Citing a "specific in'stahce, the report tells of a race "in New Vork State where two horses -ran in formation 1 for most of the race. In the last 10 minutes of betting, 80 per .cent .of the.win.dpw bets had teen placed <m these two'norses finish- -ing "in that'position. • • It is estimated gamblers' made a killing of around $100,000 from this obviously fixed race. The crime investigating committee also makes several other recommendations: • ••-.'. • - -.•••.**«.•-• i-i ••• 1. There should, be both pre-raceand after-race testing of all horses. They should be examined by authorized specialists to:determine whether they had been given drugs to speed them up or slow them down.. v 2. Race jracks shpyld be licensed for several years.rather than on an annual basis. The committee holds the latter system .is needlessly expensive and time consuming. While reporting that the drugging of horses, intimidation of trainers and jockeys and fixing races are not uncommon, the, cqnirnittee finds that "on the whole tne racing industry is wholesome and honorable." It points out that horse'rac- ing is the' largest attended sport in the country, and produces more than $500 million a year to the states in revenue. But the committee sternly warns that the states must must'exercise "unremitting vigilance" to prevent criminal machinations and control.