Alton Evening Telegraph from Alton, Illinois on January 12, 1950 · Page 1
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Alton Evening Telegraph from Alton, Illinois · Page 1

Alton, Illinois
Issue Date:
Thursday, January 12, 1950
Page 1
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ALTON EVENING TELEGRAPH tttmbar of Tht AaMciattd Ptt*. k Ptt Ctpf. Vol. CX1V, No. 307 ALTON, ILL,, THURSDAY, JANUARY 12,1950 ImblUhtd January 1ft, tlM» Attorneys For Negro Groups Fail to Appear School Board Puts Of Discussion of Change In Policy The expected discussion of a new policy for colored students,In th Alton school district filled to ma terlalize at a meeting of the Bonrr of Education, Wednesday night, a Haskell House. The board meeting convened be fore a sizeable audience at 8 p. m. but after President C. J. Schlosser announced delegates or represent atlves of any interested group would be given the floor, J. L. Cannon, who is active In organize tlons of colored residents, told th* board that the colored school pa trons did not plan to discuss thi segregation Issue at that boarc meeting. He added that in his optn Ion the story In Wednesday's Tele graph was erroneous in that the colored representatives had neve planned to approach the board a that time to ask that what they allege is segregation of colored students be discontinued in Alton schools. The superintendent of schools J. B. Johnson, replied to the query of Cannon as to who had given out the story published in the Telegraph. Johnson said the story had been given by himself. He told the Telegraph that his accuracy in quoting the disputed statement war verified by two of the high schoo staff. The majority of the audi ence present, before whom Cannon, declined to speak, was composed of white people. Following Cannon's statements Schlosser asked if' anyone else wished to speak before the board but none of the audience took the floor, and the board continued with its regular business. Won't Concede Discrimination Wednesday night, the Telegraph carried a story that Elijah Conley with attorneys representing the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Billy Smith, of East St. Louis, and Daniel E. Byrd, planned to speak before the board of education, claiming the board's segregation of colored students was discriminatory and illegal under Illinois law. Were these claims found to be true, the district would lose approximately $288,000 of state financial aid. Supt. J. B. Johnson says he is unwilling Jo concede there is_any illegal discrimination of colored students in the Alton schools. Apparently to avoid future misunderstandings concerning groups which wish to speak before, or present petitions to, the board, a motion was passed , requiring groups or representatives who wish to appear to write a letter to the secretary of the board, H. Edward Meyer, asking an audience and explaining the nature of their business. Such a letter, according to the motion, must be received by the secretary at least 48 hours prior to the board meeting. The board discussed at length a study of budgetary procedui which may bo followed from 1050 until 1956. The plan provides for meeting additional expertses which will be incurred when the two new buildings, on Johnson street and State street, are put.into operation without exceeding a tax rate of $1.20, which is the maximum allowable under a promise made voters by the board. The tax rate was $1.06 last year and has not been determined this year. Under the long range budget estimates of the board, the rate would rise gradually to $1.20 but never exceed this figure. Much of the increase wil be necessitated by teachers' salaries and building operation costs for the two new schools. The plan provides for a gradual reduction of of the necessity of issuing anticipation warrants by applying $100,000" every other year (1950-52-54-56) to delay the issuance of such warrants, and in the other years (1951-53) use the $100,000 for repairs and replacements in the school buildings. The board pointed out that the plan would reduce the speed with which the repair program has .been pro- Continued on Pag* II, Col. 8. Scalding Fatal to Baby Who Turned Hot Water Into Tub DANNY AYRES Council Names Poll Judges for Library Ballot No clerks will be provided in the polls to assist in carrying out the "straw vote" ten days hence on the "library question" but there will be judges to decide which way the wind of public opinion blows. Most of the judges who man thi polls will be women. The question whether an elec tion without clerks would be lega was waived aside by City Counci Wednesday night. Over-riding the protests of two aldermen against carrying out the library referendum Jan. 21 in a manner failing to accord full; with statute provisions, the coun cil approved, 11 to 2, the appoint ment of three judges, but