Clovis News-Journal from Clovis, New Mexico on May 9, 1965 · Page 7
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Clovis News-Journal from Clovis, New Mexico · Page 7

Clovis, New Mexico
Issue Date:
Sunday, May 9, 1965
Page 7
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CLOVtS THE WEEK OF CRISIS: Dominican Re EDITOR'S NOTE: Eight ence that the Marines were turbulent days ago President Johnson ordered Marines ashore In the Dominican Republic to protect U.S. lives threatened by revolution and rioting. Their assignment quickly turned into an effort to neutralize spreading Communist control of the uprising and enable the Organization of American States to establish peacekeeping machinery. The following article on the background of the revolt and this country's response is based on material gathered by a six-man UPt reporting team. On the scene in the Dominican Republic: Jack Fox, Matt Kenney and Martin McReynolds. From Washington: Merrlman Smith at the While House, Charles Corddry at the Pentagon and Donald If. May Department.) at the State WASHINGTON (UPD— President Johnson's oversized alarm wlstwatch showed 5:14 p.m. EOT on Wednesday April 28, when he was handed a telegram marked "critical" — the highest priority for a diplomatic message. The communication was from there solely to protect U.S. nationals, it led finally to President Johnson's declaration that a "band of Communist conspirators" had seized control of the Dominican revolt. As a consequence Johnson proclaimed a new doctrine which seemingly would permit the United States to intervene in the affairs of any hemispheric nation threatened with a Communist revolution while keeping hands off any strictly internal disorders. Ghastly Error Juan Bosch, the lonely and disillusioned non - Communist figure in whose name the revolt supposedly was started, saw the U.S. intervention as a ghastly error of judgement. He said the end result might be to turn 100,000 young Latin Americans into Communists in reaction. The President's quick and strong action was generally applauded at home as a step in time that probably prevented another Castro-t y p e regime. Supporters said it served notice to the Communist world that the United States will move swiftly and use force when its strategic interests are at stake. To some abroad, it revived Ambassador W. Tapley Bennett;(lie shadow of the "gringo" American bully, which haunted inter-American politics for Broke Open Arsenal The rebel - civilians broke open the police arms arsenal and passed out hundreds of additional rifles and burp guns. One boy of 10 ran down the street carrying a rifle in either hand. When a friend asked if he could have one, the boy replied, 'no. One is for my father and the other Is for my brother." Cabral had been aware of the danger. Saturday night he was a guest at a seder — a religious ritual meal — at the home of Israeli Ambassador Benjamin Varon. The ambassador remarked that the biblical last supper actually was a seder. "This may be my last supper," Cabral replied. Twenty-four hours later he had vanished. Not even the loyal army man, Gen. Elias Wessin y Wessin, with all his planes and tanks, had attempted to support him. Indeed Wessin y Wessin at one point leaned toward the rebel demand of restoring to power Juan Bosch, the first freely elected president of the Dominican Republic. He changed his mind when the Castroites and Communists moved swiftly — through de fault and conspiracy — to the forefront of the revolt. Wessin y Wessin joined several other Dominican officers in forming years. To others it invited com-i parisons with the grisly busi-j ness of Soviet intervention inj ca me as"no reaf surprise"to'the an anti-revolutionary junta. No Surprise fast moving situation in Santo Domingo. It urged that U.S. Marines be landed in the Dominican Republic immediately to protect American lives threatened by rioting and revolution. Hungary in 1956 when a reyolu.|{j"s"~j^ n 'f chi; fs ""a Sr *ihV"met Johnson,^as he said^later, did:lion was ^ crushed because Rus- the f 0 n ow i n g Monday morning. ,i... ,,- ..1.1 T^.. f ..„._-!_ <_* »„ „» McNarnara had told Congress last Feb. 18 that the Dominican Republic "continues to be un stable." And it was because o! State Department fears that events were moving towards a crisis that Ambassador Bennett had been summoned to Wash ington for consultations the Fri day before. By Monday he was back at his post. One of the first actions of the chiefs was to order the Navy's not vacillate. He told Defense jsian strategic interests were at Secretary Robert S. McNamaraistake, and Secretary of State Dean) Husk, who had been conferring overcast afternoon, that the Not Unexpected The crisis was not unexpect- Marine? must go ashore-. April 24 — a sultry day in San:.,,„,« *»«"'"''•• to Domingo. Gen. Marcos Rive McNarnara - tough, decisive _ ... .* ... . f Af „,,» nt , K . and hardened to crises after | lour years in the Pentagon — ; ra Ciuesta, chief of staff of the Dominican army, summoned three military men to his office t<> On. Earl«; *.