The Des Moines Register from Des Moines, Iowa on May 7, 1970 · Page 8
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May 7, 1970

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The Des Moines Register from Des Moines, Iowa · Page 8

Des Moines, Iowa
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Thursday, May 7, 1970
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Thurj., May 7, 1970 GARDNER CoWtES, PriiideM joss Cowtts, CftatVman «/ KtrWEfH MAcDojfAtO, Editor end Puttithtf DAVID KfrciBENiE*, Gtneral Mofiagtr A, Eo*A*» HEIRS, Managing Editor LAWIEN SotK, Editorial Page Editor Louis, H. Norai's, Business Manager 'Limits' on Cambodian War Putting a time limit on a war (out of Cambodia by June 30) and a space limit (no Incursion beyond 19 miles) is an extraordinary and risky measure. War is just not that predictable. Yet members oLCpngress briefed by President Nixon May 5 say he promised not to exceed these limits without congressional approval. —No-such—limitS-_gere, mentioned in _ President Nixon's televised speech Apr. 30 as the American and South Vietnamese task forces moved into Cambodia — though the President did say the objective was to "clear out" enemy sanctuaries and that some of the sanctuaries "extend up to 20 Wiles into Cambodia." He said also the purpose was not to occupy the areas and that "once enemy forces are driven out of these sanctuaries and then* military supplies destroyed, we will withdraw." To be sure,- a "White House source" said at the time that the operation was expected to last six weeks to two . months — and thai the rainy season was expected to start in five or six weeks. "But a question-and-answer multi- graphed release from the White House under the date May 1 said: / "These two operations tin the Cambodian Fishhook and Parrot's Beak] will cover a relatively short period of time, although they will of course last as long as necessary to accomplish their objectives. The precise plans with regard to* the duration of these operations cannot be revealed for obvious reasons of military security." . The White House itself seemed to breach that security Apr. 30 and May 5. So far, allied operations are said to be "on schedule," but the allies have made contact with only small portions.of the J),Q00Lenemy forces4hey estimated-,-were- stationed in Cambodia. The allies have found no trace of the enemy headquarters — a main object of the drive. They Were sure enemy headquarters for the whole war in South Vietnam had been in the Parrot's Beak area on which four of the allied task forces converged the. first day —_Apr. 29, _fhe President jsjugged two ways. Military security and prudence incline him to secretiveness and no announced limits. Constitutional doubts and congressional and popular resistance to expanding the war inclined him first to make public his hopes of keeping the operation small and short, and then to set rigid limits beyond which he would not go without congressional approval. The limits take some of the fire out of congressional moves to limit his actions: June 30 and 19 miles are actually, more restrictive than some of the limits proposed by war critics in Congress! But constitutionally the limits are without logic. Drawing a line between the commander-in-chief's authority over his troops and the power residing in Congress alone to declare war has troubled many Administrations. But to invade or not invade a new country is clearly a more logical line than to invade it beyond 19 miles and for more than two months. The limits, nevertheless, are reassuring. They provide a yardstick for measuring and confining the involvement in Cambodia, They give the President a good excuse to keep the incursion small and short If it does not get the intended results and the military hanker for extending the limits. The President has given his word. Curbing a Teacher's Rights^ The school board at Independence has come up against the question of the s right of a teacher to exercise his constitutional guarantees as freely as someone who is not a public employe. Last fall, Dan Yokas, a 24-year-old high school history teacher, was rebuked by his principal for having participated In the local Vietnam Moratorium. Yokas then helped organize two subsequent moratorium marches. This spring, "the school board said his "educational philosophy tends, at times, to be out of harmony" with that ,of the community and offered him only a probational contract for next year. (Yokas rejected it, and apparently will teach under an extension of his present contract, thereby giving up a $600 raise.) The school board seems to have felt Itself caught between community sentiment {as the board sensed it) and its own feeling that it might be infringing on the young teacher's constitutional rights of freedom of expression. The board conceded that Yokas is" a good teacher, but it feared that students might be adversely influenced by seeing a teacher "doing something that could give aid and comfort to the enemy." Will they not also be adversely uv- fluenced by seeing what happens to a man who supports an unpopular