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12-A—IUBBOCK AVALANCHE-JOURNAL—Friday , April 4, 1975 Tech Graduate Selected Manager Of Textile Mill Robert L. Hale, 50, a native of Commerce and a 1948 graduate of Texas Tech University, has been named manager of the American Cotton Growers textile mill planned for Littlefield, it was announced Thursday. The $30 million plant, which will consume about 65,000 bales per year of West Texas cotton, is expected to begin operations in the spring of 1976. Hale joined Spring Mills in Chester, S. C. after graduating with honors in textile engineering from Texas Tech. He joined J. P. Stevens & Co., Inc. in 1952 as assistant 1974 Offset By Prices In 1973 By MARVIN SARTIN Kxtf nslun Kronomlit — Management The economic status of the South Plains suffered from the adversities which plagued us throughout 1974. but the exceptional crop and prices of 1973 offset the potentially disastrous financial consequences of this combination of situations. Relatively speaking, we are beginning the 1975 crop more or less even — without the cushion from past profits, but not deep in the hole from last year's short crop and low prices. South Plains agriculture is dominated by two crops, cotton and grain sorghum. The northern sector with less favorable growing season, more abundant irrigation supplies and tighter soils may be more adapted to feed grain production. The majority of the South Plains area with limited irrigation, lighter soils, and longer seasons is cotton country. Livestock contribute substantially to our agriculture. Cattle feeding has been our largest livestock enterprise, and feeders have suffered substantial losses in the past couple of years. Placements have . been sliced to less than half ;'previous inventories. • However, the recent strength '.in cattle prices, combined 'with the weakening of grain •prices, may be indicators that ! the profitability of cattle ' feeding is shifting back into "the black. '.'. Swine on the South Plains ; are an important part of the i.Texas swine industry. While less important locally than • cotton, grain, or cattle, the ' thousands of hogs produced in | this area each year consume •hundreds of thousands of . pounds of grain and contribute • to the local market for our •grain production. ', Swine producers have been more fortunate than cattlemen as hog prices have ', j-emained stronger. And in the •face of high production costs. ''the most efficient swine ;producers have managed to •maintain an operating • margin. ;- The situation facing all of agriculture is serious. There . £re no easy solutions. But the farmers in this area are •highly educated, highly ..motivated, progressive, and •capable of making the ad• justments necessary to cope 'with the changing situations. These adjustments will require maximum efficiency in .Bach operation to minimize •the per-unit production costs. ' Farmers are capable of rnaking these adjustments. South Plains farming is "big- lime." The investments in our units are tremendous, but comparably we are relatively .efficient in our production. •Agriculture will survive the test. .* Finally, the one bright spot 'in the 1975 outlook has to do with one of the most important— most limiting — factors "in this area. The rainfall — 3ate in the season — that contributed to the poor quality of last year's cotton and the additional moisture from snow iiave left the soil profile filled •with moisture. , With a shower to plant on, a rain in July, and a little cooperation from the 'weather, we'll make a cotton •crop on the South Plains this year. superintendent at the Seneca plant at Seneca, S. C. and advanced to manager of the firm's industrial plant at Rock Hill.S.C. His experience has been primarily with 100 per cent cotton yarns and fabrics, such as wide carded and percale sheetings and pillow cases, nightwear flannels, industrial flannels, coated i'abrics for the shoe industry, corduroys and twills. For the past nine years, he has been managing the denim operation for the Stevens industrial plant. The Littlefield facility, which will employ about 380 persons, will manufacture 14'/2-ounce denim. Hale has been chairman of the Board of Commissioners of York Technical College, a member of the board of directors of the Vocational Rehabilitation Center at Rock Hill, chairman of the Manufacturers Council under the Rock Hill Chamber of Commerce, and a member of the United Way board of directors. He has been chairman of the Administrative Board of St. John's United Methodist Church of Rock Hill and has served on the church's member-pastor-parish relations committee. Before he enrolled in Texas Tech, he attended East Texas State University and Louisiana State University. The equity capital required to build the Lamb County mill will be furnished by cooperative gins on the High Plains and Rolling Plains, whose memberships have voted to participate in the project, and by the regional cotton cooperatives headquartered in Lubbock. The regional co-ops are the Plains Cooperative Oil Mill, Farmers Cooperative Compress and the Plains Cotton Cooperative Association. Long-term financing will be provided by the Houston Bank for Cooperatives, owned by agricultural producers in Texas. Members of American Cotton Growers will be approximately 2,000 cotton producers who are members of the cooperative gins participating in the project. Net margins from converting their raw cotton fiber into denim will be allocated to those members, officials said. Margins will vary, officials pointed out, depending on the cost of raw cotton to the mill, operating costs, and