The Racine Journal-Times Sunday Bulletin from Racine, Wisconsin on June 27, 1965 · Page 12
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June 27, 1965

The Racine Journal-Times Sunday Bulletin from Racine, Wisconsin · Page 12

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Racine, Wisconsin
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Sunday, June 27, 1965
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m SACINB JDVWIAI/nMBS Racine, Wisconsin Sunday, June 27, 1965 Minority for the Majority The assault on popular rule in the U.S. Congress continues, with Senate subcommittee approval of Sen. Everett Dirksen's constitutional amendment to permit one house of a state legislature to be apportioned on some basis other than population. Dirksen expects that the amendment will have the eventual approval of the full Senate Judiciary Committee. At that point, it will go to the Senate floor, and there it faces one of the minor ironies of our time: it may be necessary to invoke minority rule to affirm majority rule. * * * Both the Senate and the House of Representatives, like the State legislatures, are stacked in favor of this amendment— that is to say, stacked in favor of control by minorities. The U.S. Senate itself is not elected on a popular basis; two Senate seats are assigned to each state, regardless of population. This fact is often and incorrectly cited as a precedent for assigning state Senate seats by area; in fact and in history, there is no element of area apportionment in the Senate, but a representation of states as such, and as constituent founders of the United States. The present House is better apportioned than ever, but it still h^s large elements of malapportionment within states. The Legislatures, which would be left to ratify any amendment adopted by Congress, are the worst apportioned of any branch of "representative" government, although slow changes are being effected under the Supreme Court's "one man, one vote" rule. But constitutional amendments require a two-thirds vole of each house of Congress, and it is here that the minorities which uphold "one man, one vote" must make their stand. If more than one-third of either house will stand firm, the amendment will bo defeated. In the exlrcmp, the liberals in the Senate may fall back on another minority device, the filibuster, with which to stall the amendment. * * * We see no real anomaly in using these minority devices, which have so often been used to frustrate popular government, to defend it. At worst, this is a holding action, a stall for time until popular government catches up with itself, which it is doing under existing Supreme Court rules. The minority fight is to defeat the continued rule by legislative bodies whose majorities favor the status quo, and which are not in themselves representative. The fight will be made, quite simply, for every one of us, to guarantee that our votes continue to count equally. Is there any other position consistent with American tradition and rule of government? STILL TASm AWFUL, BUT Education with Dignity Those who may be wondering if student yearning for academic independence and citizen rights cannot be satisfied without noise, fury and violence would do well to visit a college campus In Kentucky. Berea College is unique in several ways: Its 1,600 students — 90 per cent of whom come jrom 230 7nountain counties of eight Southern states — pay no tuition fee. They pay less than $500 for room, board and incidental fees for the entire school year. Every student — male or female — MUST work at least 10 hours a week. This is in conformity with the college's belief that "In America and in Berea College it is honorable to work, it is honorable to study, and above all it is honorable to do both." The motto of this Southern college that "God Hath Made of One Blood All -Nations of Man" is practiced as well as spoken. As one Negro student has said, "At Berea I am accepted as an individual and have an equal chance to develop my capacities." Students are taught and become superbly adept at such skills as baking, candy making, ceramics, printing, needlecraft, broomcraft, woodcraft, fireside xceaving, dairy and farm tvork, and even at naming one of the best hotels a traveler will find anywhere. * * * At the impressive Boone Tavern operated by the college on the campus as a public inn with 90 per cent of the efficient staff composed of students — delighted guests will see the college concept of "labor with dignity" convincingly demonstrated. Signs proclaiming, "No Tipping, Please," mean what they say, and no fudging. And the service by bellmen, clerks and waitresses is provided with such skill, eagerness and good will that the recipient is completely spoiled. Berea College students are not being brainwashed into docile acceptance of the status quo. In the college paper and elsewhere there is plenty of evidence that here, as on other campuses, young minds are probing and restless — but without violence, noise and headlines. * * * Berea College is proving that the American campus can be a birthplace of free thought and action — and of maturity, responsibility and dignity. PROFILES Newsmok*rs U. N. Flattered, but Not Fooled • • * * * * * * * On 20th Anniversary, Hope for New Start Frye suspect, the Walter Lippmann U. S. Must Take Gamble on Moderating Chinese Red Lippmann WASHINGTON — The quarrel in the Communist camp has become ever more ferocious, and from our