cause? Words and peaceable demonstrations against government policy are protected by the Constitution. A person who accepts public employment does not accept curtailment of his rights. The U.S. Supftme Court made this clear in a 1968 case upholding an Illinois teacher who was fired for writing a letter to a newspaper criticizing the spending policies of his school board. The high court said that although public employment is not an absolute right — anyone can be rejected for a pubUc job — the public employe may "not be subjected to any conditions" except those,that have a-legitimate-bearing on the performance of his job. The court said that the teacher could not, by reason of being a public em- ploye, be prevented from making a statement or taking action "which in the absence of such position he would have had an absolute right to engage in." This rule clearly applies to the Independence case; though Yokas was-not fired, and the board seems to have made an effort to work out a compromise that would not hurt him too badly and would not get the board in hot water with the community. Nothing in the Constitution limits freedom of expression to that which meets the approval of a majority. What action, if any, would the school board have felt compelled to take if the teacher had organized a march in support of the war effort?' It seems to us the board would have been well advised to abide by the philosophy expressed jn this statement in the Independence teachers' manual: "It is necessary to encourage *a willingness to become involved in ... social, political and economic issues." Anti-Pollution Converts? In naming the National Industrial Pollution Control .Council, President Nixon has drafted an unlikely group of recruits for the f war against pollution. The council includes the nation's largest polluters and their spokesmen — the presidents of major-oil, automobile, electric utility, mining, timber, coal, au> line and manufacturing companies. The presidents of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the National Association of Manufacturers and-the National Industrial Conference Board also are members. The President said the- role of the council will be to "enpourage. the business and industrial community to improve the quality of the environment." The council, Nikon said, "will allow businessmen to communicate regularly with the President, the Council of Environmental Quality and other government- officials and private organizations." Victory for Canadian Unity LETTEKS to thft EDITOR Outraged Attack on Brewster To the Cditbr: Spiro Agnew's attack on President Brewster of Yale is an outrage. Brewster combines appreciation of the traditional heritage of higher education witli .understanding of^ the troubles of our times probably better than any other university president in the country. When Brewsterls university is under stress [from the New Haven Panther trial], and he is conducting himself with" Fears Cambodian Action May Be conomy ..RMderi ir« wvlf«d fa *<*mitl«tfers for nublieitloit tJ Thi OMit Forimi Editor, Opt Mome* Register. Dt$ MoineSi !•. 50304. completi fume) and so* dreiiti are required. .The editor reserves the rtlht t» shorten tetien. Utters will not be returned. his usual cool wisdom, for the Vice- President^of the United States to urge alumni to demand his ouster is inexcusable. ~ If we destroy our best-men in-a crisis, we will get worse men and worse crises afterward. — David R. Crownfield, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, la. 50613. Doubts Withdrawal From Cambodia To the Editor i lowans should be particularly interested in seeing whether or not the United States and South Vietnam withdraw their forces from Cambodia when the mission is completed. You quote Senator Jack Miller as follows: "Of course there will be some .who will wring their hands and, for political motives, refuse to take the word of their President that as socti as these privileged sanctuaries are cleaned out both the South Vietnamese forces and any of our forces will return to South Vietnam. Failure to take our President's word will give aid and comfort to the Communist leaders in' the Kremlin, in Peking and in Hanoi." ^ "Aid and comfort" to the enemy? That's a common criterion for treason. Now, whom is Senator Miller, in effect, accusing of treason? It's no less than Iowa's other senator, Harold E. Hughes, whom you quote as saying that the Allied forces will make "repeated returns there as a-mattqr of policy, sending in other troops to occupy the sanctuaries after we destroy them." Here are Nixon's words on. the subject, taken from his Apr. 30 speech: "Once enemy forces are driven out of these sanctuaries and their military supplies destroyed, we will withdraw." We'irsee. - R. K. Richards, 1821 Allen avc., Ames, la. 50019. HOlAftT ROWEN By ttofcaff Rowen WASHINGTON D.C.