the price of denim. "Based on today's market PLAINS AGRICULTURE By DUANE HOWELL UNTIL RECENTLY ONLY SCIENCE FICTION writers have seriously considered the year 2000. But now it's only 25 years away. George Orwell's infamous 1984 is even closer — less than nine years away. The problems that most of us often have thought to be "in the distant future" are either already here or are rapidly approaching. One of the concerns of the last year has been whether the world can continue to feed itself. EACH YEAR SEES 80 MILLION MORE PEOPLE added to the human population. To put that in perspective: There are only about 55 million people now living in the United States west of the Mississippi River, including Alaska and Hawaii. At the current rate of growth there could be 6 billion people on earth by the year 2000. Every night when we all line up for the dinner table there will be 219,000 more people to feed than there were the night before. If we are to feed all these people, we will have to address ourselves seriously to the problem. ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT QUESTIONS we face in the next quarter century is not how to set up emergency food distribution programs. It it not how to serve the needs of the affluent consumer in the industrialized world. Instead, it is how we can increase total food production in the world, particularly in the developing nations. And how we can facilitate the commercial trade of food and fiber among all the nations of the world, trade that is essential if our own farmers are to have the economic incentive for all-out production. It is in the poorest nations that agriculture's productive capacity is strained the most. Those also are the nations where the population is expanding the fastest. And they are the nations where farming methods need updating the most. It becomes increasingly clear that the developed world, including our own nation — where fanning is advanced and productive — must share agricultural production knowledge with the developing nations. This will become more imperative as time goes on. WHEN TOO MANY PEOPLE TALK TODAY about the food problem, they think only of setting up an emergency system of grain reserves to feed the poor in times of bad weather or natural disasters. That's fine and good, but if you don't have the excess grain to store, or the ships to ship it. or the docks to unload it. or the trucks to haul it. or the bins to store it. then all the reserves in the world aren't much good. The ultimate answer can come only with helping the developing countries produce more food themselves. More food production must come from the very people who need it. More food production must occur in the exact areas of the world where it's needed. It is an unrealistic attitude to think that America alone can grow enough grain always to support the poorer nations of the world. We must help them to help themselves. And we must help them to become trading partners with us. WHEN WE HAVE SHIPPED A COUNTRY VAST stores of emergency grain sometimes in the past, it has been unloaded onto a dock where it sat until it spoiled. Or it has been largely consumed by rats or fouled by birds. Or perhaps it moved into the black market. The latter alternative is the worst of all. Not only did the grain not get to the people who needed it; it made profiteers rich and it served to help destroy the grain marketing system of the very country it was supposed to help. When the marketing system crumbled, the Incentives for local farmers to increase their own grain production was lost. There was little or no incentive for them to take the production risks that were required to increase food production. To do so, they would be competing with donated grain from the United States. FOOD AID IS A DIFFICULT THING. It is a complex thing. You want to help someone, but you don't want to make them totally dependent on you. It's like handing a crutch to a man with a broken leg. It helps him at the time; but his leg will never work properly again until he throws away the crutch and walks on his own. Our long run goal must be: Trade Not Aid. conditions, margins from the textile mill and other advantages of pool marketing should add additional income of ?30 to $50 for each bale of cotton delivered to the textile pool," said Dan Davis, general manager of the Plains. Cotton Cooperative Association (PCCA). Cotton for the textile mill will be secured from a 250,000- bale textile pool to which members have committed their cotton production from designated farms by signing marketing agreements. Surplus cotton in the textile pool not used by the mill will be sold by PCCA under a marketing agreement between the boards of directors of American Cotton Growers and the Plains Cotton Cooperative Association. Marketing of all pool cotton not used in the textile mill will be conducted under the supervision and control of a pool committee of the board of directors of PCCA. Each participating gin community will elect a representative to the pool committee. "The seasonal pool will be operated to minimize any risk or loss from the operation of the mill or from the marketing of cotton from the pool," Da vis said. The mill will be operated under the supervision and control of a seven-member board of directors elected by members of the participating gins. These directors will be elected from seven districts with approximately equal volumes of cotton committed to the textile poo!. Although the textile mill will use approximately 65,000 bales annually, a large pool is necessary to assure an adequate supply of qualities needed during