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• i!e 20--THE HERALD Provo. Hah. Sunday. April 6, 1975 Lee Roderick America's Stake in Black Africa Editor's note: Lee Roderick, journalist whose work appears from time to time in the Herald, is on a fact-finding tour of Africa and the Middle East. This is the first of a series of his reports. By LEE RODERICK ACCRA. GHANA - "This is a world of men. of men whose likenesses far outweigh their difference?, who mutually need each other in labor and thought and dream, but who can successfully have each other only on terms of equality, justice and mutual respect." That manifesto emerged from a Pan-African Congress held in London in 1921 with key support from America's National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Since World War II, there has been dramatic progress toward achieving those ideals for blacks in the United States as well as in most of Africa The independence movements that have shook and shaped today's Africa during the last two decades, however, have largely been beyond the direct involvement of the United States America has never been a colonial power on this huge, diverse continent The closest it came was in helping to give birth to Liberia, on Africa's west coast, as a haven for returning ex-slaves. This lack of direct contact has been an important contributing factor in shaping the popular image of Africa in the average American mind Even today, it is probably safe to say that image is more a product of old Tarzan movies than of the myriad changes here since the winds of independence considerably sifted the political sands of black Africa There is no simple way to describe the Africa of the 1970's It is as diverse as it is immense and rich Africa is four times larger than the United States, It contains more than 50 countries and has a population of about 350 million It is as new as the Portuguese colonial states of Mozambique and Angola which just now are about to gain independence after long and bloody wars of liberation. And it is as old as civilization itself, for one North African area, ancient Egypt, is the seat of the world's oldest settled culture One factor uniquely American that has helped raise the public consciousness regarding Africa is the more than one-tenth of US citizens who trace their ancestry to here. Black American leaders such as W E. B DeBois. who were the philosophical godfathers of our own country's civilized struggle, also played an important role in laying the groundwork for independence in their ancestral homeland. And they have continued to remind the U.S. of CAREFUL SCRUTINY goes into positioning life-size mannequin as artist Jon Trzaska uses a table-size model as his guide. When completed, the life-size mannequin will be dressed as a Colonial Minuteman, one of 22 being made for the Raytheon Historical Foundation which is sponsoring a Bicentennial diorama at the Bunker Hill Pavilion in Charlestown, Mass. Soviet and U.S. Detente Affecting Spy Business By GORDON F. JOSELOFF MOSCOW (UPI) - The kid- glove handling of two recent espionage cases indicates that both the Soviet Union and the United States are anxious not to rock the detente boat. On Dec. 17,1974, a U.S. District Court in Newark, N.J., lifted a 20-year prison sentence from Soviet spy Igor A. Ivanov at the request of the State Department A U.S. attorney said jailing him could "adversely affect important foreign policy objectives" and would "not serve the national interest." On Feb. 20, 1975, the Soviet Union disclosed the trial and conviction of Russian V.G. Kalinin on treason charges for passing state and military secrets to a foreign intelligence service The announcement did not identify the foreign power nor mention foreign accomplices. If there is a link, no one is saying so. But there have been enough spy swaps between Fast and West, even during the height of the cold war, to make it a distinct possibility. The case concluded in Newark involved the 1963 arrest of Ivanov, a chauffeur for the Soviet trading agency Amtorg, along with two Russian I' N diplomats, on charges of receiving secret documents from John W. Butenko, an American engineer working on Strategic Air Command projects. The other two Russians enjoyed diplomatic immunity and were released. But Ivanov and Butenko were jailed It is now known the Russians were so anxious to get him back they went to extraordinary lengths to get an American hostage for an exchange. Yale professor Frederick C. Barghoorn was arrested on a Moscow street on a trumped- up espionage charge the day after Ivanov's arrest. But two weeks later, after strenuous U.S. objections, including the personal intervention of President John F. Kennedy, Barghoorn was released. Ivanov, confined to the Soviet residence at Glen Cove, N.Y., for seven years after his conviction, was allowed to return to Moscow in 1971 pending appeal of his sentence. That was the year the