no clerks, for each of the city's 2' polling places. Some changes also were made by resolution as to the location o Continued on Page 29, Col. 4. Sears Store to Be Remodeled And Enlarged An Improvement project which has been under* consideration for years is about to be launched In :he west end business district with he enlargement and remodelling of the Sears Roebuck business >roperty. Hugh Horstman, owner of the ears Roebuck property, said thai plans are being prepared and hould be ready, within 30 days. He referred a newspaper inquirer o Henry Sedgwick, manager of he Sears store in Alton. Sedgwick had previously inform- a representative of the Tele- jraph that the present building l be made two stories high for ts entire front on Piasa street, 'he Fourth street end of the uilding is the place that is to be iven an additional story. The en- ire front of the building will be hanged and thereby the present ront will be given a modernistic spect. While the construction of he second floor is underway, the ardware department will be ransferred to the farm department building. The whole store vill be air conditioned to over- ome a condition due to Its metal oof causing the second floor to e excessicely warm in hot weath- r. Across Fourth street the old ffice of the Rubenstein firm will e torn down to make room for a our-stall service station for automobiles. Ground adjacent to the Duncan 'oundry has been acquired to make a site for a warehouse ex- ension. A sublease has. been given on roperty occupied by the A. & P. arking ground so that both A. & and Sears can have joint use f the* parking lot for their cus- omers. Too tittle • . Some Merchants Fall Short on Pledge to Support Parking Lot Some of the downtown business* men who pledged sums 01 money to aid In the leasing and maln- talnance of the Merchants' Park- Ing Lot at Fourth and William have failed to fulfill their pledges, according to the Parking Lot committee of the Downtown Business Men's Association. Bert Wuellner, chairman and spokesman for the committee, said today, "We are not trying to rush anyone—and we don't want to offend any of the businessmen who pledged certain amounts which they pay annually. We are not rushing them. But there are others who made pledges that are either too little or too late." He said the money for support of the free parking lot must be forthcoming or serious consequences to the project will result. In all, about 128,000 has been pledged to the lot. The lot area has beea surfaced, extended and lighted. Hoever, the leas* It to exteM W years, at f 1800 • year, and further Improvements are planned, Including, the installation of a service station and other facilities. The service station Is expected, eventually, to make the project self-supporting. Over the 20-year period, the lot will cost something like $75,000, Wuellner estimated. ' H£ pointed out the committee does not expect .contributions to meet this amount, but that original capital must be secured to enable the lot to support Itself. He said current fund Is about $7000 short because of delinquencies and lack of proper contributions. In particular, the committee expressed the opinion that gome stores should contribute larger amounts than they have pledged to date. 'The parking lot's worth was demonstrated during the Christ* mas season," Wuellner pointed out. "It relieved the traffic pressure throughout the downtown district and made It eaater on the shoppers." Danny R. Ayres, 15-month-old son of Mr. and Mrs. Raymond D. Ayres of 3719 Coronado, died Wednesday at 5:05 p. m. In St. Joseph's Hospital of burns suffered several hours earlier when he turned scalding water in a tub, In the kitchen sink, in which his mother had placed the baby to bathe him. Danny, an only child of Mr. and Mrs. Ayres, turned the hot water faucet on while his mother left the room for a moment on an errand. Mrs. Ayres said she was away from the kitchen for only a few seconds while she attempted to hall a neighbor who was leaving for the grocery store so that she could give the neighbor money for groceries for her. When she returned to the room, Mrs. Ayres found her son whimpering and saw that he had turned the hot water faucet on. Mrs. Ayres told Coroner Ben F. Staten the faucet was difficult to turn and she did not think it possible for the baby to turn It on. Mrs. Ayres 'grabbed the baby from the tub and summoned aid of neighbors in helping her to take him to the hospital. The doctor, who attended the infant, said he had incurred second, and possible third-degree burns to about 50 percent of his body. The father of Danny, an Inspector at Western Cartridge Co., was at work at the time. Surviving Danny in addition to his parents are his paternal grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. Ernest L. Ayres, Grafton; his maternal grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph L. Rogers, Alton, and two great- grandfathers, Richard McCoy, Grafton, and Kendrick Rogers, Peoria. Funeral riles will be conducted Saturday at 2 p. m. in St. Matthew's Church. Burial will be in Grenwood cemetery. The body is at Streeper funeral home where friends may call after 5 p. m. today. CardIndex for Tax Collecting Being Prepared Aldermen Wage Debate on Rent Plan for Depot Brown Lines Lease Offers Referred to Realty Committee Preparations for tax-collecting are going forward in the office of City Treasurer Osborne who is ex-officlo the town, collector. Putting into effect a plan for a new permanent card index, which he explained last Monday to the* finance committee of City Council, Osborne today had four typists engaged in preparing the cards. The card system will do away with the old plan of making up special duplicate index books each year, the treasurer explained. Revisions, of the cards, to Include property-ownership changes or new assessments during each year will be necessary to keep the permanent index up to date, he said, but this will involve much less work and expense than making index books anew, as in the past- Purpose of (he card index, which carries names of all persons assessed either for personal or real property, or both, is to make it easy to find the tax bills at tax collecting time. The index will be simlar in form to one used by the township assessor. Treasurer Osborne expected it will re^ quire preparation of more than 9000 cards. No announcement yet is available when the tax books for Alton can be completed, but it Is expected that they will be ready at an earlier date than Jin the last two years. Preparation of the ndex now will save time that otherwise would have to be taken when the Alton books are delivered to the collector, and will speed the date by which he can begin to receive tax payments. 2 Factions Seek to Build New St. Louis Bridge ST. LOUIS, Jan| 12, <•£•!—Two 2ast Side factions are competing 'or St. Louis' approval to build i new Mississippi river bridge. Officials of St. Clair County presented their case here today or a $8,500,000 auto toll bridge rom the village of Cahokia on the East Side to Miami street In St. ,ouis. Monday, officials of the Cahokia tself will submit arguments for an application to build a bridge. Any action taken by St. Louis n the matter would be suhloct to ipproval by federal government and by the states of Illinois and tftssouri. >OP Backs Negro Pastor to Oppose Dawson CHICAGO, Jan. 12. 0«—Archibald J. Carey, Negro clergyman, awyer and alderman, has Republi- endorsement to oppose Wil The question of leasing the city owned "union depot" popped up again for spirited attention in Cll> CouncH Wednesday night., ( hut written rental proposals submit ted by Brown Motor Lines through its president, W. C. Myers, got no farther than references to the committee on real estate which for an extended period has pon dered disposition of the 80-year-old structure under study. For his busline, President Myers offered three propositions to the council, one of which was to lease the former railroad depot "as Is" on a 10-year term at $1000 a year with the city getting 20 percent of gross rent the bus line might collect in sub-rentals. His,written communication, read at onset of the council meeting, set forth that if any of the proposals were accepted he was ready to stipulate that so long as space were available the Brown line would make available to any other bus or transportation line space necessary to it for terminal facil ities—in short, to provide for use of the building as a union bus terminal which some civic groups have urged. The letter added that the Brown Line had no intent to remain In the depot under present, conditions at $250 a month rent after Jan. 13 unless some definite accord were reached. After the lease proposals were referred to the realty committee on motion of Alderman Geltz, seconded by Alderman C. Dooley, a verbal tilt ensued between Alderman Wetsteln and Alderman Waide, realty chairman. Debate Waxes Warm When Wetstein inquired through the chair if the real estate committee was to offer a report, Waide rejoined: "You seem to have a special interest . . •" but was cut off by Wetstein's loud protest, "I object to personalities." Waide finished by stating the committee still was unready to report on the depot matter/ Wetstein, seconded by Alderman J. Dooley, mayor pro tern, then moved that President Myers be invited to take the floor, declaring he (Wetstein) was interested In the depot program from the standpoint of a, citizen. When the chair asked the purpose for which the floor would be granted, Wetstein replied that the busline lease application had been referred to the committee but no report made, and "I'd like to have President Myers tell the