short crop years, Davis explained. Gardening Specialist Gives Tips BY RICARDO GOMEZ Extension Horticulturist, New Mexico State University LAS CRUCES (Special) — More and more families are trying their hand at growing their own vegetables as a way to beat inflation. They will find that a garden truly will help a great deal. How much is a garden worth? Well, obviously that depends on its size, the crops grown and the care given. A garden of moderate size will provide all the vegetables a family can eat during the year, amounting to a sizable family saving. Based on prices paid to farmers, a one-acre vegetable garden will produce about $2,500 worth of vegetables if intensively cultivated. It would cost the homeowner considerably more than $2,500 to buy the same quantity of raw vegetables at the market. A successful garden is not an accident, but is the result of careful planning and hard work. The first steps in planning your garden Includes selecting the site, determining the size, selecting the vegetables to be grown and the amount of each, and drawing a plan on paper showing the location of each vegetable and itsplantingdate. The site should be fertile, well drained, receive full sunlight and be near a water supply. It often pays to fence the garden against animals and children. Determine the size of your garden by considering how much work you can do, the size of your family, whether you plan to use only fresh vegetables or want to can, freeze or sell as well. The choice of vegetables and how much of each is determined by your family's likes and dislikes and how you plan to use the vegetables. Having done this, sit down and draw a plan. It helps when you are out in the garden to know exactly where each vegetable goes and how much of it you want. A plan also helps in buying the correct amount of seed and number of transplants. ^'&, MILL PLANNING - Robert L. Hale, left, announced Thursday as the manager of the American Cotton Growers textile mill to be built at Littlefield, discusses plans for the J30 million plant with Dan Davis, general manager of the Plains Cotton Cooperative Association of Lubbock. The mill will draw its cotton from a 250,000-bale textile pool. These bales will come from cooperative gins whose members have voted to commit to the pool all the cotton ginned at their plants. Soybean Growers Analyze Program MEXICO CITY (Special) Visiting U. S. soybean association presidents have seen for themselves a wide ranging effort to combat protein shortages in Mexican diets. Lower death rates and faster growth in young children have been found where soy protein supplements are added to traditional foods, says W. B. Tilson of Plainview, president of the American Soybean Association. The Texas High Plains grower was leader of a market development mission to Mexico last month. Individual children in one test gained as much as seven pounds in only three weeks when fed three glasses each day of Soyacit chocolate drink in addition to their regular meals. Average weight gain for the entire test group of 125 grade school children was three pounds in three weeks. Mexican staff members of the American Soybean Association reported expanding government and industry support for programs using soybeans processed into a variety of forms. They told the 22 state presidents to be prepared to deliver 30 million bushels of U. S. soybeans annually to Mexico by 1980. Value of these beans will exceed $150 million. The group also visited soybean markets and production areas in Colombia and Brazil. Sponsor of the mission was Elanco Products Co. In a visit to the factory of Industrial De Alimentos S. A. in Mexico City, the mission group saw baby food, textured soy protein, soy flour, dry breakfast food and a chocolate soy drink mix all being processed from raw soybeans. Company officials reported they are unable to keep up with demand despite continued plant expansion. The traditional diet of Mexico is based on corn, beans, peppers and rice. Among the poor, protein is often deficient and in younger children this results in an abnormally high death rate from pneumonia, measles and intestinal infections. Such children have low energy levels and sleep more than normal. As a result they are often hindered in their school progress. The Mexican government, aware of this problem, is studying ways to : add soy protein to milk distributed to the poor. Programs are being launched to fortify such basics as corn tortillas and wheat bread with 56 per cent protein soy flour. During the mission visit, the Mexican Social Security Agency announced a major study of ways to use soy protein in its institutional food programs. Mexican President Echeverria himself has made a personal campaign of introducing a meat dish made from one-third meat, one- third grain and one-third textured soy protein. Many of the activities in Mexico are sponsored by U. S. soybean producers checkoff funds and include new poultry and livestock feeding programs utilizing soybean meal, promotion of identified soy oil in grocery stores and the development of additional soy-based industries in Mex- tro. Herbicides Help Protect Grasses Recent findings show some herbicides not only control weeds on rangeland.'but they also increase the protein content of range grasses and protect plants from drought. These herbicides, of the triazine group, include atrazine, simazine, and cyanazine. In a recent three year study in the Central Great Plains, atrazine increased protein yield per acre 63 per cent, increased the nitrate-nitrogen content of herbage (though not to hazardous levels), and increased