Clovis News-Journal from Clovis, New Mexico on May 12, 1966 · Page 8
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Clovis News-Journal from Clovis, New Mexico · Page 8

Clovis, New Mexico
Issue Date:
Thursday, May 12, 1966
Page 8
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|OT±rV wvww i viu uy t*jvu HMVWUV* •»• tut Dl wgawB MMjay itii.ww> MMMto fttte«MM • •>•! ^^Ma^h^t thj • - own uDvny ana nupvoi uw witu the ttevt norai HTT sornt AMI POJB •» HHMTC w tut NEWS-JOURNAL i Notion's Press Editor's Note: The Clovl i Newislournai is presenting here the first of four install* mentt from "Anything That's Peaceful" by Leonard E, Read, president of the Foundation for Economic Education, The four chapters (Ming reprinted were chosen be* came they relate to education. . IHi suggested that the read* fir-may want to save these in* stidlmeota for future re-read* Iflfor to pass along to a friend who may have missed them. "Anything That's Peaceful" is published by The Foundation for Economic Education, Ir* vlngton-on-Hudson, N.Y. ;,«—• Chapter 15 WHOSE ACADEMIC FREEDOM? -By LEONARD E. READ thoughtful persons when supplied with the evidence, will agree that a creative activity should be left to free men, with government relegated ,to keeping the peace; that is, they will agree when the issue is dear cut as in the case of the postal service. And many also will concede that this same division of funtions should apply to countless creative activities: leave productive and creative affairs to free men; leave the inhibiting and penalizing of de jrtructive actions to government Of all activities, none is more obviously in the creative catego ry than is education. Based on the above division-of-functions concept, education would be lef exclusively to the free market Yet, there is a firmly rooted popular conviction or belief in government education. Here, in education, we have the contra diction of means and ends in its most pronounced and perhaps its most dangerous form; cer tainly, in the form most difficul to clarify. However, the person who ar gues that anyone should be able to do anything he pleases so long as it is peaceful and tha the role of government is only to keep the peace, had better make his case in this difficult area, or retire from the field. And 1 know of no better place to begin than with the argument which rages around the subject o academic freedom, Whenev cr an issue is split down the middle and intelligent men o good will are arrayed on either side of the controversy, one con clUsion can be reasonably drawn: some basic principle in the argument has been neglect ed. Academic freedom has been as if it were primarily an ideological or a philosophica problem, whereas, in my view it is an organizational problem Whether a teacher be a com munist, a socialist, a Fabian, £ Dealer, or their direct opposite is a matter of secondary concern, unrelated to the rea of academic freedom. I we were to shift the subject from academic freedom to freedom in the market place am Jhjn argue that it mattered whether or not one were a carpenter, a plumber, a farmer, or whatever, we would be on com parably untenable ground. Tb« Parent-Child Relationship Tbt confusion about academ Je freedom may be cleared if we first examine teaching in its simplest form and move from there to more complex forms. Tiunlst, an anarchist, or of the ibertarian persuasion has no bearing on the question of academic freedom. Now let us take the first step oward complexity: the mother employing an aide, shall we say, tutor, The responsibility for the education of the child still rests with the mother. And If rouble is not to ensue, the au- hority also must remain with her. The tutor may or may not hare the mother's views about ife, education, and social af- airs. But regardless of their agreements or differences, the mother should still be in the driver's seat. If she can delegate portion of her responsibility- authority powers to the tutor, she also should be free to revoke such powers. The power to hire, .ogically, carries with it the power to fire. If one could only delegate and not revoke, could only hire and not fire, he would be in the absurd situation of having to live all of his lifetime with an ever-growing accumulfr tlon of mistakes. If this were the case, who would dare risk employing anyone? In this mother-tutor-child arrangement, let us assume that the mother is a devotee of socialism & that the tutor turns out much to the mother's surprise and disgust, to be of the freedom faith — one who believes in no coercion at all to direct the creative activities of citizens within