The Racine Journal-Times Sunday Bulletin from Racine, Wisconsin on August 2, 1959 · Page 9
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The Racine Journal-Times Sunday Bulletin from Racine, Wisconsin · Page 9

Racine, Wisconsin
Issue Date:
Sunday, August 2, 1959
Page 9
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The Nez Perce's rally before Colonel Gibbon's charge at Big Hole. Wanton killing of their women and children by soldiers and mutilation of their dead by the Army's Indian scouts convinced the Nez Pcrccs that ail white men were their enemies. Nation's D.A.'s Cry 'Object!' to Way TV Portrays Them MILWAUKEE—The nation's district attorneys decided Saturday to do something about television programs and movies that depict prosecutors as "floundering pettifoggers" who always lose tlieir cases. By unanimous vote delegates to the National District Attorneys' Assn. annual convention adopted a resolution setting up Rescue Pilot on Raft in Colorado River PAGE, Ariz. —iJP)— A river guide found a missing Utah pilot Saturday, floating on a log raft down the Colorado river in remote southeast Utah. | The pilot, Daniel Reisman,! 44, of Salt Lake City, had made an emergency landing on an abandoned landing strip Wednesday aftecnoon. A doctor who examined Reisman here said he was in Rood condition except for hunger and fatigue. a committee to (a!<e "immediate steps" to rpclify what they considered adverse characterizations of district attorneys on television nn in movies. "Most Detrimental" Ricliard E. Gorstein. Miami, Fla., said in n floor discussion of the resolution tliat "the most detrimental program in exist ence is Erie Stanley Gardner's Perry Mason wliich depicts us as floundering iiottifoggers who always lose our cases and do not protect the innocent." Gardner, who had been spealter at the convention earlier in the week was not present when the resolution was passed, Elect Officers Edward S. .Silver. Brooltlyn, The Lasf Stand of Chief Joseph (Continued from Page 1) lands and canyon-scarred plateau land where Washington, Oregon and Idaho come together. A strong and intelligent people, they had lived in peace and friendship with the whites ever since the coming of Lewis and Clark, and it was their long - suppressed hatred, the youths had killed four white men along the Salmon River and wounded another. Returning to camp to raise a bigger party, then continued the raids. Joseph tried to calm his people, but the situation had gone too far. One by one the bands . . ^ ^. ^ ^ . departed to a hiding place proud boast that no member of f,,,.,^,^^ ^^^^^^ the tribe had even kUied a^^^^ vigorously opposed war. , u . i Joseph would not abandon his fn 1855, as settlers b^gantoj,^. ^ J,^ appear m their coumry. the; j,,)^,^ them in tiicir new camp government called on them to .^^ Canyon. General Stunned cede part of their land. The Nez Perces willingly accepted the confines of a reservaiion, but five years later gold was g^j.'] discovered on the reserve, miners poured in, and in I8G3 Back at Lapwai, hcadquar- Itcrs of the reservation, Gen- O. O. Howard was stunned by the news of the ^ ^ , ^ Salmon River outbreaks, be- the government attempted to,.,,^,^.^ I,^,^ ^^at all reduce the reserva .on to less^,, ^^^^ ^^^^ than one-fourth its previous tj,^ Q ^^j ^^p.,,^^^^ h^^^ily dered two troops of the 1st Cavalry to round up the hos- Others Protest Those bands whose homes already lay within the boundaries of the new reservation agreed to sign the treaty. But the other chiefs, representing about two-thirds of the tribe, protested and withdrew from the council without signing. Among the latter was 9 prominent old chief named Wellamotkin, father of Chief Joseph and known to the whites as Old Joseph. His band had dwelt for generations in the Wallowa Valley in the northeastern corner of Oregon, As the years went by and Old Joseph's people continued unmolested, it seemed as if their right to the Wallowa had been accepted. But wliite pressure against its borders increased steadily, and in 1871, as he lay dying, Old Joseph fearfully counseled his son: , , , ^. "When I am gone, think of ^''^s and force them onto the your conutry ... You jmist rcsej-vation stop your ears whenever youi ^lert Indian spies warned are asked to sign a treaty sell-1 ^'^e Nez Perces of the troops ing your home. . . . This coun- approach. The battle, fought try holds your father's body .lw '^^^o"^ P'»" ^"^'!!?f' Never sell the bones of your l ^^^ted only a few moments. The father and your mother." entire cavalry command was e ... . cut into sma 1 groups, disinte- Settlers Move m grating in a fleeing rabble. The crisis came soon a tor ^^J^ ^^^-^^ ^I^^m Old Joseph s dea Ij. tiers throughout the settlements of found a route in o the Wallowa Northwest and angered the and moved in, claiming t^he In-^^^^ the nation, to whom dians land^ Young Joseph 1^^^ custer massacre was still protested. On June 16, 1873 '^^^h. Howard called for troop Chief Joseph President Grant formally set aside the Wallowa "as a reservation for the roaming Nez Perce Indians" and ordered the whites to withdraw, But the settlers, refusing to move, threatened to exterminate Joseph's people if they didn't leave the valley. As this threat increased, a commission was appointed to make a final settlement. De- reinforcements — they came '1 from all over the Pacific Coast —and