™^',£!?": i; d,,mu."^:^ »™.,; Wheeler, i r:ia;rman of the Joint Chiefs of! It was the signal to put -prepared con- Force Col. Pedro Bartolomeo Benoit. navy Capt. Suntana Cari'-?o effect nty jvlar Marines Ready B !« in. KPT the liadin. Joint All had been bridling at the . amphibious Squadron 10. com j posed of five ships including 'the Boxer and a Marine land jnander, in^rudm? him to land ""»-' "' ""»*'"*> ••"»»*• ""I"""/ 'Rico the Marines from the aircraft \* l « c poverty - stricken Canh- .a:.,,r Hoxer, which became of >*" n atlon - Since the assaui- the crisis had been standing ;|»«on of dictator Rafael Truji- jrady JIB? offthore. i'° on May 30. 1961. the Domini- The mrs-sag* was phoned toi c » ns has «« ei « ht *° ve ™ merican affairs, and Me- eorge Bundy, the President's dviser for national security af* airs. Mann, Vance, Bundy and /heeler functioned in effect as n excom — executive commit* e — a junior-grade body of e group that so successfully rected operations in the 1962 uban missile crisis. Oot Bennett Cable Reports poured into the White ouse. Wednesday afterno o n ohnson was in a small office ff his main oval office talking ith Rusk, McNarnara and Buny. About 3:20 p.m. the Presi- ent was given a cable from ennett saying the situation as dangerous; that the chief f police and other governmen- al authorities no longer could rotect American nationals, ohnson gave McNamara pre- minary orders to start in moon the machinery for putting roops ashore. Then at 5:14 p.m. came Ben ett's "critical" message asking or the Marines. After the order went out, ohnson summoned the congres ional leaders and informed hem of his decision. Then he went on television to announce is action to the nation and the world. About this time the Organize- ion of American States, which ad been meeting during the ay, was Informed of the land- ngs. This delayed advisory was o cause trouble for the United States. Advised OAS acted In the Dominican ease without first seeking a "hemi- John F. Kennedy had consulted — or advised — the heml pheric body before he orderec action in the Cuban crisis, and won unanimous approval in advance of his blockade order But the sensitive Latin Amerl ans, fully aware that the OAS charter forbids intervention in he affairs of another state were upset that Johnson hac pheric presence" as at the east a cover. More than 400 Marines went ashore on Wednesday night, but t was obvious by the next day hat more troops would be need- d. Anarchy prevailed in Santo Domingo. The OAS asked the >apal nuncio in Santo Domingo o try to arrange a cease-fife >ut so many Dominicans had guns and were operating without real leadership that this proved Impossible. A party of American correspondents, among them UPl's riatt Kenny, got tangible evidence. At one point, they accompanied paratroopers across the Duarte Bridge into the rebel-held section and were caught ay sniper fire and ducked for :helr lives. A squad of paratroopers moved up and the newsmen scurried out under their protecting covering fire. Under Handicap The Marines and paratroopers were under a tremendous handicap. Their orders were not to fire unless fired upon. And they were restricted to using only light caliber weapons. At his mid-day briefing on Thursday, State Department spokesman Robert J. McCloskey was asked if the Communists were running the revolt. He replied "I am only prepared to say they are participating. I could not say that they are leading, and I could not speculate on the eventualities." That night additional U. S. forces were sent in — including 1,500 more Marines. The 82nd Airborne, at Fort Bragg N. C., was alerted for action At 7:23 p.m. EST the first troop transports left Pope A i r Force Base at Fort Bragg wit! the paratroopers. They took o Santo Domingo. The first plane landed at 2:06 a.m. EDT ^riday followed by others at even minute intervals. First Senior Officer The first senior Army officer o reach Santo Domingo was a combat - hardened veteran of African, Sicilian and Normandy andings in the World War II. rle was 52-year-old Maj. Gen. Robert H. York, the 82nd's commander, and a much-decorated man — Distinguished Serv i c e 3ross, four Bronze Stars, three Silver Stars, and two Purple Hearts. Friday and Saturday the buildup continued as fighting continued in Santo Domingo, and Marines began to die. It was now necessary to establish a U.S. Forces Dominican Command, and Lt. Gen. Bruce Palmer was named commander. Coincidently, Palmer was the Army's deputy chief of staff for military operations and was about to become 18th Airborne Corps commander at Fort Bragg. On Friday morning, Wheeler summoned him, gave him the Dominican job, and sent him on his way. The general was unable to locate Mrs. Palmer Immediately. By the time he got to Bragg, she hac been found in a Washington drug store. He gave her the word of his destination by telephone. on Saturday without much fan* Went On TV Friday night Johnson went on television again. It was in these remarks, at 7:07 EOT, that he first indicated the U. S. inter vention had a purpose other than