a soiety. What then? Is the so ialist mother obligated to retain the libertarian tutor on the grounds of academic freedom? Whose academic freedom? The mother's or the tutor's? Is the mother, who once had academic freedom in relation to her child now to be deprived of it because she hired the tutor? Is the tu tor's freedom to teach what he pleases to supersede,,the moth er's freedom to have her child taught what she wishes? This anomalous arrangement woul< have the mother responsible for the education of the child and for paying the tutor, and leave the tutor with authority as to what the child should be taught the responsibility-authority prin ciple totally violated. Nothing but friction would result, certainly no educational progress. Tenure vs. Academic Freedom Libertarian v i e ws generally are founded on the belief tha each person has an inalienable right to his own life; that he has the responsibility to protect and to sustain his life; and with this goes the corresponding author! ty to make free choices—no ex ception! Our tutor, holding such libertarian views, must concede that the socialist mother's aca demic freedom supersedes h i s own as it relates to what should be taught the child. That is her business and not his. For him to argue that he can teach her child what he pleases, that she does not have the authority and the right to discharge him lest his academic freedom be violat ed, is to place the argument on the wrong ground. Such a claim would be for tenure, not for academic freedom! The tutor's academic freedom is in no way violated if the soci alist mother chooses to dis charges him. He is free to teach his libertarian views to his own The simplest twaship would teaching rela- exist between __ and child- The parent is responsible for the child, and consequently has authority over the child. Tne basic iple in ail successful organizations is that responsibility god authority over the child. The basic princi- pfe in ail successful organiza- Is that rffiponslMlity com- Aoy deviation leads to trouble, whether in mnlffft relationship be- parent aod child or in coujpie* relationships as «ff &U04 is large corporate or- f" The successful par- relatjojftfihip w'U find fte r<etoajMiihing authority M tfee e&J4 grow* » stature aad fte r**poflsiMi&es lor children or to the children of parents who may subscribe to the service he is prepared to render. Academic freedom would be violated if one were coerced into teaching what he believed to be wrong — if the libertarian tutor were compelled to teach socialism, or if the socialist mother were compelled to have her child taught liber tarian ideas. The Private School Numbers can be added to the parent-tutor relationship without altering the responsibility- authority lines. A good example is a school I knew, the Ferris Institute of 1917, long before it became a government school, Mr Ferris owned the school. There was no Board of Trustees. It was venture as private as his own home. He employed teachers in accord with his judgment o/ their coKieteace. He admitted students in accord with his judgment of their worthiness. U he fcowght he h«4 erred to the «e- letioo Ql ft teacher, the teacher was dwharged. And many students were sent horn* because ttey wawJ4 not meet th« standard ol Isuwd work to required- Mr. Ferris had the «ole re- for &£ success ol lit 9Hlil tt 10 tears, j Ferris Institute; «uid, correctly, Hi Bflflttf « * <xw- J bfi gtfugiyad tte autiiority for its Clinic Mr, Gftfd direct* ona of the best Nursing Homes I have ever visited. And he mentions the fact that many older folks cwne In «s tad patients but soon get on their feet after watching other elderly people walking under their own power. ~ they gain more incentive o try! Scrapbook this case and write more often to your older relatives! By DR, GEORGE W, CRANE CASE 411: L. E. Card is director of a beautiful, new nursing and convalescent home at Danville, 111. Recently I addressed the old 'oiks as their Sunday afternoon speaker. Many of them used canes or crutches,- Some were in wheel chairs. But a surpirsingly large number were able to hobble around under their own power, even though they were past 90 years old. "Dr. Crane," Mr. Gard informed me, we often have peo ile come here who are bed pa- jents. But before long, they are stimulated to get up and walk again. I suppose it is the sight of others, even older than they are, who are walking around, don't you think?" Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A.) ias demonstrated a similar strategy with chronic drunkards who are down and out. When these despairing alcho lies attend an A.A. meeting and listen to the inspiring speeches of members, they perk up. For they hear talks by m e n and women who were worse drunkards than themselves, yet now see those victims back as well-dressed, highly respect workers in modern society. 'If they can do it,' is thus the subconscious feeling of the new A.A. recruits, "then I can do it, too!" Applied to decrepit older folks, this same challenge exists when they are in »a nursing home. But while they were living with their children, surrounded by active teen-age grandchil dren, they may have made no attempt to walk or wait upon themselves. For they figured they couldn't remotely compete with the younger generation. Now that they are surrounded by other oldsters, often 10 years their senior, and find that such elderly folks can walk to the dining room or hobble around with a cane or crutches, they are stimulted to do likewsie. In brief, they figure they have a chance when competing with their own age group, but this spirit of rivalry is lacking a home. Thus, your elderly relativ es may actually work harder to stay on their own feet when they are in a nursing home! And these modern nursing homes offer a happy, well-light ed environment. Gard, for example, maintains a coffee urn in the large, airy dining room where anybody can get himself a cup of coffee a any time. "And as they leave, they also get some perfume squirted on them, which they relish." conduct. Academic freedom was in no way offended. Teachers who shared his educational prin ciples were free to submit their credentials and, if employed, t» put these principles into prac tice. Parents who 1 i k e d the hard-work standards of Ferri Institute were free to seek ad mission for their children. Most private educational or ganizations are more complex than was the Ferris Institute o that time. Some are corpora tions organized for profit, in which case the ultimate respon sibility and authority rest will the stockholders in proportion to their ownership. As a rule, th responsibility and authority are vested by the Board o Trustees; and the Board, in turn delegates the responsibility and authority to a chief executive officer, usually a president. The president organizes the institu tion and delegates the responsi bility and authority vested in him to numerous subadmin istrators and teachers. The stockholders, having the fina responsibility to change Board membership if they find them selves in disagreement with Board policy. The Trustees, in turn, having beea given the re sponsibility by the stockholders have the authority to discharge the chief executive officer if they believe he is aot properly its policy. The chief executive officer, vested with respoosMity by the Board, has the Uihoriiy to change his aide if he believes they are act car ryiag out his idea*. Discretion in exercising authority, regardless of where vested, is assuraed. io uo way alters the reffpongiiajljty-3.utfa()rity ciple, hut only increases the di! leulty of tracing the respoasi biiUy and authority lines. TO BE Pro? Tff Between the Bookers "'Hie Mainspring of Human spnng of Unman Progress" an Progress", first published in enjoyable tool of knowledge. 1947, is now available in paperback form at 95 cents. Henry Orady Weaver's excellent study of the relationship between progress and freedom is must reading for anyone interested in the nature and effects of human freedom. (Published by II a 11- berg & Co., 110 W. Grand Ave., Chicago 10, Illinois.) Weaver's quiet, thoughtful The U. S. Governmetn Depart- stylc of writing is applied to the j ment of Interior is conducting a history of civilizations — going i large-scale promotion campaign back to the time of Abraham j—using donated space in news- and coming forward to the j papers and other media — to American revolution. sell people on the idea of buying lie demonstrates that the civ- a $7 "Golden Passport" entrance ilizations with the highest stand- j permit to government - owi>- ards of living were those in Jed recreation areas across the which the greatest human free- nation. American Way dom prevailed. He cites the three great examples of this: the philosophy of Abraham, the Saracen civilization, and the American revolution. The U. S. Government is conducting a large-scale promotion campaign — using donated advertising space in practically all media Particularly interesting is the! ° n '"" WASHINGTON President Johnson apparently isn't taking any chances on Congress' 'approving of his announced plan to expand trade with Iron Curtain countries. Without fanfare, the administration already is doing exactly that. The likelihood