himself took the field. False Assumption From the beginning, it had been assumed by the whites that Chief Joseph, spokesman for the non-treaties in peacetime, had also been leading them in war. But the truth was that on the march and in spite the fact that it was un-'battle other, more expreienced just, and that there was no legal basis for it, the decision of the commission was firm: Unless all the non-treaty Nez Perces voluntarily came onto the reservation, tlicy war chiefs were in charge, while Joseph cared for the women and children. The Nez Perce successes were resulting from a combina tion of overconfidence and mis- should be placed there by force.! takes on the part of the whites, Half Year's Work |the rugged terrain that made With heavy hearts, the In-,pursuit difficult, and. to a very dians prepared to round up their stock and move. A half year's work was crowded into less than 30 days, as the people combed the mountains and forests for their animals and drove them down the steep draws to the Snake River, Twelve days before their deadline to return, they reached an ancient tribal rendezvous area just outside the border of the reservation. Here they lingered for a last bit of freedom. It was a fatal pause. One of the young men, whose father had been murdered by a white man, was taunted by an old warrior for having allowed the slaying to go unavenged. The next morning he stole away with two companions. By nightfall, in an outpouring of great extent, the Indians' intense courage and patriotic determination to fight for their rights and protect their people. The whites had no way of knowing this, and, as events continued to unfold, the legend that Nez Perce strategy was planned and executed by one man, Joseph, was spread far and wide. Pursuing the Nez Perces, Howard opened fire on their camp on Clearwater River. The fighting raged all day and continued in the same spot the next morning, an almost unprecedented length of time for Indians to maintain battle in one location. But the chiefs decided that there had been enough fighting without decision. They withdrew down the bluff, escaped Howard, and after much discussion, decided to cross the mountains and join tjie Crows in Montana, where they could hunt the plains in peace. Increasing Criticism Smarting under increasing criticism from Washington, Howard once more took after the Indians. It was a painful and gruelling trip across Idaho to Montana for both pursuers and pursued, but the Indian families, stumbling along over steep and rocky trails, guarded by their warriors and driving some 2,000 horses with them, managed to keep well ahead of the troops. On their march the Nez Perces scrupulously avoided any hostile act against white settlers. Receiving friendly treatment from Montana citizens, the Indians believed that now that they were out of Idaho, the war was over and they were safe. But when they pitched camp on the Big Hole River, a surprise attack from a new army detachment caught them unaware. The Indians fought back desperately from their tepees. While Joseph directed the breaking of camp, the warriors remained, picking off anyone who showed himself. The soldiers ran out of water, and cries from the unattended wounded filled the air. Mercifully, the warriors broke off the engagement. To Peaceful Canada The Nez Perces now quickened their retreat across southwestern Montana. Gone were illusions that the whites would let them be. In their desperation, only one haven seemed left to them. Like Sitting Bull, they would seek refuge among the tribes in the country of Queen Victoria. The column headed eastward. On and on the Indians hurried. Near Canyon Creek they captured a stagecoach and, letting its occupants escape, had a day of great fun, driving it along in the rear of the column. The sport ended abruptly when a hard-riding cavalry outfit overtook them, and there was a furious fight. The Indians escaped, but the long pursuit was beginning to tell on them. They were becoming tired and dispirited. They had lost between 60 and 90 people at the Big Hole, including some of the most able warriors. And they were losing their horses. Attacked by Crows As they moved beyond Canyon Creek their old allies, the Crows, now in service as scouts for the army, began to attack them. About 30 miles short of the Canadian line, exliausted by their long flight, they paused, confident that they had outdistanced all pursuers. Once more they were wrong, outflanked by the telegraph, and this time the pause would end in their last stand. From Fort Keogh In the east came Col. Nelson A. Miles with nearly 600 men. When they sighted the Nez Perces close to Snake Creek on the northern edge of the Bear Paw Mountains, they attacked immediately. Most of the Indians' remaining war leaders were killed in the fighting. His own heavy casualties deterred Miles from ordering another charge, however, and both sides dug in. Four days later Howard reached the battlefield. The appearance of their old enemy, heralding the arrival of reinforcements for Miles, took the final heart out of the suffering Nez Perces. The chiefs held a final council. Joseph mounted a horse and rode slowly up the hill from the camp and across to the army lines. The Surrender As he reached the officers, he dismounted and handed Miles his rifle. Then, stepping back, he adjusted his blanket to leave his right