Page 34-THE HERALD, Provo, Utah, Sunday, April 13, 1975 HUNGRY VIETNAMESE children and adults reach out for ' brganl/atlons. Tens of thousands of refugees fled In panic bits of bread distributed In South Vietnam by relief toward Saigon In attempt to escape the fighting. Personalities on the News Scene of World By United Press International ALGIERS (UPI) - French President Valery Giscard d'Es- taing is in Algeria for the first visit of a French chief of state since this country won its independence from France in 1962. Security measures were strict in light of the seven-year war, wliich killed more than a million Algerians and displaced an equal number of French settlers. Algerian President Houari Boumedienne and Giscard d'Es- taing exchanged cordial gree- tings, and French tricolor flags flew from public buildings. But there were no flags flying from private dwellings, and the lunch- hour crowds were not much larger than normal. health. Princess Margriet, third eldest of Queen Juliana's four daughters, has three sons aged 7, 5 and 3. She was married in 1966. NIJMEGEN, The Netherlands (UPI) — Princess Margriet and her commoner husband, Pieter van Vollenhove, became the parents of a fourth son this week The princess, 32, gave birth by Caesarean section. A spokesman for the royal family said mother and child were in good ROME (UPI) - The Rev. Pedro Arrupe, superior General of the Society of Jesus, has made several appointments in his attempts to reform the Roman Catholic church's largest religious order without going past boundaries set by Pope Paul VI. Arrupe, a Basque priest who has been trying to reconcile the order's liberal and conservative factions, named a special study group, including a layman from Ireland who is an expert on management techniques in religious orders, to examine the central leadership of the 441- year-old order. Delegates of the society's 29,462 worldwide members prepared several major reforms earlier this year, but the Pope, to whom many Jesuits take a special vow of obediance, vetoed the measures. Rev. Pedro Arrupe Votary d'Estainjj Indochina Conflict Goes Columbus Over A Long, Long Road Just an By United Press International The Indochina War, which led to one of the most bitter divisions in the United States since the .Civil War, dates back to the French conquest of the lush tropical land more than a century ago. U.S. involvement in the political history of the Indochina peninsula —made up of Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos -began after World War II. Ultimately, six American presidents —from Truman to Ford —became involved in Indochina and nearly 50,000 American lives were lost in the jungles of Souheast As ia. ui the early years after World War II, France tried to reassert its hold on Indochina and a bloody war followed against the Viet Minn, a collection of Communists and nationalists fighting for independence. By 1954, the United States, anxious to prevent Southeast Asia from becoming Communist, was providing almost $3 billion to the French effort — or about 80 per cent of the total French costs. After Dienbienphu fell to the Viet Minn in the spring of 1954, the Geneva conference divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel, effectively creating the countries of South and North Vietnam. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, citing the domino theory of countries toppling to Communism, poured about $200 milUon in military aid into Saigon between 1955 and 1961. When President John F. Kennedy took office, there were 685 American military personnel in South Vietnam. When he left, there were 16,000 involved in what he called a "very important struggle." But the brunt of American involvement fell on President Lyndon B. Johnson. The first American combat troops splashed ashore at Da Nang in 1965. Mounting opposition in the United States to a war on the other side of the world eventually forced Johnson out of office —but not before the conflict became an American war with 550,000 U.S. troops in South Vietnam. Under President Richard M. Nixon, the process of American withdrawal and "Vietnamiza- tion" began. But it was deliberately slow so as not to endanger the battlefield situation. The war spilled over into Cambodia in 1970, when President Lon Nol toppled the left- leaning government of Prince Norodom Sihanouk. By late 1972, U.S. military assistance to the Cambodian government totaled $187.2 million. Following the Nixon-ordered mining of Haiphong harbor and the bombing of Hanoi, a peace accord was signed in Paris in January, 1973. Nixon called it "peace with honor." American forces were withdrawn and American prisoners of war released. But the fighting never stopped. And, by the spring of 1975, the Communists had launched new offenses in both South Vietnam and Cambodia. Also Ran? CAMBRIDGE, Mass. (UPI) Christopher Columbus may have been an also-ran. The real discoverers of the American continents were likely ancient Spanish sailors, probably from Cadiz, according to international scientists. Then came the Vikings. Then Columbus. This isn't a new theory. It was greatly criticized, in fact, when introduced nearly 40 years ago by archeologist Harold S. Gladwin. But now Prof. Thomas Lee of Quebec's Laval University suggests three stone carvings found near Montreal earlier this century indicate the Spanish explorers were in the area before 150 B.C. Harvard University's H. Barraclough Fell said Thursday he sees the theory as supporting his report earlier this year that Libyan sailors could have reached the western coast of South America and settled eventually in Polynesia. The Canadian theory, Fell says, involves explorers from the same civilization who sailed west from the Spanish coast instead of east out of Libya. Fell said Gladwin had "perceived Mediterranean influences in American archeology, but his ideas received rough treatment." Interpreting the stone carvings as the work of Spaniards, Fell said, "is unquestionably an important contribution to the developing ideas on the early discoverers of America." Scientists Receive Grant For Observatory on Sa/t Flats By DUSTON HARVEY SALT LAKE CITY (UPI) When a cosmic ray ends its trillion mile trip through space by colliding with the earth's atmosphere, the fallout flashes across the sky with all the intensity of a 100 watt light bulb. The shower of tiny