in this election year of Congress' going on record to increase East-West trade is remote. Still languishing in the Senate is last year's laboriously negotiated agreement with Moscow to open consular offices in the two countries. Opposition to that is so powerful that no move has been made to act on the treaty. It's' a safe conclusion the President's proposal to boost East- West trade would have no better H. L Hunt Writes We have never yet had a self- proclaimed member of the Com- munish Party holding a seat in the United States Congress. We may have one next year. Herbert Aptheker, chief thcor- to Bulgaria. These pellets are etician of the U. S. Communist to sell elderly citizens ie idea of signing up for Saracen civilization, not often'the volunary aspects of t h e noted in historical studies. I "Medicare" plan. "Schoolbooks lay great cmpha-l This, of course, is not unusual, sis on European'history, ancient ! Thc government quite often goes and modern; but no point is' Into the market place to compete made of the fact that, when Eu-j for voluntarily-spent dollars. It rope was stagnating in the so-' sells "savings" bonds, electrici- called Dark Ages, the world i ^ subsidies, loans, etc. - a was actually bright with a civil-1 multitude of products, ization more closely akin! uwhat 1S a»rd fo reconcile, to what we have in America j however, is that everyone of than anything that had g o n e | these government programs was before. Thirty generations of hu-! inslltulcd on the assumption that man beings who believed in per-; thes f , services were greatly sonal freedom created that civil- • needed by individuals. The gov ization and kept it going for 800; crnmenl always enters the mar- yea,.;;" .ketplace "reluctantly" — only For'example, in the matter O f i because private enterprise has inpnfinn- "rin«P«! xvpro hold i supposedly Jailed to provide peoeducation: "Classes were held on an open-house basis. Anyone in quest of knowledge was free to wander about and listen. If he decided to remain, he picked a teacher and privately discussed with him what he wanted to learn and what he should study, luck. But unpublished Commerce Department records disclose the administration already is opening the door as wide as it can to further trade with the Communists. Last year that topped $143 million. This has been ascertained by Representative Glenard Lipscomb, R-Calif., member of the House Appropriations Defense Subcommittee. After a lot of digging he has uncovered the following significant facts: —In 1962 East-West trade totaled less than $50 million. In 1963 it jumped to $139 million; in 1964 to $406 million due to the sale of $320 million in agricultural commodities; last year upwards of $143 million. —Much of this business has far greater military value to the Reds than the dollar total would indicate. "We sold them electronic equipment, aircraft parts, industrial instruments, chemicals, metals and a tremendous amount of technical data," Lips comb pointed out, "and we did that without having any idea of its ultimate use. The Johnson administration talks about increasing trade and building bridges to the East, at the very time the Soviet is powerfully aiding our enemy in Nort Viet Nam. "I am utterly unable to under stand how it makes any sense to help equip the Communists who are assisting aggressors to kill and maim our soldiers in Viet Nam." MORE JARRING FACTS Dramatically illustrative of Lipscomb's stinging accusation is the following astonishing contradiction: —Last July and August the Commerce Department issued export licenses for the shipment of $5,436,000 of copper scrap to Yugoslavia. At that very time, the department was directing U.S. manufacturers ol copper products to divert a greater proportion of the metal for military Also uncovered by Represent- orders. ative Lipscomb are three unan- Rftffljygffll instances of sales to the Soviet bloc this year of distinct military value: used for the production of high octane gasoline, and to increase yields in the chemical industry. World demand for platinum is soaring, and Bulgaria's principal suppliers have been Russia and East Germany. —Sale to Rumania of electronic and navigational equipment for installation in planes obtained from Russia. Also instruments for testing flight equipment. Lipscomb critically notes that while the Commerce Department is permitting a great deal of technical information to be exported to the Soviet bloc, no dollar value is placed on it. There is not even a reference to this matter in the department's annual report on East-West trade. But the Communists consider Party, director