evacuation of nationals anc protecting their safety. He said are, but Sunday was the day o! White House Johnson by Wheeler ||t 9 big decision for Washington. Early that day the 82nd paratroopers moved across the Ave« nida Mexico (Mexico Avenue) and linked up with the Marines near the American Embassy to form a "corridor" through Santo Domingo. The Marines, meantime, had cleared out an international zone and set up roadblocks leading to the waterfront. The effect was to bottle up some 300 remaining hard-core rebel-troops and about 12,000 rebel civilians, many of them armed, in an area of about four square miles. OAS Approved Corridor The establishment of the corridor had been undertaken with the approval of the five-man commission of the Organization of American States which had flown in to try to establish conditions permitting formation of a government. In Washington, the President got up late, but immediately began going over memos and press dispatches on the situation. Other officials in the State Department and Pentagon did the same. Adm. David L. McDonald, chief of naval operations, was an example. At 7 a.m. EOT at his home, Admiral's House on Massachusetts Avenue, he was given a one and a half hour briefing on overnight developments. He then attended church and headed for a golf course in suburban Fairfax Va. Aides caught him by telephone jus as he arrived at the course a 10:45 a.m. and informed him "There are signs that people the Joint Chiefs would meet 30 trained outside the Dominican Republic are seeking to gain control. Thus, the legitimate aspirations of the Dominican people and most of their leaders minutes later. In case he didn't get there in time, the vice chief, Adm. Hor acio Rivero. was on hand. Me Donald made it, as did all tli off intending to land in Puerto for progress, democracy and so-! HUT'S recommendations fron Rico. Enroute they were told to change course and go directly cial justice are threatened." Santo Domingo, and made pro The U. S. buildup continued 'posals. These were given to Decision Made The decision to*......,. with huge u.9. force* — all half as many as the Ui States has in Viet Nam — _ men made earlier. At tin'&!.„ EDT, the president summoned congressional leaders to the White House, He also decided once more to go on radio Md elevision—his third such «p» pearance in five nights—to ex* ilaln his actions to the nation. Curiously, there was almost a soft sell" White House approach to this major speech. Instead of asking for television ime, a request that is always granted, Press Secretary George E. Reedy merely said that it would be made "available" to the network! This means they can;'Hive," or tape it for presentation later? In addition, the White House;; said the speech would only be a "review of the week." ~ When the networks decided to video tape the remarks for lafe, er showing, the White Houser" according to broadcast sources, expressed displeasure. The networks then shifted signals, but it was too late. In the end, only one network—CBS—carried the President's remarks at the time he made them. What the President had to say- was far more than "a review" of the week." It was the announcement of a full-scale U5 t * military intervention that note! amounts to more than 19.000/, troops. J That Sunday night, Johnson explained the reason he felt they were necessary: "The American nations cannot, must, not, and will not permit the establishment of another Communist government in the Western Hemisphere." In the Dominican Republic Monday and Tuesday were days of terror. Tanks blasted away at rebel strongpolnts. Smith and'ThVn confirmed'^ a !m«nts. none able to cope with j Fly-blown bodies lay in the ' message preceded by i t!l<> problem they faced. !.streets under a blazing sun. The . word • Hash" in large capi- H' v ? ra Guesta had informed 'The Dominican Red Cross estl- vt ! letu-rs the highest military ' his ald * tnat ne was about to mated the dead during that pe- iino'ritv ' idismls* the three military men. jriod at 400, among them scores •\h<> ; i'd the Rox«-r Mijor Toc' : ^' nat ne did not know was that of women and children. " ' Oambardolia of New" RorheW ' hl « aldt ' *« & member of a .wounded were N V was having a rip of conspiracy that had boen plot- 1.400. ' ' ' estimated at coffee in the wardroom when t:»c call to action was sounded throughout the carrier. An hour later, dambardella and his outfit, the 3rd Battalion, fith Regiment. 2nd Division of the t' S. Marine? Corp* were a coup. Forewarned 1 .he, of staff. Stormed Radio Station A rebel force ttromed into the government - operated Santo Dou!