point of view ever more interesting. V/e have to begin by making a guess as to wliy, as the military situation in Viet Nam grows worse, the S i n o - Soviet quarrel becomes fiercer. There must be something of very high importance at stake between Moscow and Peking. My guess—there is no way of knowing—is that the intensification of the quarrel is due at bottom to Red China's fears tlnat there is in the making a Soviet-American understanding for tiie containment of Cliina. If tliis came about, Ciiina would be strategically surrounded. There would be tlie Soviet nuclear power along its northern frontier and there would be American nuclear power, allied in some measure with the Soviet Union, along the Chinese southern and southeastern frontiers. Accusation from Peking China's fear that this might happen could explain a num- principal military defender of Hanoi, they would acquire a principal influence on the settlement of the war. However, if my guess is correct, the Chinese government believes that if the war can be made to go on to the bitter end, the result will be to expel the Soviet Union and the United States from its southern borderland. Without having to fight itself. Red China would then fall heir to the wreck and ruin of Viet Nam, and the historically anti-Chinese people of Viet Nam would be decimated and prostrated. U.S. Position These are high stakes, and only high stakes can account for the fierceness of the Chinese campaign against the Russians. If the hypothesis is correct, the first practical conclusion we must draw from it is that we must not be overzealous. The Soviet Union is still a Communist society, and we must not embarrass it by treating it as if it had turned renegade. We should act on the principle that the Soviet Union is a mature Communist society, and because of that—since both of us are mature societies—we have a common vi- ber of otherwise puzzling! lal interest in coexistence and things. It could explain Pe -I world peace, king's recent accusation that! It is not for us to make os- decision of whether to encourage negotiations among the Vietnamese. China Moderating? The fierce intransigence of Red China is a fact. Potentially and theoretically it threatens everyone. The great question is whether Red China's militancy and expansionism will be moderated in the course of time or intensified during the few years that remain before Red China becomes a nuclear power. It is' a gamble, of course. But By William R. Frye SAN FRANCISCO—Birthdays can be a happy escape rom reality, especially if one is under 21. The U.N, age 20, has just had a d e 1 i g htfully escapist birthday here. Like a post- deb whose social status had been slipping and some of whose recent behavior had been . highly U.N. has been flattered, wooed, told she didn't look a day over 16 and even given a little money on the side. As a result, she has come out of it on Cloud 9. How long the euphoria will last, and how much of it can be translated into solid advantage, no one yet can say. But the injection of happy-talk has been substantial. Love and Fealty There has been, for example: 1. A ringing reaffirmation of American devotion, backed by a gesture of some substance, from President Johnson. 2. Protestations of love and fealty from a variety of other suitors of greater or esser sincerity. 3. A kitty of hard cash, taking the U.N. part of the Looking Backward 40 YEARS AGO June 27, 1925 — Maximum 74; Minimum 66. W. S. Buffham & Son, 403405 IVlain St., announced they had leased their store build- I ing to the J. C. Penney Stores, myself am betting that moderation will appear in the course of time and natural evolution and can be brought on by patience, firmness, and diplomatic skill. The alternative is preventive war. Back in the late 1940s when the cold war had begun, when Stalin was at his worst, I was invited to lunch in the Pentagon with a high official. The object of the lunch was'^^i Minimum 57. Inc. The new tenant said they would install a new front and construct a two story addition to the rear. Accomplishments of the way back toward solvency. 4. The prospect of regaining some of the strength and reputation lost through her venture into disrepute. All this is heady wine for a U.N. which for months has been written off as moribund if not actually finished on the social circuit. There clearly is life in the old dame yet. Don't Believe All She is kidding herself, however, if she believes all that is being said. Many of her suitors are reciting their lines because it is the proper thing to do, and because they remember with a twinge of conscience their contribution to her downfall. When she comes out of euphoria, she will have to take stock anew of her position and her prospects. The most important thing that is happening to the U.N. at the moment is that the Western powers are preparing to write off Russia's dues arrears, are paying some of them themselves (in the guise of "voluntary contributions") and are seeking to start afresh with a solvent organization. To this extent, the Kremlin has won a victory. It has a few odd million dollars to which it was not entitled; it is getting away with welsh­ ing on assessments for peacekeeping armies. But Russia could not have been interested primarily in the money. It means somewhat more to Moscow than it does to the United States, but it is still peanuts in the terms in which great-power budgets are framed. What has been, and is, far more important