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Coming through soybeans or corn and going down tomato rows, one cultivator is used throughout the Kingens' operation. One man, one planter, one cultivator, one herbicide... and ONE TIME THROUGH FOR years, smart industrial managers have boosted production and company profits by the simple process of standardization. If one tool or one part can do many different jobs, it can eliminate costly inventories, maintenance, stocking, handling, insurance, depreciation, obsolescence and other related manufacturing expenses. In farming, standardization pays dividends, too, as proven by Darius and Mark Kingen, the father and son team that operates the 760 acre Kingendale Farms near Muncie, Indiana. One 8-row planter and one 8-row cultivator, both set for 30-inch rows, can take care of their 400 acres of corn, 160 acres of soybeans and 90 acres of tomatoes. Fourteen- inch bands of a granular herbicide over or between rows makes another standardized procedure possible. Amiben herbicide banded over soybeans. It is the leading herbicide for soybeans. Corn does not have nearly the tolerance for Amiben that soybeans have, so the company cautions corn producers to follow directions to the letter when using Amiben for corn. In planting seeded tomatoes, however, the Kingens plant only four 60-inch rows and apply a 14-inch band of granular Amiben in the row middles. Rows are thinned by hand to a stand of 10,000 to 12,000 plants per acre or one every 10 to 12 inches. In all cases, the same 8-row cultivator can be used in all three crops. The Kingens did extensive experimentation with row widths before deciding on 30-inch rows, in 1964, corn was grown in 38-inch rows, soybeans in 40-inch rows. But farming in this fashion required from three to five cultivators and tractors. By moving to standardized 30-inch rows in 1965, one 8-row unit did all the cultivation. This not only economized on time and labor, but also yielded an extra 3.5 bushels of soybeans per acre at harvest. "Aim for high fertility ... put in what you take out... think of the soil as a bank," are three policies practiced on the Kingendale farms. To determine the extent of the soil's fertility on all their acreage, the Kingens had no less than 144 soil samples taken last year. The project kept one man busy for an entire month. ; As per test results, they altered fertilizer application on soybeans, changing from 150 pounds per acre of 0-15-30 broadcast applied in 1964 to 150 pounds of 6-24-24 applied in the row in 1965. Fertilizer is positioned 2 inches to the side and slightly deeper than soybean seeds. Besides adding fertilizer to keep the soil at high productive capacity, the Kingens aim for an alkaline pH analysis of 6.2 to 6.5. At present, their soil is testing almost neutral, between 6.5 and 7.0. Soil preparations held to the minimum, consistent with obtaining a perfectly level seed bed. A straw chopper is attached to the combine at harvest time, and then the land is fall plowed. In spring, fields are disked with a tandem rig to which a 15 foot floating drag is attached. The drag, made to the Kingens' specifications, can be adjusted to field conditions. It can be set to float lightly on easily leveled fields, or dig in to rough fields. The adjustments can make the drag weigh itself down with up to 2 cubic yards of earth. ^ This is the last operation before planting via the King- ens' one-time-through system. All in all, standardization has made things a lot easier — and more profitable — for the Kingens. Total acreage Planted: Variety: Population: Fertilizer: Herbicide: Rainfall: Yield: KINGENS 1 SOYBEAN CULTURE 1964, 24-inch rows 1965, 30-inch rows 160 May 14-17 . Harosoy '63 8-9 plants/ft. 150# 6-24-24, in row Amiben, 14-inch band 4-5 inches 38.5 bu./acre 180 May 20-25 Harosoy'63 8-9 plants/ft. 150# 0-15-30, broadcast Amiben, 10-mch band 7-8 inches 35.0 bu./acre \bove chart illustrates detailed records kept on Kingendale Farms. Economy and increased yields of 30-inch rows convinced growers to standardize corn and soybean plantings at this row width. :i '