dry matter yields of rangeland. In another three year study, the nitrogen concentration in herbage was increased an average of 29 per cent by atrazine, 23 per cent by simazine, and 14 per cent by cyanazine. Dry matter yields were not affected in this study. Greenhouse studies showed atrazine decreased root growth of blue grama seedlings, but increased nitrogen and phosphorous uptake per unit weight of root three to seven fold. These studies, conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, also show that when nitrogen fertilizer is added to rangelands being treated with these herbicides, the protein content and herbage yields increase even more. This shows that the beneficial effects of fertilizer and herbicides are additive. Trizines control most annual weeds found on shortgrass ranges. They are particularly good at ridding ranges of undesirable six- weeks fescue. Because cattle will riot eat this plant, it seriously interferes with grazing in the years when it is abundant. Atrazine protected the desirable grass, blue grama, from a disastrous combination of drought and nitrogen fertilizer. In 1971, a year of average precipitation, the frequency of occurence of blue grama was not affected by application of either 20 or 40 pounds of nitrogen per acre. •In the drought year of 1972, the 20-pound nitrogen application reduced the frequency of blue grama from 64 to 52 per cent while the 40-pound application reduced (he frequency to 36 per cent. These represent estimated losses in yield of 40 to 50 per cent and 85 to 95 per cent, respectively. However, where atrazine was applied with the nitrogen fertilizer there was no reduction of blue grama. Walter R. Houston, range scientist with Agricultural Research Service's (ARS) Crops Research Laboratory, Fort Collins, Colo., said research elsewhere has shown that atrazine reduces transpiration and helps plants make more efficient use of the available moisture. SOY-FORTIFIED TORTILLA — the first man to manufacture high protein toy-fortified tortillas. Rigoberto Romero, shows one of his products to children in his Mexico City neighborhood. With him are W. B. Tilson of Plainview, right, president of the American Soybean Association, and Merlyn Groot of Manson, Iowa, president N of the Iowa Soybean Association. Tilson and Groot were among 27 members of a U, S. market development mission to Mexico last month. He also indicates that investigations currently are underway to determine the fundamental role of atrazine in protecting blue grama from drought. . The only disadvantage to the use of these herbicides is ' their effect on two valuable cool-season grasses. Both western wheatgrass and needle and thread decrease when the triazines are applied to the range. The beneficial effect of atrazine on the warm-season blue grama and detrimental effect on cool-season grasses points out possible application to warm-season grasses in other areas. Houston says in most years the nitrogen treatment alone without the trizaines is the most profitable way to increase protein yields on shortgrass range in the Central Plains. This is because of the low cost of nitrogen fertilizer, compared with the higher price of herbicides. However, grazing trials are needed to establish firm economic values. Houston conducted the tests in cooperation with Colorado State University experiment Station at ARS' Central Plains Experimental Range near Nunn.Colo. New Cotton Release Approved LAS CRUCES (Special) The crop variety release committee of the New Mexico State University Agricultural Experiment Station has officially approved release of a new variety of upland cotton, according to Dr. Marvin L. Wilson, station associate director. The new variety, previously approved by the New Mexico Cotton Advisory Committee, is known as Acala 1517-75, and was tested as experimental strain 4111. Breeder and foundation seed of the new variety will be produced under the supervision of the experiment station in cooperation with the New Mexico Crop Improvement Association. The association will distribute seed for increase. In a total of 17 yield tests over a three-year period, the new variety produced eight per cent more lint per acre than Acala 1517V or Acala 1517-70. On wilt-infested soils, it produced nine per cent more yield than the two varieties. The new variety is several inches shorter in plant height, is earlier fruiting, and is generally earlier in maturity and less subject to rank growth than other Acala 1517 varieties. Three to four per cent more of the total crop has been picked at first harvest as compared to Acala 1517V and Acala 1517-70. Bolt size and seed size of 1517-75 is slightly smaller than other Acala 1517 varieties. However, more bolls are produced per plant which results in more yield. Excellent seedling vigor and strong emergence have been noted by growers who have tested it. Fiber length of 1517-75 has averaged in between that of Acala 1517V and 1517-70. Fiber strength and micronaire have been very similar to Acala 1517 varieties already grown in New Mexico. Good tolerance to ver- ticillium wilt has been demonstrated by Acala 151775. The new variety is not resistant to bacterial blight. Acala 1517-75 has compact, well-shaped open bolls with the seed cotton held firmly in the bur. Combined with the plant type, the combination makes the new variety ideally suited for harvesting with the spindletfype picker, according to Dr.. Norman Malm, NMSU cotton breeder. U.S. MEAT IMPORTS Total U. S. meat imports during January-October 1974 were valued at |i, m million - down 12 per cent from the level* year earlier.