council what he has told me." His motion carried. Myers told the council that since the union organization that formerly held a lease on the depot had moved out, "things are left up in the air" with no one seeming responsible for the building; that he had provided heat in the recent cold weather, employed a janitor, and presumed he must pay the $250 "levied" for the space lie was occuping. The question in his mind, he said, was whether the committee was to negotiate with him. Having waited long without an answer on his first request to negotiate a lease, he had submitter three definite propositions, seeking to get action. "If I'm being smoked out, I want Continued on Page 29, Col. 2. Patient Admits Starting Fire That Killed 41 At Davenport Acheson Denies Aid Now Could Save Formosa Challenges Taft Statement In Address to National Press Club WASHINGTON, Jan. 12. UP>Secretary Acheson challenged today a statement by Sen. Taft (R- Ohlo) that a small amount of aid now could save Formosa from Chinese Communists. The secretary of state took a jab at the Senate Republican policy leader- -but not by name—before the National Press Club. He referred to Taft only as a •'distinguished statesman" who had said he had no doubt that some sincere aid to China sometime ago would have resulted in different condition now, and no doubt that a small amount of aid now can "solve the problem in Formosa." Switches Doubts Acheson jibed that this statesman was a man who switches between a position of some doubt and "no doubt." , Taft addressed the Senate yes terday on Formosan and Asiati policy. In that speech he one more suggested that the America navy be used to keep Chinese Communists from invading the bi island which is the last retreat o the Chinese Nationalist govern ment. Taft also said that "Formosj FIND STOLEN CASH—Detective Thomas Whalen (left) and Detective John Roddy count out $7721 recovered following a $38,000 daylight holdup of the Superior Savings £r Loan Association in Cleveland yesterday. A taxi driver sought for questioning in the robbery was shot and killed fleeing from officers early today and six other men are being held in connection with the holdup.—AP Wire- photo. Continued on Page SI, Col. 2. Anti-Trust Suit Filed Against Sun Oil Firm WASHINGTON, Jan. 12 — (A The Justice Department toda charged the Sun OH Co, of Phila delphla with anti-trust law viola tions in the sale and distributio of gasoline and automobile acces sories. Attorney General McGrath an nounced that a civil anti-trust ac tion was filed against Sun, th maker of "Sunoco" products, in he Federal District Court In Phil adelphla. ' He said the complaint accuse; Sun of compelling some 10,000 in dependent service station opera ors in 18 states and the District of Columbia to enter into exclusive purchasing contracts with Sunoco These contracts, the suit alleges •e(|uire these service stations to nirchase their gasoline, motor oils and other petroleum products, and nitomobile accessories, from Sun md to tefrain from making any limilar purchases from any Sun lompetitor. The suit asks the Philadelphia ourt to cancel these contracts ,nd to enjoin the Sun company rom employing any "coercive deices" in dealing with its filling lation outlets. Annual Honor Jaycees' DS Award Presented To Homer Adams at Banquet an Chi- lam L. Dawson, Democrat, ago Negro congressman. Democrats have chosen Thomas Dolan, a lawyer In suburban Ivanston to oppose Rep. Ralph E. Church of Evanston, Republican 3th District incumbent. Church Is rving his seventh straight two- trear term. Carey is expected to give Dawon a strong fight. Dawson heads he House expenditures Committee jut Carey, an able orator, has gained local prominence. He Intro- uced a controversial antl-dlscrim- nation housing ordinance that ailed tn th.' city council only after ong debate. The Flret Congressional District, where they are seeking nomina- lon tn the April primary, la heavily populated by Negroei. HOMER ADAMS receives from former Mayor Leo J. Struif the Distinguished Service Award presented each year by the Atton j'jmot Chamber of Commerce. The presentation was made Wednesday night following dinner at Mineral Springs Hotel.