to Moscow is to destroy the U.N.'s power to act in future crises of the Suez, Congo and Cyprus type. This it has not been able to do. No Trade for peace armies. As recent events have proved, that power has always existed only in theory; the U.N. never really could force any of its members, let alone the great powers, to pay for peace actions which they considered a disservice to their national interest. It could have taken away Russia's right to vote; but this would not necessarily have produced any money. Voluntary Payments So the West has decided to rely in the future on voluntary financing of U.N. peacekeeping actions. Rather, it has decided to call "voluntary" what has always, in point of fact, been so. No one should pretend that this a victory for the West. It is not; it is a sad defeat. It is a defeat in that the West wanted Russia formally rebuffed and humiliated for her blatant efforts to sabotage the U.N. It also is a defeat in that a highly desirable forward step toward world order — establishment of the principle of collective financial responsibility — has not been achieved. But it is at least a reasonably graceful way out of what had become an impossible plight. It contrives to give defeat some of the appearance of magnanimity and generosity. It saves face for the San Francisco post-deb, preserves her reputation for future romantic encounters, and gets her back on the road to respectability. A gal who has gone astray can hardly expect more on her 20th birthday. John J. Burns NEW YORK— (/P)— Jolm J. Burns, who left a college t«»ching job to become a laborer and later became a $200,000-a-year electronics company president, has been named to liead one of the nation's biggest oil companies. Cities Service Co. directors named Burns, 56, to succeeed Chairman Burl S. Watson when Watson retires at the end of the year. Running a $l.l-billion-a- year business will be nothing new to Burns, president of Radio Corp. of America from 957 to 1961. He resigned from RCA then in what appeared to be a policy dispute, although neither Burns nor RCA detailed his reasons for leaving. Since 1961 Burns has been running a con^oration to handle his own investments. Big Assets 'I'm very happy to be gong there," he said in an interview. "The company has tremendous assets and a tremendous business." Burns, a slow-speaking, broad-shouldered former semipro football player, has made a career of versatility. He planned to be a teacher and taught at Harvard while working for his doctorate in metallurgy, which he was awarded in 1934. After teaching a term at Lehigh University, he decided he would make a better teacher if he took a crack at industry. "I figured the only way to do it was to quit teaching so I would have to look for another job," he recalls. So, in the middle of the depression of the 1930s, Burns left college for a 59-cent-an- hour job rolling hot 450-pound coils in a Republic Steel Corp. mill. No Road Back He never went back to JOHN J. BURNS Move up or out teaching. By 1941, he had moved up to head Republic's wiremaking division at $12,000 a year and had four job offers. Burns chose a job with Booz Allen & Hamilton, a management consulting firm. So adept did he prove at solving problems of corporations who sought help that Burns, at 34, became the firm's youngest partner. RCA, one of the firm's clients, offered him a 10-year contract as president in 1957. Job-changing, now a habit among today's corporation executives, has marked Burns' career. "If you can't advance where you are, you have to move," he says. "But if you can advance, you're crazy to move." At Cities Service, Burns also will succeed J. Ed Warren, the company's retiring chief executive officer. Charles S. Mitchell, executive vice president, will move up to president. Robert M. Hutchins Education for Gain Can Be Disappointing Russia was trying to swap American Legion Post 76|the abandonment or destruc- were to be featured in an is- tion of U.N. peacekeeping sue of the American Legion [power for an agreement to Weekly. The post's drum corps has captured national honors three times. 30 YEARS AGO June 27, 1935 — Maximum to persuade me to write articles in favor of launching a A total of 154 applications were filed for tavern licenses preventive nuclear war'^'^^i ^'^^V Clerk Frank Beck- against the Soviet Union. was a drop of 18 from Stalin. I was reminded, was a previous year, villain who was moving step! '^^e Racine women's team by step toward the conquest of the world. There was no stopping him by measures .short of nuclear war, and as won first place in the national Sokol League athletic meet at Cleveland. Team members wen? Josephine Macak, Emily we had the air force and thel^^^^'^' ^''^"^ f"'^^- ''^elen Jen- nuclear bombs while Stalin'^^"- ^y^'^ Kucera, Ruth Cer- the Soviet Union is an American stooge conspiring to end the war and deprive Peking of a total victory. It could explain the fact, which has now been confirmed officially by the Soviet Union, that Peking has been opposing and obstructing Soviet military aid to North Viet Nam. For if the, Russians appeared as the tentatious and dramatic overtures to Moscow. But we can move with deliberation to remove the minor irritations, as for example, over the payments to the United Nations. Beyond this, we should let other governments make the running while we hold on in South Viet Nam and ponder the crucial and unavoidable did not yet have them, it was our duty to strike him before he struck us. Not to do so would be criminal negligence. If we flinched and waited, we would lose the future. I did not write the articles, but the luncheon made a profound impression on me, particularly in the years that have followed during which the Soviet Union has emerged from Stalinism. We gambled correctly that Stalinism would pass, and we won that gamble. We shall have to take the same gamble with Red China. ney and Mary Beyer. The local men's group placed ! third. 