first real moves toward the present detente were getting underway. Whether the action was intended as a goodwill gesture or a possible future IOU is not known. But the recent U.S. arguments for dismissal of his sentence at least on the surface appear to be a gesture toward detente. Little is known about the Kalinin affair except that it is the first publicly disclosed conviction of a Soviet citizen for spying against his own country since the celebrated 1962 Oleg Penkovskycase. The handling of that scandal provides a striking contrast to the Kalinin case and shows how detente is affecting the spy business Penkovsky, a Soviet army colonel and intelligence officer, was arrested in late 1962, convicted of passing state secrets to U.S. and British intelligence services and executed in May, 1963. He was put on trial with his British courier, Greville Wynne, later traded for Soviet superspy Gordon Lonsdale. Caught in the Penkovsky scandal were a number of American and British diplomats who voluntarily left the Soviet Union or were expelled. 'Ihe Soviets were not shy about identifying the foreign intelligence services and their agents. Nor did they skimp on providing thriller-type details. Newspapers printed pictures purportedly showing a U.S. embassy employe at a "drop site" and tales of secret marks on lampposts and prearranged telephone calls in which heavy breathing was a signal. its special tie to Africa. In addition to that "special tie. the U.S. has other stakes in black Africa. Put simply, it is becoming increasingly apparent that, in a world of diminishing resources, the U.S. cannot be an island of affluence and maintain either its self - respect or its political influence for very long. Fortunately, if Ghana is a representative example, the U.S appears to be currently involved in very practical ways to help this continent's developing countries. The Velco Company, for example, owned by Kaiser Aluminum, is the largest private employer in this West African nation. Velco currently employs 2.000 workers in extracting and processing aluminum from bauxite mines here Only 90 of the 2.000 are Americans Velco is also currently involved in an imaginative project to introduce rice growing on a large scale in Ghana Firestone Rubber Company, whose familiar red and white neon signs are in evidence in other African equatorial countries as well, has a large plantation here. Cocoa is Ghana's most important industry, however, and the United States is Ghana's most important cocoa customer, taking about one quarter of the crop annually. This healthy relationship between the two countries has survived th toppling of two different Ghanaian governments since 1966. Ghana was also the first Country to receive Peace Corps volunteers. There are now 154 volunteers in the country and, according to U.S. Ambassador Shirley Temple Black, that figure will increase by about 100 this year. "It behooves us — the developed countries — to try to encourage developing countries to proceed with being able to be self-sustaining," said Ambassador Black. "If the people of the world can develop their own food supply, as they are being encouraged to do here in Ghana, this is in the end also going to be a lot easier on developed countries than always being asked to give, give, give." In summary, Ghana demonstrates that if international assistance Is approached wisely, it can have important benefits for both countries involved. At least In this key African country — which in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan state on the continent to gain independence — the U.S. approach appears to be working and working well. Eisenhower's Opinion of John Kennedy NEW YORK (UPI) - Some three months before he was assassinated, Robert F. Kennedy was characterized as "shallow, vain and untrustworthy" and unfit for the presidency by former President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The highly unflattering description was contained in a letter Eisenhower wrote to Brig. Gen. Robert Cutler, a Boston banker and former aide in the Eisenhower White House. The letter, signed "Ike" and dated March 28, 1968 —some three months before Kennedy was shot to death in Los Angeles —was sold at auction Thursday night for $3,500. A spokesman for the Charles Hamilton Galleries said it was the highest price ever paid for a letter signed by a 20th century president. The spokesman quoted Ike as writing: '"Robert Kennedy is shallow, vain, and untrustworthy —on topof which he is indecisive. '"It is difficult for me to see a single qualification the man has for the presidency,'" the letter said. The two-page type-written letter was sent to Boston from Eisenhower in Indio, Calif. It was sold to the Scriptorium, a Beverly Hills, Calif., dealer. U.S. Weather Watchers ByALROSSITERJR. UPI Science Editor WASHINGTON (UPI) - The United States launched its first weather satellite 15 years ago this week. Now National