of the American this technical declares, the data, most Lipscomb important and they agreed If. after joining did not get the upon a fee. the class, lie knowledge he part of their trade with the U.S. As evidence of this, he points out the data usually involves the construction of huge industrial undertakings. As significant examples, Lipscomb cites that in 1965 Russia imported U.S. technical data for the design and building of: —Ethylene plant capable of producing one million metric tons of heavy petroleum a year. The plant also would produce hydrogen propane, propylene, butane, butylenes and gasoline. Plastics, petrochemicals and synthetic fibers are produced from them. —Plant to manufacture 4,000 to another university. When he had learned what he thought he ought to know, lie quit school and put his new knowledge to practical test." The Saracens, middle eastern of all religions, probably d i tl find, to profit, to prosper. writing style make "The Institute for Marxist Studies.! wanted. llc stopped paying the and recent visitor to North Viet j teacher and went Nam, is expected to run for aitecher or another Congressional seat in Brooklyn. Aptheker is the man who, as a featured speaker at a farleft conclave at Columbia University last Septermber, called the horrible Watts riots "glorious." Aptheker will be supported by a "pupular front" composed mostly of persons and groups who have vehemently and sometimes violently opposed our military effort to save South Viet Nam from communism. Among them are a number of university professors including Eugene Genovese of Rutgers who stated last year that he would "welcome" American defeat in South Viet Nam. Aptheker's supporters are now planning a formal declaration of his candidacy late this month in the plush surroundings of the Sutton Ballroom of the New York Hilton Hotel at Rockefeller Center.The Aptheker candidacy is no mere publicity stunt by a handful of tattered professional radicals. It is and will be a smooth, professional operation. Famed Columnist Victor Riesel reports that the National Board of the U. S. Communist Party really expects Aptheker to win. If any doubt remained, th e emergence of this man as a major political candidate for groups will serve as final proof the "peace in Viet Nam" groups will serve as final proof provide people with what they want. If this is true, why are these high-powered sales campaigns necessary? Why the pressure on advertising media to donate the facilities for an advertising campaign? The truth is, of course, that these "services" are not offer ed in answer to real needs — except for the needs of the politicians nnd bureaucrats who are anxious to extend their control over the marketplace. Government i,i aiways a predator. It seeks to eat away at the freely-conducted areas of commerce. The only n-ew ingredient it brings to any situation is the power of cocicion. And it more than any other single is anxious to bring as many group of individuals to advance areas of the economy under its the science of matematics, coercive influence as possible, astronomy, navigation, mod-mi If this were not true, it would medicine, and scientific agricul-jlong age have turned the post of- ture. And they did it becau.s-?,fice over to private enterprise- people were free to explore, to i where costs would be known and j recognized, where inefficient Weaver's penetrating insight;services would have beervdiscon- into the nature of human energy i tinned, and practical service to and progress, and his delightful:the consumer would have been tons annually of parachloroani-jof the real inspiration for their iinn or,H o c.m\ »««„ «* j: «ui— campaigns We may hope that the people of Brooklyn will not let ant i- Americans and pseudo-intellectuals tell them how to vote. Russia of three giaot fertiliser plants to produce citric Ditraie. LipscoiuJb points out &a£ jjatine last few years Soviet &s supplied North Viet N,aj» with wore tbas 150,- iXM toas of fertilizer line, and 2,500 tons of di-chlor- oaniline — used among other things as a weed killer. Other technical data the Commerce Department permitted to be sent to the Communists was for a methane pipeline booster station in Rumania; gas processing plant in Russia; copper rolling mill, pulp mill evaporator and an ammonium sulfate plant in East Germany; electrolytic process plant in Hungary; and a silicone steel processing plant in Czechoslovakia. PROPOSED CHECKREIN To cope with this serious backstage situation, Representative Lipscomb wants to establish a special watchdog committee such as existed in the 87th Congress (196H2). He was a member of