-Now that Pr»U dent Nixon has widened the Indochinese by jnyadingiCambbdia,. all bets on "~ economic conditions are off. IT— One- need- only—recall- the early days of the Vietnam war, and espi- cially the escalation of hostilities in 1965. Prom- s-ihen were-that~e*r- penditures wouldn't rise very much -- promises that are likely to be repeated now. On Oct. 5,1965, Henry H. Fowler, then secretary of treasury in Lyndon Johnson's Cabinet, said in a speech in Chicago: "If I thought defense was going to add $10to $15 billion to.6ur Hobart Rowen is business and financial editor of the Washington Post. fiscal 1967 budget, I'd be back in my office right now considering proposals for tax increases to pay for it." On Sept. 9 that year, Gardner Ackley, then chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, said in Philadelphia that such figures were "pure figments of someone's imagination. The estimates we at the council have put into our tentative projections. do not even approach that order of magnitude." "Fijrmcnts" Accurate But the "pure figments" turned out to be highly accurate: Defense spending skyrocketed $13 billion in fiscal 1967 and another $10 billion in. fiscal 1968, creating the massive deficit responsible for today's inflation problem. The simple fact about our new. involvement in Cambodia is that it, too, is an escalation, however Nixon described it, and one escalation leads to another. Therefore, when the Administration goes to Congress in mid-May — as it must in connection with debt-limit legislation — and lays out revised estimates for fiscal 1971 expenditures and receipts, it will have one of two choices: , • It.can bring in a realistic budget, which would allow for major changes in the Southeast-Asia "situation, and with it proposals for tax legislation to cover the contingency of greater spending. • Or, it can blithely assume that there are no changes necessary on the fiscal " front to match the altered situation on the war front. It probably is too much to hope that the Administration will be candid enough to tell the American people where the new war policy can lead. Surrounded command-post Jacob Javils (Rep., N.Y.) estimates the fiscal 1970 deficit at $3 to $5 billion. In New York and on, Capitol Hill, financial experts were estimating — pre-Cambodia — that the fiscal 1971 'deficit would be $6 to $8 billion. The original fiscal 1971 budget shows a drop of $6 billion in projected defense spend-in g. Thanks to Charles L. Schultze's fine analysis published by Brookings, we can see that the entire decline can be traced to the projected troop withdrawals. But the President's Cambodia action is a concession that the Vietnamteation program on which the troop withdrawals are based'is not succeeding. Inflationary Hangover If there is a delay in troop withdrawals, the real defense budget will go up in fiscal 1971. A bunching of withdrawals at the end of the fiscal year, for example, would cancel out perhaps half of the $6 billion saving. Whatever Nixon does about facing up to the fiscal problems that may stem -The council is seen as something ,of" a~ charade by Senator Lee Metcalf (Dem.r Mont.), a frequent critic of electric utility companies. The real purpose of the council, Metcalf ,said r "is c ta enhance corporate image, to create an illusion of action and to impede government officials." He points out that one of the 55 members of the council is the president of Northeast Utilities, a -utility holding company which has criticized environmentalists and has complained about the burden they would place on the firm's research and development budget. More water will have to pass over the dam before the role of the new council qan be judged. If its memben undergo a conversion experience, they can have a great impact on environment protection. However, the possibility that they "may seek to dilute enforcement efforts must be guarded against. The Quebec provincial election last week was good news for Canada. than they would be under the separatists. Tte threat of independence had National unity has been at stake d a separatist movement grew in Quebec province. But the Liberal Party, under 9 youthful new provincial leader, Robert Bouraesa, scored an unexpectedly l^rge ifctory, wwwing n of 108 leata in the provincial assembly end *5 per cent of the vote in a five-party race. Ttoe governing National Union was practically wiped out, falling from 55 seats Jo 16. T&e-ljueb^Pafty Xsepara- causedTheavy outflow of badly needed investment capital from Quebec, to /say nothing of frightening off prospective ti5is) got only "seven seats '(partly the result of malapperlionment, because "it won 23 per cent of the popular vote). The results are being interpreted as a strong "no" to the idea of Quebec going ii alone as an independent French- speaking republic, but something less than «a endorsement of the status quo. Prospects for a happier Quebec are much bettor under the Liberals than they were under the floundering, rar'dle-of-tne-rQad National Unionists, or The national government in Ottawa Is Liberal, and Prime: Mfyfefrf Pierre Trudeau Is Mrofftif a FrCT^h-T^n.g'ti g n He never overextended hjjJSH'lf to help the Naj^onal Union regime of Quebec because (in spite oj-ite name) it was wishy-washy 'on the issue of union vs. separatism. • The Quebec m*erais stand four-square