The News from Frederick, Maryland on June 9, 1970 · Page 16
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June 9, 1970

The News from Frederick, Maryland · Page 16

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Frederick, Maryland
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Tuesday, June 9, 1970
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PMtC-2 THE NEWS, Fntefek, t, MW Farmers Overcome Problems To Feed Nation EVERY FARMER HAS PROBLEMS . . . and every field he works to supply American homes and industries has problems. . . . . . BUT be keeps plugging away to make sure we have enough to eat and to supply industries -- thank goodness! The key -- and hope -- for any future is to control and prevent as many yield-robbing problems as possible. . . · Wrong hybrid or variety for a specific fertilizer-management program. · Planting too late and incorrect number of plants. · Wide rows that waste valuable sunlight. · Diseases and pests at work on lush plants. · · Hidden hunger for nutrients that are often there but unable to get into the plant. · Lime placed wrong -- or not at all. · Pruned roots from careless cultivation, etc., etc., etc., etc How do farmers really go for trouble shooting in their fields? They appreciate it -- anything (and anyone) who will help them get better returns from all the work they have to do. This kit answers 20 questions about trouble shooting for summer stress . . . based on years of experience by veteran testers. 1. Can you give me some aids for trouble shooting my fields this summer? -- A competent advisor by your side -- that's your best aid. He has a trained eye for trouble that shows and a test kit to uncover trouble that doesn't show -- often HIDDEN hunger. 2. What is HIDDEN hunger, exactly? -- Say you FERTILIZE for 110 bushels of corn but MANAGE ' everything else (seed choice, planting date, etc.) for 150 bushels. You can lose 40 bushels to HIDDEN hunger. Top farmers prevent it by fertilizing according to soil and plant test ' findings -- and often beyond them! They maintain STRESS- SURE fertility to feed a crop all it needs at EVERY stage of growth. 3. What steps can I take to start trouble shooting? -- It all begins with the soil test, the plant analysis, and in-the-field tissue tests. BUT they can mean nothing or even deceive you when something besides nutrition troubles your crop. Good trouble shooting starts with these steps: -FIRST, SUPPLY ADVISOR OR TEST LAB WITH HISTORY: Current and previous crop. Variety or hybrid. Date planted. Crop rotation. Previous soil test reports What, when, where lime and fertilizer applied. Soil type and drainage. Pest control. Cultivation steps. Plant part sampled and position on plant. Stage of growth and date sampled. Appearance of plants sampled. Rainfall last 30 days. Temperatures last 10 days. SECOND, HELP YOUR ADVISOR STUDY THE FIELD: Any hunger signs, off color? Insect damage or disease signs? Root injury? Weeds and plant population -- make a count? Any fertilizer band? Soil type, texture, structure -- any compaction? Check profile pH to locate lime or lack of it. What about drainage? Are wide rows wasting sunlight? Did deep cultivation prune roots? Was fertilizer placed too shallow for fty weather stress? -THIRD, A CHECK LIST HELPS. 4. When is the best time to take a soil sample? -- Under the growing crop . . during greatest stress or drawdown. You want the truest NEED picture. That comes while the crop is doing its heaviest work for you or just after -- in summer or early fall. We cannot overemphasize GOOD soil samples. Trained samplers are available today. 5 If my soil tests high in a certain nutrient, should I add more of it? -- Many do Most labs label a soil 'ibigh" not because of super-high conditions, but because odds point to little response to applications of that nutrient THAT YEAR. Top farmers REMEMBER the heavy appetite of some crops and the hazards of soil environment. A certain P test may be "high" for corn but "low" for potatoes. A certain K test may be fine UNTIL Ml conditions (too cool, too wet, too dry, too compacted) restrict root reaching or aeration. Potash rate can go from "high" at the start to "medium" at the end of just one season after cutting six tons of alfalfa hay -- like a gas gauge from "full to nearly empty" on an auto trip. 6. Will FULL fertilization insure me against average yields? - No, sir. Well fertilized crops sometimes produce half or less of what they are capable of giving you. It can happen when you use the wrong hybrid or improper plant spacing or poor pest control or any ONE practice that puts HIDDEN BRAKES on fertility. A good researcher carefully watches ALL factors when working to improve just ONE factor. So does a good farmer. Forty or 50 bushels per acre MORE is worth it. This is what trouble shooting is all about. 