-.:mns: in helicopters through j mingo radio and television sta- Foreign nationals in Domingo were terrified, huddled In their homes. Watched Diving Planei Robert Myers, a Baptist missionary for eight years and originally from Omaha, Neb., ___ ( lived a block from the U.S. ra:n and the Inkv blackness °* i Jio' n '*and~"went'on the air. The 1 Embassy in a fairly wealthy a tropical night towards a_ polo p, lhce got it bac i; ^j minutes lat- area with his wife, Lena, and " | er. but by then the plot had gain- their two children. His 11-year- ed momentum. During those So minutes the jrrounds in the ancient bean city of Santo Domingo. "It was like Setting Into a subway tra.n in pi'.ch dark<a:>i the major. "W overt' old son kept ninning out on the porch to watch the fighter olanes diving on the «ity. Myers had hoped to stay with DRESS MONTH v.m<lerine along and then throw. They announced that the j^ J ny Proteslant flock ta the " e lDoml J I "' r 9B per cent Catholic country returned to ^ desperately to get l.-n and j;M off and sure government ui!h it was ttie right sta- .Republic would '•'"' I*°P le •" , ,,lhis family out. <)ulrk Action j Hearing this, "the people j Tne forces O f Wessin y Wes- A bar*- two hourt had passed Iran from their homes into the s(n m \^ na ve squelched the i • *• Ambassador Bennett'*;street, cheering and shouting. It revo jt |f jt had been confined Iflefiram had crackled Into the api^ared they were to have an-j lo ttie m iiit a ry rebels. But they Siat«- departments commimica- other exciting bloodies! revolu* cou ),i no t cope with the thou- tipn rooms ti> !>«• decoded and tlon, so familiar to the Latin sam j s 0 ( civilians who were rolavcd to the White It tem|»erament. sniping from rooftops and am- was 31 years since the Marines' On Sunday afternoon, April |b us hlng the loyal forces with had st-en action in Latin 25. rebel army force* began !, nac hineguns. Amenta |handing out rlflei and machine-. Ambassador Bennett warned The presidential derision tak-jguns to civilians in Santo Do- 'Americans on tne ^ a °d on en on the telegram from Ren- 'mingo for a "peoples uprising " Monday to be prepared to nett. 48. a red-haired, youthful| The civilians in turn band<Hl , evacua t e and on Tuesday 1,172 looking diplomat who had been 1 together and opened attacks on' 0 f them were taken off by the in Santo Domingo for 18 p o 1 i c e station. A bazooka \ av y and sent to Puerto Rico months, touched off a multi-act knocked huge holes in the sides j n three ships — the Rucham- drama played on the volatile of the main station, Uie Fortele- jun, Raleigh and Wood County. stajje of international politico za, and the police were shot Eventually more than 3.000 After days of official in«Ut-'down or they iurrend«red 'persons representing 30 nation~ jalitie* were to be removed. The (ward room of the Boxer became a nursery and the carri-j jer's crew members shared j their quarters with male evac SA?fTA FE (UPI) — The cash tjal 56 7 per cent above our es- uee«. •urplu* in the state's general timates" j Rebels Ran Wild fund at the close of this fiscal. Substantial gains were also re- By Wednesday the rebels year may exceed the latest es- ducted in income tax receipts, were running wild- Wessin y timates of $103 million. ! gross receipts lax collections, Wessin decided to withdraw his and other categories. forces back to the base at San .. , ...v report said, "it is now Isidro The rebels seised the J?*'. l . obvious that our previous pro- Duarte Bridie leading to ... jection of a temporary drag on city was without light or e genera und (he econon , y j ue lo j^gg fed-Casualties aBUpg the children! era) tax payments has not yet were in the dAfens — most of materialised, although we may;them hit by bwllets which hid inumh* of May and June.' Three young boys w«re killed Actual receipts for the 10-;when thay picked up a grenade and schowl earmarked receipts month pwiod were; in the street ajul the retail for Uie lO-month period ended General taxes, $27 122 million; jquickly spread the word that AprU M totaled $130097 million total sales tiies, |T7.fls>4 mil-;the deaths were the work the report said. This is more Uon; licw*e fees, &.IU million; jtf u. S. Marines * .. _^. 1^..^.%! .... _l_i._ *• «mA' _ . . Make Mine Country Style! With Cool, Comfortable Shifts *****« ' ..*« —• * • " * Si «! P Cosh Surplus May Exceed Estimated $10.3 Million ,.0* % V»"'- '** «MI II Oov lack M it * Make the casual scene in our trio of sun 'n fun beauties'. Easy - to - care for and easy -to - wear for on the go gais - and the fabrics are so pret- ., ty. Wash - and - wear fabrics. Many distinctive styles and lovely colors to choose from. There are button fronts with A-line skirts, |n cotton. Button front in woven clipped cotton. Button fronts with flounced hem, in woven cat- ton gingham check. Sizes 10 to 18. f t («sMO ed. Tbe cumulative general 12 million, or 167 per ce«t above the estimates. Girofi said, "ooliai-tions It must revenue §PIIT>S rifrififtol our e«timate» for tbe month of April, Of partlvuiw i'M^^ftrji 1 ^ are the oil afid fM t**«* now «/« « very receipt* |l million an4 ea/mwlwd mm OB SKI44KQ? F41T In Washington, there wa* § wrieg of urgent meeting*. Usually they included Johfl#on, Rusk, McNamara, Deputy De- fen«« Secretary Cyrus R Vance, and G«n Wheeler Often present wert TUOJQUM C. Mann, un- 4w»»cretary of aUM« far * X , ** I •••• * »» # CHAitf IT on [ SHOP mf&mfa^^^m •t Sft*v» and Save SEARS Cl>via,

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