particles cascades to the earth several miles below at nearly the speed of light, striking the ground 60- to 70-millionths of a second after the subatomic space traveler first crashed into an air molecule. A 100 watt light at more than 186,000 miles a second is dimmer than the stars or the glow of the night sky behind it —even in unpopulated and remote regions like the western Utah desert. But the Bonneville Salt Flats and similar spots far from urban civilization are the only places where physicists studying high energy particles and the origins of cosmic rays can get a glimpse of the collisions. A team of University of Utah scientists has received a National Science Foundation grant of $280,000 to start work on a unique astrophysics observatory located on the bone- white desert best known as an auto speedway. The observatory will consist of 80 dish-shaped mirrors on the outside of a large geodesic dome. A dozen photo-multiplier tubes suspended over each mirror —about 1,000 over the entire structure —will be attached to a computer. The structure, which won't be finished for three to five years, is nicknamed "fly's eye" because of its resemblance to the compound eyes of a fly. It will operate only on dark nights when there is no interference from moon light. Although cosmic rays are dimmer than the stars or glow of the night sky, the background is steady while the rays are moving rapidly. "So we'll look for changes in the light intensity," said Dr. Haven Bergeson, associate professor of physics and one of three principal investigators on the project. Bergeson said the array of mirrors on "fly's eye" will permit detection of higher energy particles than current cosmic ray counters, allowing the analysis of more events, and will also give a picture of the ray's angle of descent, its energy and its distance away. The experiments will be in two basic areas, high energy particle physics and astrophysics. High energy physics —the study of the interactions between subatomic particles fired down atomic smashers into target particles at nearly the speed of light —is limited by the energies accelerators can produce, Bergeson said. "We will be able to detect interactions in the atmosphere involving cosmic rays with energies 100,000 times higher than accelerator particles," he said. "A number of theories on interactions have been developed that fit data produced with accelerators," Bergeson said "But they give different predictions for reactions at higher energies." "Although our measurements will be fairly crude compared to those obtained in accelerators, they will be precise enough to determine between conflicting theories," he added. Among other things, the Utah scientists hope to determine exactly where in the upper atmosphere the cosmic rays — which are believed to be protons —begin interacting with the nuclei of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. The cosmic rays usually strike an air molecule some 15 to 20 miles above ground, creating a shower of new particles. These particles strike the nuclei of other molecules, generating an ever-widening shower of particles as they descend to earth. "We won't see them until they are about a fourth of a way through the atmosphere — about eight miles up —and at about 10 per cent of full development, but we'll be able to infer where the first reaction occurred." Bergeson said in an interview. The speed of the reactions will help scientists determine if the rays are protons — hydrogen nuclei —or heavier elements. In the area of astrophysics, the cverriding question the Utah t.;am hopes to answer is, where (ito the rays come from ? "At lower energies, we've Uwught of too many places, and at higher energies, it's not clear 2 >.ny of the suggested sources c wuld do it." said Bergeson. One of the favorite choices, he Eidded. is exploding stars, or f: jpemova The scientists hope to correlate the highest energy Eirrivals with supernova in other galaxies and produce the first d irect evidence of the theory. "If we recorded four or five high energy particle showers f' -om the same direction and this could be correlated with a stronomical sightings of suppr- rova in that area, it would give some basis to the theory," said I )r. George Cassiday, another of tie researchers Bergeson, Cassiday and Dr. I tonald Groom also want to know vitether cosmic rays originate in our Milky Way galaxy, from the 'local supcrcluster of 10,000 g alaxies," or if they fill all space f;-om undetermined sources. The team is now building a 1 irge furnace in which t6 make t tie 60 to 70 pound mirrors for the I iroject and will soon start testing on light sensitive tubes. "We hope to have a single mirror unitoperating by next fummer and a data collecting :;ystem that will be adequate to I landle it," said Cassiday. "This i vill give us a chance to test our i;iesign." JCPenney auto center WASHINGTON (UPI) - Justice William 0. Douglas has returned to Walter Reed Army Medical Center for a checkup on the stroke he suffered in January, a Supreme Court spokesman said. Douglas, 76, suffered a stroke New Year's Day while vacationing in the Caribbean. He returned to the bench last month still suffering partial paralysis of one side. WASHINGTON (UPI) - Former CIA artist Russell Armentrout has been appointed head of the White House Social Entertainment office, Betty Ford announced. In his White House position he will be in charge of engraved invitations and other social functions in connection with White House parties and receptions. Armentrout, 46, began government service in 1950 as a draftsman and artist for the intelligence agency. He succeeds Sanford Fox, who retired last January after 32 years of government service. Armentrout has worked for several other government departments and also served as assistant to Fox from 1961-65. WASHINGTON (UPI) — Sen. Robert Dole, R-Kan., tripped and fell on the tracks of a Capitol subway. An aide said he was bruised but not otherwise hurt. Dole and Sen. George McGovern, D-S.D., were running to the Senate floor to vote and ran across one of the tracks of the subway leading from Senate office buildings to the Capitol. An aide said Dole stumbled and fell, hitting his back and one arm. He was examined at the Capitol infirmary and a doctor "put an ice pack on it and the senator went home." 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