this committee. Under bis proposal government agencies would be required to report to the committee all reports to Communist countries, which it in turn, would publish. The latter is deemed of utmost importance by Lipscomb as a result of bis own experience. He has encountered vigorous resistance in endeavoring to obtain such information: This occurred only recently when he was digging into reports of shipments of agricultural insecticides and pesticides to Russia. "I didn't ask for the names of the companies involved," says Up&comb. "Waat I wanted to know was the type ol chemicals being sold and the amount. But i was bluntly rebuffed . I got nowhere." A. B. Trowbridge, director of comb the information was "confidential." No reason was given for that. Trowbridge merely proclaimed it as follows: "The information you have requested is of the type that is held confidential . . .and is available only on a confidential basis to congressional committees at their request. Such a request should state the use to which the information desired would be put and a commitment that the information would be accorded the same degree of confidentiality as it is accorded by the Department of Commerce." TRADE SPARKS - Iran has signed a three-year-trade agreement with Hungary under which they will exchange Hungarian cotton, sugar, chemicals and electrical machinery for Iranian In ancient times lightning was regarded as the weapon of the gods. Areas struck by lightning were hedged off as sacred precincts and persons killed by lightning were not accord"ed the usual funeral rites but were buried on the spot where they were struck. In some of the more primitive parts of Africa today fires started by lightning are not extinguished, nor is aid given to a person struck down. © Encyclopaedia Bntanmco increased. But governments have only one duty — to extend their power. That, of course, is a duty to themselves. Why not put the recreattional areas up to the highest bidders? We would then know very quickly how much the public values them and only those truly in demand would remain recreational areas. The rest would go into more productive use — sup- pl.wng the things people really want. And why not leave with eld- jerly people the money taken it'roin them in taxes and inflation; and permit them to make | their own decisions as to wheth- |er or not they want that money i to he used for medical insur- :anee? How To Address ! Yoisr Lawmakers Si-n. (Minimi P. Anili'rscn, Senate Office HtiU., Mi:s!ilni:ti>ti -£,1, n ('. Sen. .liiM-ph M .Mimt.uii, Senate Office IIIiU.. Uiisliinclon 35, )).(•. KI-II. K. >. Mulinn.v) UulkiT. Home Office Hlile., Uushinutuii 35. !>.('. Iti'i). TlKiiim* (i. Miirrisi, liuuie Office Bill;., UubhiiiKtoii '!',. |).i'. (Stutct s™. \\. ii. (Kill) Duckwurth, Bui 1010, ISrji. Hint I'allitoii, Bux 5B star Itoute, Ufli. Dux id JSurvcIl, Buv Via, Ciovlfc Iti'li. I'rauu Fuller. Box 883, Chivll Medley Answer to Previous Puzzle' ACROSS J Feminine appellation 5 Wrestler's cushion 8 Number 4 Makes enduring, as metal 5 Tearful, as eyes 6 Art il-aUn) 7 .Scottish headgear oil Russia has announced plans to increase Us shipments of cotton to Hungary, Rumania and Poland. Much of this cotton has been obtained by the Soviet from Egypt in payment for the huge amounts of planes, guns and other military equipment. . . . . Canada has granted a 112-5 million loan to Greece, at € per cent and payable in 15 years, for toe purchase of Ca- 10 Western state 11 Hosier 19 Navrow inlet 20 Heap i'2 Sinking voice 2.'if;rL-ok port ico 1!4 Small pastry 25 Kcdacl 2G Cuckoo blackbirds 27 Manner of walking 28 Anglo-Saxon theow the Commerce Department's : nadian machinery foreign trade Action, Uuld Ups-| equipment. and other! 12 Gaseous element 8 Conclusion 13 British money 9 Individuals of account 14 Preposition 15 Adolescent 16 Doctrine 17 Tidy 18 Loafers 20 H&norary Turkish title 21 River island 22 Be sick, 23 Greek gravestone 26 Declared 30 Toddlers 31 Poker stake 32 Peer Gym's mother 33 Boundary (comb, form) 34SingiDg group 35 Product from crushed grapes 36 Certifies 38 Measure ol capacity 39 Short-napped fabric « "My Ssl" 41 Weapon 44 Soften in temper 48 Sea birds 48 Pastry 51 Notion 52 Surf sound 63 High card 54 Hebrew month 55 Zoo critters 56 Scatter, as hay $7 F«<nale horse DOWN 1 Against 2 Require 3 C 29 Forest creature 40 Avarice ' Crafts 34 Former Itussun ruler 35 Masculine appellation 37 Expunges 38 New Guinea port 41 Wheys of milk 42 Support 43 Grafted (her.) 45 Icelandic saga 46 Close 47 Biblical weed 49 Light touch 50 Frozen water

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