for national unity. Since they are of the same political persuasion as the national government, they are likely to receive more co-operation oji the economic improvement and biouituralism the Quebecois deserve and demand. The French arelatifted that they had to Libya. Libyans had the money to pay for them—Arkansas Gazette. Opposes Busing for Private Schools To the Editor: • "~-- ^ In reference to your editorial Apr. 25, "Private School Busing": Before Iowa goes into the private school business, I think it would pay everyone to pay attention to Pennsylvania and what has happened to it in the past four or so years. State aid to private schools there started out as a $U& million a year business and at present the zealous private school people are asking for $12% million. Think of what happened in Canada, France, Germany and North Ireland in the past. They all took up the dual school system with disastrous results . .. — Karle C.*Maye?, 710 N. Hazel St., Glenwood, la. 51534. Defends Douglas To th» Editor: I have just read "Points of Rebellion" by William 0. Douglas. It is a-sobering commentary of our times, yet this book seems to be the mam source of attack , by his critics in then: attempt to unseat him from the Supreme Court. v Any responsible citizen can see that Justice Douglas does not approve of violence; he simply states that it might be the only alternative .to millions of people who- are unseen, unheard; -and overlooked by the Establishment. He also points put that the Establishment prefers to ignore the needs of these people, Perhaps his opponents should examine their thoughts and consciences before starting .the questionable task of witchhunting.—Mrs. Earl Goldhammer, 536 Waterbury circle, Des Moines 50312. * 'Dorit Get Billions' To tht Editor) [Regarding the letter, "He's Disgusted by Farmer Complaints", Apr. 30] . Obviously this man has never worked on a farm. We do not get billions of dollars. We are lucky to receive the cost of raising a crop. We go to town and work because farm prices are so low they equal the. wages of migrant workers. Add a family to that plus the upkeep of farm equipment _ and it's no accident that fanners have tcTgo to town and get a job... — Kevin FarreU, Rt. I, Waukee, la. "Big ga'fnble w~iu take us. "Deficit Rising More likely, there will be a papering- over of the potential costs. The budget surplus figures Nixon announced on Feb. 1 — $1.5 billion in fiscal 1970 and $1.3 billion in fiscal 1971 — are already ancient history. Senator ,, -, - , "* >•"<- no^ai tiiuuicjuo uiad ilia/ 31C ill LOnP^L^yMrjL_hLS___from-his-gamble~to-4ake~the -war into Cambodia, it still will be true that the United States is suffering from a bad hangover in terms of inflation. Against the hope that by this tune, the hangover would be gone and our heads clear of inflation, business and labor are still out to get all that the traffic will bear. What we come down to is that Nixon's anti-inflation policy, relying exclusively on broad, classic monetary and fiscal tools, has succeeded in cooling down,.the economy, but not in curbing inflation. Action, Not Rhetoric a • .'•'.!• Furthermore, the beginnings of a small recession are at hand. Since November, 1968 — following Nixon's election — the Dow Jones industrial index has plummeted. Nixon's response" to the rapid declines of last week .was: "Frankly, if I had any money, -I'd be buying stocks right now." That was an unhappy echo of meaningless similar assurances by John- D. Rockefeller as the market crashed, in 1929. It takes action, not presidential rhetoric, to instill confidence in financial,,markets. Wall Street is in "a bearish mood because of the recession in the economy, and especially because of the uncertainties about our policies in Southeast Asia. The budget deficit that seems to be generating — and on top of that, ".the new'-Cambodian-erisis-=- may~make~ it impossible for Federal Reserve fioafd Chairman Arthur Burns to deliver 1 Everything he had planned in order to prevent recession and inflation together. Let's face it: The budget has gotten out of hand since early this year,,in,part because of a shortfall in revenues-and in part because of fears that the economy might be, slipping downhill faster than anticipated. Now comes Cambodia. ••«• Find Landfill Can Pollute Water Supply still life* By John Millhone (Of Thi Register's Editorial Pig* Stiff) S TATE GEOLOGIST Samuel J. Tuthill believes that Iowa communities seeking to control air pollution, by extinguishing dump fires and creating sanitary landfills,- may end up polluting the ground water, the source of three- fourths of the water usedin Iowa, A ban on open dump burning, laid down a year ago by .the Iowa Air Pollution Control Commission, took effect Apr. 10 with only Council Bluffs and 19 smaller communities obtaining brief extensions of the ban. As a result, most of Iowa's 950 cities and towns are piling their solid wastes to new heights and many of them at new locations. As in the past, these landfills frequently are being located on flood plains, where the cost of land is 'low.' " ' " "" Poorly planned