—Photo by Canter Studio. Alton Junior Chamber of Commerce, Wednesday night, presented Us Distinguished Service Award to Homer Adams, 31, 325 East Third, who Is a partner in Adams Printing Co. with his father. Adams was selected by a board of five impartial judges, and wu rated on character and the manner In which he contributed In time and effort to hla community. Prescribed age limits for those who receive the award are 21 through 35 years. Continued on Page t, Col. I. Machinist Kills 5 Persons, Sets Fire to Home, Shoots Self Driver Killed. Six Held After $38,OOOHoldup HAMMOND, Ind., Jan. 12, UP)— A Hammond machinist facing divorce killed five persons with a pistol and butcher knives today, set fire to his home, then killed himself police said. Deputy Coroner B. W. Tidlaw said the machinist, Felix Samas, 33, had apparently killed his wife, [•Catherine, 26, their two children, Felix jr., 4, and 18-month-old Phyllis Elaine; and two roomers, CLEVELAND, O., Jan. 12, UP>— , R!ch , av< * Norman, 23, and Nor- Detectives killed a taxicab driver I man's Christmas Day bride, Shir- today, locked six men in jail, and hunted an ex-marine officer in a sweeping operation aimed at solving a bold $38,000 bank holdup. Moving swiftly after three gunmen coolly robbed the Superior Savings & Loan Co., yesterday detectives first arrested another cab driver and his buddy. This led them to the horrte of a third ley, IS. Samas and his. wife had been mer marine lieutenant. Hux wasn't home. But in a separated since Nov. 29 and Mrs. Samas recently -obtained a court order to prevent her husband from molesting her and the children. .,.-. v.^ ;v'.••:-"•• '•:<;*•>(•/; Coroner Tidlaw said a small caliber pistol and some butcher knives evidently had been used in the slayings. He said "blood was all ovrr the place." Officers said there were Indica- clothes closet on the second floor, »on«, Sanian had broken into the home in the night. Officers reported both bedrooms of the bungalow home were gutted and a hall between them was scorched. The rest of the house was not damaged. The bodies were found by police and firemen who responded to nn alarm turned in by neighbors at 6:57 a. m. ' The deputy coroner said the two children had been shot to death, Mrs. Samas liad been stabbed, the Normans had been both 'stabbed and shot, and there was a bullet wound in Samas' head. .The body of 4-year-old Felix was found in his bed. The bodies of Samas, his wife and baby daughter were found on the bedroom floor. The bodies of the Normans were found In the second bedroom. Capt. Andrew Pellar of the Hammond police said Samas apparently had remained in the , .. „ . i liouse following the slayings about pair-one ^ another Yellow Cab j midn ight and had Intended to no- lify an undertaker. A telephone director was found opened at the classified section listing funeral directors. Mrs. Samas had been beaten thej found $7731 stuffed In a soiled cloth bag—all in bills. Then the detectives set up a watch in the house, hoping for his return. His mother and sister were there, too. Early this morning, a car pulled up 1» front of the Hux house, and three men climbed out. One, cab driver Louis M. Haddnd, 28, walked to the porch and opened the door. Switching on (he lii?hfs, Defective James Burke asked Haddad to surrender. Haddad wheeled ajiid ran. Then Burko and Detective James Killoran yanked out their revolvers and opened up, each firing five shots. Eight of the bullets thudded into Haddad's body, killing him. A ninth zoomed through a window across the street. • Then the detectives grabbed "in driver—and hauled them to tin,' lolice station, where they joined 'our others already behind bars. Altogether three drivers for Yellow Cab figure In the case. But only two of the six jailed men—cab drivers Richard S. Chamberlain, 22, and Robert An- Iross, 24--were identified by two ictims as participants in the holdup, Sgt. John Roddy sai'd. What the police still were try- ng to discover today was the location of the missing 530,000 and low many people actually figured n the holdup. Detective John Hughes said 'hamberlain and Andross had admitted they were two of three men who held up the savings assocla- ions. Detective Hughes said Chamerlain also had admitted taking iart in four other recent robberies ere In which $2300 wns taken. S Youth* Injured Two East Junior High School upils, Jack Harris, 18, and Jerry iarnett, 12, suffered left thumb In- uries this morning requiring hog. ital care. Both were taken to AN on Memorial. Harris, son of Mr. nd Mrs. Charles Harris of 2114 ohnson, Incurred Injury to his humb while boxing, and Jerry, son f Mr. and Mrs. Charles Rarnett of 620 Aberdeen, suffered Injury to Is thumb while at piny. Woa'her Cloudy this afternoon, tonight and Friday with occasional rain. Warmer today and tonight; highest temperature near 50 this afternoon; lowest Friday morning about 40, highest in afternoon about 45. Shippers'forecast: 20-24 west and north, above freeiing to east and south. over the head and a portion of the butt of a .22 caliber pistol was found imbedded in her skull. Police barred newsmen and. spectators from the home while they were making their investigations Firemen said the blaze caused less than $1000 damage to the home. Dockers Strike in Marseille MARSEILLE, France, Jan. 12— </Pi—Dockers walked off the job today when they discovered they were loading arms, and munitions for Indo China on the Italian ship Siblla. Doubt Placed On Woman's Story Because Of Mental State Murder Charge Lodged Against Rock Island Resident DAVENPORT, la., Jan. 12 Wl— A young woman patient In a mental hospital which burned, taking the lives of 41 women, was reported today to have confessed setting the fire. She was charged wit!