7. Sometimes my lime results seem to be way off. Why? -- It may be lime quality. Or how recently applied . . . bow well mixed . . . or how deep you plowed it One field showed poor alfalfa on acid soil that had received five TONS OF LIME! Tests showed P and K fine. But profile pH test showed all that lime stuck in the top half inch of soil. It had not been plowed down. The old six inch plow layer is being replaced by ten inch or more. The deeper layers require 50% or 75% more lime -- and P and K -- to build up that extra amount of newly worked soil. 8. Can lab plant analysis and field tissue tests replace soil tests? -- No! Don't consider plant testing unless you are already soil testing. A soil test predicts. A plant test pinpoints. A soil test helps you evaluate a plant test. The soil test and a record of fertilizer applied tells how much plant food was there for the plant to take up. The plant test tells how much of it got into the plant. Many top fanners sample soil next to the plant they sample to try to get an accurate correlation from the two tests. 9. I've heard plant tests can be made for nutrients soil tests don't cover. -- You've heard right. Many plant analysis labs can test for major, secondary, and micronutrients -- from nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur to manganese, copper, iron, zinc, boron, and molybdenum. What Part Of Plant To Use For Sample Stage toSamnte Part Co Sample Test at Least Corn N P K Soybeans P K Alfalfa P K Cotton N P K At Silking Time At Bloom Before early Bloom Boll setting to 2/3 maturity Base of Stalk or Midrib, leaf below ear Midrib, leaf below ear High Medium Medium to High Swollen base of petiole Medium most recent matured leaf Medium to High, Small Grain P K Boot stage to early bloom Middle of stem Middle of stem Most recent fully matured leaf near top of the plant Lower stem Lower stem Lower stem Medium Medium to High High High High High Medium Medium 10. What's the difference between plant analysis and field tissue testing? -- Precision. P L A N T A N A L Y S I S is quantitative, as one scientist put it. It tells you TOTAL amounts of nutrients in the leaf. TISSUE TESTING is a quick test. It tells you only soluble nutrients in connective tissues. Both are great hidden hunger detectives. One year, for example, only 19% of the corn samples sent to one state lab actually LOOKED abnormal. But tests showed nearly 70% short "in one or more elements. A commercial lab found nearly half its corn samples short on magnesium, a fourth short on phosphorus, potassium, and boron -- and soybeans most frequently short on potassium. 11. How do I SAMPLE plants for most accurate lab analysis? -- Many scientists advise first (corn) teat below and opposite top ear shoot when 75% of silks have emerged. They cite three advantages then: (1) Stage of growth and leaf position easily recognized. (2) Nutrient uptake clearer. (3) Leaf position more closely related to yield. Some don't advise sampling by set schedule, but when you see a problem. Best bet is to sample part and growth stage your advisors say. Sample enough plants (at least 15 for corn) to avoid extremes. Sample each at same position and maturity for uniformity. Don't do it in abnormal weather or when plants suffer obvious disease, pest, physical or chemical damage. 12. How do I PREPARE plant samples for best lab analysis? -- Don't take dusty or soil- contaminated plant parts or plants covered with dew Remove soil particles from plant with light brush, not water. Place samples in bag lab provided to avoid handling. Air-dry tissue at least one day. Do NOT mail in plastic or polyethylene bags that trap moisture. Send large enough sample. It'll pay to send a soil sample of area also. But mail soil 'and plant samples in separate containers. Clearly identify each sample with history lab asks and name and address. 13. How do I interpret the plant analysis results I get back from the lab? -- You don't have to and shouldn't, unless you are an expert. A commercial lab giving you results without recommendations will gladly send your report to your Extension agronomist or fertilizer compuny agronomist for recommendations. The results may be stated simply as concentrations labeled very low, low, medium,- high, and very high. Some labs don't label "deficient, sufficient, or excess" because they believe what may be "sufficient" for one farmer may not meet another farmer's goals. 