arm free, and began one of the most touching and beautiful speeches of surrender ever made: "I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed. Looking Glass is dead. Toohoolhoolzote is dead. The old men are all dead. It is the young men who say yes or no. He who led the young men is dead. It is cold and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them, have run away to the hills, and have no blankets, no food; no one knows where they are — perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children and see how many I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs. I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever." The surrender speech confirmed Joseph in the public's mind as the symbol of the Nez Perces' heroic, fighting retreat. At first the Indians were shipped by flatboats and boxcars to unfamiliar, hot country in the Indian Territory, where many of them sickened and died. But friendly whites and sympathetic societies in the East continued to work for them, and public sentiment finally forced approval of their return to the Northwest. In 1885 Joseph and most of his band were sent to the Colville Reservation in Washington. Joseph made many attempts to be allowed to resettle in the Wallowa but each time was rebuffed. In 1904 he died, broken hearted, an exile from the beautiful valley he still considered home. N.Y,, who helped smash Murder, Inc.. in the late I!)'IO's was elected prosidoni of the a.s,so- ciation. Patrick Brccnan, Soulli Bend, liul,, was named cxncii- jtive vice presiclenl; Victor 11, Blanc, Philadelphia, re-elected treasiu'er and Kent B.„ Power, Weiser. Idaho, named secretary. In other resolutions llie prosecutors asked for the alio iilion of common law marriages in the 17 states in which they are legal and urged legislation that would force the Social Security administration to rcvea its roster of names and addresses to district attorneys. .Mxnit 404 prosecutors from 48 stales attended the four day meeting. RACINR SUNDAY BtnLLETIK Augast 2, igS9 8«e. 1, f>iltt • Please! The Doggie's Not for Laundering TUSCALOOSA, Ala, —0!^ Even dirty clothes are going to the dogs these days. An employe of a laundry heard strange noises in a bundle of dirty clothes. Inside was a Chihuahua dog, which didn't want a washing. AP Wlifphrlo SHOULDER-TO-AIU MISSILE — A Marine marksman demonstrated Reil-Eye. a new shoulder-to-airplane guided missile being developed for the U. S. Army and Marine Corps by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp. The new missile is for use against strafing and otlier low- flying planes. It's about four feel long, weighs 20 pounds. Could be cheaper • DIAL 4-6869 A ROTO ROOTER SEWER CLBANIRS STOP DRIPPING PIPES WRAPOHINSUUTRM is an easy do-it'yo» self ]ob. Simply wrap on ttia fiber glau Insulation & cover with tiie' Included vapor SC3I tapo. $1 pkg. covers 17 ft of Vi" pipe* S** v* Maf, JORGENSEN HARDWARE 3205 Washington Cuban Groups Ask U.S. to Understand Castro HAVANA — (XP> — Various Cuban civic groups published an open letter to President KLsenhower Saturday, appealing for greater U.S. understanding lor Prime Minister Fidel Castro. The letter, published in Havana newsiKipers, assailed criticism of Castro made by U.S. officials and the U.S. press. The civic groups said they published llio letter because Eisenhower failed to answer a letter they said was sent him during the Cuban revolution requesting that no military aid be sent to former dictator Batista. White House Mum on Visit by Nikita WASHINGTON —i/P)— The White House declined to comment Saturday on overseas speculation about a possible invitation to Soviet Premier Khrushchev to visit the U. S, Presidential pres.s secretary James C. Hagerly said he liad read the stories but could not comment on them. He referred newsmen to President Eisenlmwer's remarks at Inst Wednesday's news conference. At that time the President said this is a perennial question that will lie talked al )0ut a lot all the time. Ho said Vice President Nixon liad no authority to invite Khruslichev to the U. S., but had every right to discuss a possible visit during Nixon's trip to the Soviet Union. President Exults over Golf Ganne GETTYSBURG, Pa. — (m — President Eisenhower, who has been unhappy about his golf recently, beamed happily as he finished playing 18 holes Saturday. "I hit some good ones," the President told the Gettysburg Country Club pro, Dick Sleichter, who earlier had given him some pointers in driving. Eisenhower's opponent, business executive George E. Allen, who takes golf much less seriously than Eisenhower, ap parently took a drubbing and feigned disgust. "I think I'll take up ping pong," Allen said. State Representative May Retire Next Year WASHINGTON —(iP)— Rep. Gardner R. Withrow (R-Wis.) may retire when his present term expires next year. "I've been thinking seriously 1 of it, but I haven't definitely decided," he said. "I will have been here 20| years. I'll be 68. I think most of the others in Congress make a mistake by staying too long." A native and resident of La Crosse, Withrow was a railroad conductor before he got into politics. Only three former House members from Wisconsin, according to Withrow, have exceeded his 20 years in the House; Republicans Jim Frear of Chippewa Falls, John Cooper of Racine and John J. 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