\ murder. A psychiatrist said the woman, identified as Mrs. Elnora Epperly, 23, was a "schizophrenic." Author* ities said they were checking her story. Rock Island (111.) State's Attorney Bernard Moran said he hal doubts about the mission." He said woman's she had "ad- told the story previously to her physic* ian and he had discounted it on the ground it was normal for • person in her condition to tell such a story, Scott County Attorney Clark O. Filseth of Davenport said he had charged Mrs. Epperly, whose home in Rock Island, with "murder committed in perpetration of arson." (Rock Island Is across the Mississippi from Davenport.) This development followed th* announcement by State's Attorney Bernard Norman of Rock Island County that Mrs. Epperly had admitted starting the fire in her room at St. Elizabeth's mental ward of Mercy Hospital. Investviating authorities, meantime, awaited the woman's arrival at Moran's office. They said she would be asked to return voluntarily to Iowa. Moran cautioned that a question exists whether full faith can be placed in the woman's story. He said Dr. Werner M. Hollander, Davenport psychiatrist who attended her; described the woman as a "schizophrenic." The state's attorney said Dr. Hollander said she was the type of person who "believed herself responsible for all the troubles of the world," Moran said that the woman told him in a telephone conversation last night that she set the fir* by Igniting the curtains in her room. He said the first information he had received was In the form of a telephone call from the woman's husband, John, who mad* the disclosure. ' . ; A half hour later, Moran said, Mrs. Epperly called him tn person at his office and repeated the story to him. Deputy Sheriff Harry Weln- Brandt, assigned to the state's attorney's office as an investigator, questioned the woman at her home four hours. Angus Wa,rd Returns to Boyhood Home in Canada ALVINSTON, Ont, Jan. 12-UB Angus Ward, Canadian-born U. S. consul-general at Mukden, Manchuria, who was released last month by Chinese Communists at- er being held virtual prisoner a year, came back to his boyhood home last night. Mr. Ward and his wife travelled here from Michigan to the horn* of a cousin, Angus McLean. On Thursday he plans to go to near. »y London to visit another cousin, Mrs. James Dean, He was born in Alvinston. Springfield Man Injured ' HAVANA, 111., Jan. 12 - (JPI — Alfred H. Weatherford. 41, of Springfield, was injured seriously last night when his automobile •rashed through a crossing gat* and into the side of an Illinois: Central freight train. The accident occurred on Route 97, south of here. i a. • BM uv*i t • • 'all .51 Ft. ' Tallwater 402.57 A Fatalist Cancel* Policy, Death AtopBuilding Next Day KANSAS CITY, Jan. 12, Iff) — William Clayton Is a fatalist who tempted fate—and met It as he dangled precariously from a rope 10 stories above the ground. It was only Tuesday night that Insurance men had urged him not to drop a policy; that If he did he would be tempting (ate, f "We'll see about that," he said "I'll tempt faW on a ride I'm*going to take tomorrow." That ride began in an alley at (he rear of the Professional Build- Ing in downtown Kama* City yesterday afternoon. The IM-year-old man was aboard a four-ton crate being hoisted to the top ol the H* story building. Clayton's jet was to guide It up. The crate waa Juat above the tenth floor. .Clayton waa atop It Me (elt something five, Instinctively he grabbed lor (he guide toy? and looked down. He saw the crate, containing an. elevator armature, crash Into the pavement below, Dr. John E. Wright, a dentlat, was at work on a patient, Homer Pennington, In hla tenta floor •*> flee. They heard a scream and a terrific crash. They rushed to the window, jerked It up and saw Clayton dangling froip the rope. "Hang on, boy, we'll haul you In," the dentist shouted to Clay* ton. ' ; Dr. Wright and Pennington, mouth still full of cotton, pul Clayton through the window- Clayton, married and the fathff of two children, explained that he dropped the Insurance policy to cu| expenses. He has not renewed the policy. He said he had It only a fef months and dripped It with row* tively small lots. U would hjMf paid 19000 in case of acnt<m|| death. J t Clayton, who spent If on Salpan In the last war and < through 42 «lr raids unaeeJ Mid after hli experience yeeterd*y» "I'm a fatalist. My time la a*. you know you have to be e tataW lit in this line of work, J went fc" o work after it hepponeoYaa*, { be sonufwhere doim i that ' - -

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