14. How reliable is plant analysis these days? -- Quite dependable. New space-age tools -- emission, spectrographs and atomic absorption spectrophotometers -- bring fast, simple, a c c u r a t e tests. The "spectroirieter" produces different wavelengths of light for 13 elements -- the stronger the light the higher that nutrient in tiie plant sample, the weaker the light the weaker the nutrient. About a dozen private and a A PLEASANT VISITOR -- Joseph F. (Joe) Eisenhauer, personnel director for Frederick, has a pleasant chore in interviewing Frederick County Dairy Princess Miss Carol Slater. Carol visited City Hall in her duties as Dairy Princess to promote the dairy industry. Joe Eisenhauer's "Notebook" has been a weekly editorial feature of the News-Post on Saturdays for many years. (Photo by J. Rolfe Castleman) Flavors, Flavors Everywhere! Have some coffee-flavored milk. Or how about a cup of torrone yogurt? Yes, they're on the market, but not everywhere. They're just two of the items that caused American Dairy Review to conclude, after a recent survey of dairy plants, that more and more flavors are being used in more and more dairy products. Exotic Yogurt Yogurt, once an ugly duckling, has done a regular Cinderella act in recent years, and the introduction of flavors is at least partially responsible. No wonder. Besides the more sedate tempters, such as blueberry, strawberry, raspberry and peach, the survey turned up a small percentage of what must be the most exotic fruit-flavored yogurt ever -- called "passion orange." Ninety-nine percent of survey respondents made choco- late milk in 1968; 2% made strawberry milk, and 1% mentioned "other" flavors, most often coffee. President Nixon eats his cottage cheese with catsup, but If he ever wants to vary flavors he may be able to find chive, garden salad, pineapple or green pepper, especially if his preference is for small curd cottage cheese. More of the plants in the survey add flavors to that variety of the product. In the frozen dessert category, a lot of us will still take vanilla -- it accounts for nearly half the ice cream production, more than half the ice milk production of survey respondents. Chocolate and strawberry rank second and fourth for ice cream production. Even third-place Neopolitan is really just a combination of the other three leading ice cream flavors. MODEL ORCHARD S P E C I A I Two sets of high-speed, suction-type, hinged blades provMe 198-Inch cut and whip through toughest brush . . . create powerful suction to pull HP fallen pruning* and other debris for fast, thorough mulching. Offset,, with tow profile, to work under low hanging limbs, reach close to trunks. Special offset tongue can increase offset to approximately five feet. Cm be used for all-purpose cutting as well. B T SUPPLIES MONROVIA, MD. PHONE 301-253-3972 "Sooner or later every rotnry cutter needs fbring . . . wtth ordinary cutters it's sooner . . . with Bnoh Bog N't later". Treat yourself to delicious, nutritious milk, cheese, butter, and ice cream during June Dairy Month! An extra glass of cold, refreshing milk can taste mighty good at dinnertime. And, another slice of cheese, pat of butter, or scoop of creamy, rich ice cream will add important nutrition to your regular diet. We're glad to help dairy farmers in our community produce these high quality products through the use of Purina Dairy Chows. Won't you help support one of our basic food industries--the dairy business? Include milk and milk products in your meals this month . . . and all year 'round. RALSTON PURINA CO. Walkersvilte. Md. -- Phone 896-7117 THURMONT CO-OPERATIVE Thurmont. Md. --Phone 271-781 H.C. SUMMERS CO. Jefferson, Md. --Phone 47343M ML AIRY MILLING CO. Mt. Airy, Md. - Phone Kt-UM I dozen public (university) late now test plant samples in the U.S. IS. Why does my adviaor or test lab want a complete management record? -- Because many things besides fertility caiTaflect chemical composition of plant parts. Increasing stand or heavy weeds .may pull down leaf nitrogen. Very dry soil for a time before sampling may cause low leaf P or K. A crop rotating after a heavy potash eater may show low plant K. Certain corn hybrids may use nutrients more efficiently than others. Short N or P may cause your field tissue test to show adequate K even when the plant does not get enough potassium for GOOD growth. If the plant had gotten enough N or P, the K test would have shown low or very low. Many interactions occur in today's high-yield varieties getting high- yield fertilizer rates. It's a complicated picture. It demands a sharp eye on nutrient balance at all times. 