20 YEARS AGO June 27, 1945 — Maximum 88; Minimum 57. Mrs. Mary Christmas of Hamilton Ave. was named Racine's Good Neighbor on the nationwide "Breakfast in Hollywood" show. The Racine County Historical Society invited 18 organizations to a meeting to form plans for writing a history of Racine County during World War II. pay her $62 million debt — and the West refused to trade. It decided, instead, to pay Russia's debt, if it had to. This tactic was not unlike that of the ju-jitsu fighter who uses his opponents thrust to help hurl him to the ground. It put Russia under considerable subtle pressure to match the Western contribution. Refusal to do so would stand in sharp and painful contrast to Western generosity, and would send back a hollow echo whenever the Soviets professed their fealty to the U.N. ideal. The General Assembly, which operates by majority rule, would continue to exercise an important residual share of peacekeeping power. Russia can, and presumably will, follow through to the end with another of its objectives: to destroy the Assembly 's legal power of compulsory taxation for peacekeeping purposes. But in this field, too, Moscow is now pushing against an open door. The West no longer insists upon U.N. power to tax Hutchins Do You Know Q—What is the best depth of water table to produce the finest timber forest? A—Four feet or deeper. Q—When*did the U.S. Constitution go into effect? A—On March 4, 1789. * •»< * Q—What type of cheese is Kareish? A—One of the so-called pickled cheese made in Egypt. There is a high correlation between investment in education and the prosperity of individuals and nations. College graduates, if they live long enough, earn more money than their less fortunate con- tempo raries. Countries that spend a lot on education have a higher per capita Gross National Product than those which spend less. Yet this seems an unfortunate sales talk for education. The whole process is mysterious. Nothing whatever is known about the way in which education promotes individual or national prosperity. Gary S. Beck, professor of economics at Columbia, has just published a book establishing that the return on a college degree to a white American male is somewhere around 13 per cent. Since his figures include all kinds of colleges, all kinds of courses and all kinds of white males, they leave the aspiring 13-per- center in doubt about what he should be doing in college. Apparently the important thing is the degree — not the courses, the grades or the intellectual and moral development. Not Too Narrow But what will be the competitive value of the degree *"rhey say, If you stop at a place with expensive cari parked around It, the food'a usually good!" if, as it seems likely in the next 25 years, everybody has one? " Becker's only suggestion about the kind of education the seeker-after-gain should pursue is negative. He should not limit himself too narrowly. The reason is that he has to live a long time to get the 13 per cent, and he cannot be sure if he prepares himself for a certain line of work that it will be there when he is of an age to reap its rewards. Becker says, "The long payoff period increases the advantage of an education that is useful in many kinds of future economic environments. If 'liberal' education were identified with such flexible education, as well it may be, there would be an important economic argument for liberal education, as well as arguments based on intellectual and cultural considerations." But from the point of view of the individual the real trouble with the sales talk is that it is statistical. The 13 per cent return is an average. What about those who don't make it? A white American male who is led to believe that he may become a bank president if he goes to college, whereas he will be a ditch digger if he does not, will feel some resentment against those who proposed these misleading prospects to him when he becomes a ditch digger anyway. Expectations and Reality An examination of education around the world shows that its principal difficulty has been to bring the expectations of those who have gone to school for economic reasons into harmony with the realities of the economic situation. This accounts for the wild fluctuations in the educational policy of the Soviet Union and for the disorder in the developing countries, where school-leavers at every level, including the primary, swell the ranks of the unemployed in the overcrowded cities because they believe that education, no matter how little, entitles them to escape from farming. The notion that education guarantees a brighter economic future for the individual is beset by uncertainty and illusion. In a very large number of cases — and the number will be larger as the number of educated persons ncreases — it must lead to disappointment and frustration. Next week I shall deal with the connection between education and the Gross National Product

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