landfills will drain into surface' streams, rivers and lakes. This creates an immediate pollution problem. -Rocks That Store Water However, Tuthill is more concerned about a less apparent hazard, the pollution of the ground water aquifers, the layers-of underground rocks that store, and transmit water to wells and springs. Water frequently flows back and forth between the surface and ground water systems. Polluted water from a dump therefore could enter a river and be drawn into a ground water aquifer. There is little oxygen in aquifers so underground water can't oxidize wastes and cleanse itself as does surface water. The water moves slowly in aquifers, allowing contaminated water that is heavier or lighter than clean water to stratify. The threat of ground water pollution is greatest in the northeastern third of the state, Tuthill said. The underground via- ter there has dissolved channels, tunnels and caverns in the intensively fractured limestone and dolostone bedrock. • "The area has what amounts to its -own complex, natural storm sewer system," Tuthill said. The recently discovered Cold Water Cave is one. Sinkholes As Dumps Between the rivers, collapsed caverns in the ground water system often reach the surface as "sinks" or "sinkholes.' 1 "The control of ground water pollution should be an essential part of any [sanitary landfill] site selection."—The first'.Des Moines landfill operation. discharged its sewage into a "mystery hole" and polluted nearby wells. Recent research reported by Tom Aley of the U.S. Forest Service has dramatized this hazard. To trace the flow of underground water, he injected a fluorescein dye into a sinkhole near the town of Alton in the Missouri Ozarks. The dye appeared 2V* months later at Morgan Spring, a straight-line distance of \Wz miles from tho sink.-The speed of water was slow compared with surface flows, but faster than water normally travels through porous rock aquifers. No dye appeared in other, closer springs. Doesn't Look Polluted Tuthill said, "If we substitute for the. dyed water a quantity of agricultural or industrial pollutants such as the outflow - from a feeder lot or the occasional discharge of toxic or noxious wastes from a manufacturing plant, or the leachates from a dump or landfill, we can easily appreciate that wells that normally produce good quality, safe water may suddenly become hjgbly dangerous. "Polluted groujad water seldom 'looks polluted. It is underground and out of sight until we pump it to the surface for our own use. We cannot hope to test tiie Department of Health's environmental engineering services. Iowa law says- the department shall "make inspections of ... garbage' and refuse disposal plants" and direct their "installation and operation." However, the department has provided advice only when a municipality requested it. The danger of ground water pollution was rarely, if ever, considered. • »»" "Most cities and towns have- done only what was absolutely required," Clemens said. However, he added; l 'we hope to change that." ._ _:"' c The vehicle for stronger department action is a bill, passed this year'by the Legislature, which makes it mandatory for every city, town and^ounty to-provide a sanitary solid waste disposal operation by July 1, 1975. - <•>•> The measure empowers the commissioner of public health to set ride* for the location of solid waste landfills. ^The state's water and air pollution agencies are to assist in the writing of the. nues. The controlof ground water polUition should be an essential part of any site selection. ~-'~'- "" .; s-i Generally useless to those who occupy-^water supplies. For example, thick, im- the land, sinks of ten are used" as dumps pervious layers of day or glacial till for solid and liquid wastes. under a landfill would prevent teaching These sinks are direct openings into into the ground water. However, sands ground water systems so the pollution- • and gravels would afford little protec- tbey receive may soon resurface at a tion for the underlying aquifer, nearby well or spring. This is what The geologist draws little disagree- happened when the town of Colesburg meat from Jack W. Clemens, director of Grubbing In tand Fills '"'^ Tuthill said the ideal solution would- be „ .... .. . about seven regional waste recycling every gallon before we use it, thus we plants where reuseable metals and min- must protect it as it enters or flows in erals would be salvaged and the bedrock at or near .the surface." Tuthill called on state agencies to set requirements for solid and liquid waste disposajTsites which will protect ground matter would be converted into ,g ^oil- building mulch. The wastes from-aU- the communities in each region wquld.,be processed through the regional plant Such an operation would be mosa .easily than community dumps, he adnjitted, but may be necessary to presem ,&e earth's limited resources. Otherwise, he said, sometime in the future lowans may be grubbing through hundr|jds of landfills searching for useful bits of metals and minerals.

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