16. Some folks swear by quick tissue tests in the field. Why? -Let a crop tell you what it needs on the spot and you'll understand. With a kit of test papers, chemical solutions and powders, vials, extracting pliers and knife, the tester gets results you can SEE right there beside the crop. He can re-check results that "don't seem right." If no NPK problems show, he and the farmer can probe further. Such tests fascinate many farmers, making them better crop watchers and high-yield chasers. 18. What part of the plant should be sampled for field tissue tests? -- The breakdown on the chart gives the best stage to sample, part to sample, and test level for avoiding hidden hunger. (See chart at end of article.) 19. How do testers go about field tissue tests -- what methods do they use? -- Your advisor will conduct a different test for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. He can use the glass vial method or filter paper method or stalk method for N aod P and the K test paper for potassium. In all cases, he seeks a color reaction when sap from netiole or stalk is mixed with a chemical powder or solution: FOR NITROGEN: Near white means no nitrate . . . pinks means low N. . . light red means medium N. . . cherry red means highN. FOR PHOSPHORUS: No blue means very low P ... light blue means low P . . . medium blue means medium P . . . deep blue means high P. FOR POTASSIUM: No orange on any of the three dots on the test paper means very low K. . · orange on just one dot means low K . . . orange on two dots means medium K . . . orange on all three dots means high K. Amateur efforts here might prove worse than no tests at all. Let an expert run the tests and interpret them to be sure. 20. Is trouble shooting really worth the time and effort? -- Ask the man who gets 40 bushels MORE corn . . . or 15 bushels MORE soybeans . . . or two tons MORE alfalfa hay per acre . . . AFTER TAKING THE TIME AND EFFORT. It may do the same for you. FOR EXAMPLE, a fanner noticed trouble in a field he had fertilized carefully by NPK soil test recommendation. The corn plants looked healthy in color, dark-green from plenty of nitrogen. But growth was not vigorous, hi fact slow. Leaf tests found the plant had not taken up enough potassium. Then the root system showed shallow roots from prolonged wet period. It prevented the soil profile from supplying enough potassium for the slow-moving roots to reach out for more needed K nutrition. Too wet a soil? Dry? Cold? Roots damaged by cultivation or pests? Plant population too heavy for amount of nutrition? Lime placed wrong? Trouble shooting these and other problems may pay you more yields -- and dollars. (This information most likely won't help you this year but it will help in adjusting your program next year.) There's a lot of Pride in ng The successful farmer has a right to swell his chest when he sees a fine crop being harvested or a healthy beef or dairy herd grazing in pasture. More reason for pride if he's protected his livestock, buildings and equipment against loss. We take pride, too, in providing farm insurance coverage to protect your income, property and future. Call us for details. COBLENTZ INSURANCE -- ALL KINDS J. VERNON COBLENTZ -- ROBERT J. SMITH 19 N. Court Street Phone 6634183 ·^T »(jr HP Did you ever a cow write As a symbol of our thriving Dairy Industry, the dairy cow pays our community well . . . with everything from flavorful, enjoyable dairy foods that boost the health and energy to more business for merchants, farm supplies and others. The dairy industry boosts our local economy. We, at the Farmers and Mechanics National Bank are proud to have so many dairy farmers as our customers. FOR THE BANKING NEEDS OF DAIRY FARMERS: · Farm Loans · Personal Loans · Nome Loans ·Checking Accounts · Savings Accounts Full Service Banking For The Dairy Farmer FARMERS ^MECHANICS NATIONAL BANK MAIN OFFICE, Market and 2nd Streets FREDERICK SHOPPING CENTER, West 7th St. at Schley Avenue FORT DETRICK FACILITY LIBERTY OFFICE Libertytown, Maryland Member F. D. I. C. CITIZENS OFFICE Market and Patrick Sfs. BRUNSWICK OFFICE Brunswick, Maryland EMMITSBURO OFFICE Emmitsburg, Maryland WALKERSVM1E OFFICE Walkeravlllo, Maryland EAST COAST RELAY STATION FACILITY UNION BRIDGE OFFICE Union Bridge, Maryland MOUNT AIRY OFFICE Mount Airy, Maryland DAMASCUS OFFICE Damascus, Maryland Banking In The Heart Of Maryland Since 1817 SPAPFRr

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