Weather Service forecasters would be lost without the routine views from orbit that show weather patterns as they develop. Stationary satellites 22.300 miles high are beaming detailed pictures of North American clouds back every half hour around the clock and other weather eyes are circling Earth in lower north-south polar orbits to keep a twice a day watch on other parts of the globe Since the weather satellite system became operational in 1966, weathermen say no major storm has gone undetected The early warnings of hurricanes and tropical storms have been credited with sas-ing countless lives and millions of dollars worth of property. The newest satellites not only watch for tropical storm development, but they are maintaining a constant watch for the buildup of other severe storms such as tornados, thunderstorms and squall lines over the continent. When the first Tiros was launched from Cape Canaveral on April 1. 1960, all space agency- officials hoped for was one usable picture "The real thrill was in racing back to the receiving station to watch the first pictures come back over the transmitter." said Abraham Schnapf. manager of the Tiros program for the RCA Corp., which builds the Tiros type satellites. Twenty-five other satellites of the Tiros class have since been launched —23 successfully —in addition to a larger experimental series known as Nimbus and two of the new stationary type "We're doing far more than our wildest dreams in those days," said David Johnson, director of the Environmental Satellite Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). "It's been an amazing 15 years " The $15 million stationary satellites, called Synchronous Meteorological Satellites (SMS) by the space agency, were launched last year and both are working although the first has had troubles with a communications amplifier due to faulty soldering by one factory worker. A third SMS, built by Philco Ford, is scheduled for launching in October. It is the first of its type to be paid for by NOAA and will give the weather agency an operational of system satellites maintaining a constant watch on North America, the western Atlantic and the eastern Pacific. Two advanced Tiros-type satellites also are operational and a third is being kept on a standby basis in orbit. They are being used primarily to watch weather patterns in the polar regions which cannot be seen by the stationary satellites and to make vertical atmospheric temperature soundings which are valuable for forecasts. NOAA plans to use both types of satellites —the stationary ones to keep an around the clock vigil over the United States and the polar orbiters to watch the rest of the world's weather and to make the temperature soundings. Fall Cause Of Death Of Miner BONANZA, Utah (UPI) Uintah County Sheriff Arden Stewart says the death of a 60- year-old Vernal man in a gilsonite mine was due to an accidental 200 foot fall. Stewart said Wednesday an autopsey determined that Cecil Purnmell died from injuries suffered in a fall down an ore hole. The victim had severe fractures of his legs and back when discovered by other miners Monday. FIRST OF THE WEEK SPECIALS PPv^f^I I *-•""'< <-\. l-"'"/.?« PRICES EFFECTIVE THRU APRIL 9, 1975 COUPON YOU 1 1B. COUNTY FAIR REGULAR MARGARINE WITH COUPON 3 FOR LIMIT 3 PER COUPON, I COUPON PER CUSTOMER. GOOD ONLY AT FOOD KING & WARSHAWS. VOID AFTER APRIL 9, 1975. WO Olv« i COUPON GREENJ STAMPS H TALL CAMPBELLS CHICKEN NOODLE SOUP GIANT FOODS YOU WITH COUPON 6 FOR - TRIPLE S&H GREEN STAMPS WITH THIS COUPON AND THE PURCHASE OF $20.00 OR <$ MORE. LIMIT 1 COUPON PER CUSTOMER. GOOD ONLY AT % FOOD KING & WARSHAWS. VOID AFTER APRIL 9, 1975. || AMOUNT OF PURCHASE <|f? A $40 PURCHASE FILLS ONE BOOK! <^ LIMIT 6 PER COUPON, 1 COUPON PER CUSTOMER. GOOD ONLY AT FOOD KING & WARSHAWS. VOID AFTER APRIL 9, 1975. m COUPON SPECIAL DISPLAY 2 QT. LOAF DISH, SQ. CAKE PAN, OBLONG BAKE DISH & 1 QT. CASSEROLE DISH YOU REG. 2.19 WITH COUPON COUPON LIMIT 4 PER COUPON, 1 COUPON PER CUSTOMER. GOOD ONLY AT FOOD KING & WARSHAWS. VOID AFTER APRIL 9, 1975. DOUBLE S&H GREEN STAMPS \ WITH THIS COUPON AND THE PURCHASE OF $10.00 OR <|t) ( MORE. LIMIT 1 COUPON PER CUSTOMER. GOOD ONLY AT d& FOOD KING & WARSHAWS. VOID AFTER APRIL 9, 1975. <m COUPON 13 OZ. WHITE WORTH RUBBING ALCOHOL AMOUNT OF PURCHASE t«*S.^ USD/r •-* CHOICE OR PRIME SEVEN BONE POT ROAST IB. 160Z. FOOD KING & WARSHAWS SLICED BREAD FOR YOU AV 56' REG. 39' WITH COUPON 4 FOR LIMIT 4 PER COUPON, 1 COUPON PER CUSTOMER. GOOD ONLY AT FOOD KING & WARSHAWS. VOID AFTER APRIL 9, 1975. COUPON KRAFT MACARONI DINNERS WITH COUPON LIMIT 4 PER COUPON, I COUPON PER GOOD ONLY AT FOOD KING A AFTER APRIL 9, 1975. FOR CUSTOMER. WARSHAWS. VOID FRESH LARGE HEADS ICEBiRG LETTUCE HEAPS FOR FRESH RED RIPE STRAWBERRIES QT, COUPON PiLLSBURY FLOUR XXXI FU>UR IBS. LIMIT CUSTOMER WARSHAWS WITH COUPON •AC PER COUPON, I COUPON PER • WOO ONLY AT FOOD KIM A VOID AFTER APRIL 9, 1975.