FRIDAY, JUNE 28, 1963 ALTON EVENING TELEGRAPH PAGE FIVE Unemployment Story Only Major Reforms Can Help to Change Picture of Unemployment Public opinion reporter Samuel Lubell winds up his series of articles on (he unemployment problem by suggesting several reform measures that might ease the situation. By SAMUEL LtlBELL As I traveled around the count r y interviewing unemployed workers, I often asked myself what can be done to reduce unemployment? Two' main needs stand out: First, the economy still is not generating enough new jobs to employ a rising population. Second, along with a further ec- ononlic lift, we need a Joshua-like assault on the many Jericho-wall barriers thai keep the unemployed from moving freely into the BURLINGTON R.R. STEAM ENGINE TRAIN RIDE TO BEARDSTOWN AND RETURN JUNE 20 SATURDAY RESERVATIONS STILL AVAILABLE BUT GOING FAST SUNDAY EAST LEAVE 10:30 A.M. (D.S.T.) RETURN 6:00 P.M. (D.S.T.) STOPS AT ALTON BRIGHTON LEAVE 10:45 A.M. (D.S.T.) RETURN 5:45 P.M. (D.S.T.) TELEPHONE (ST. LOUIS) CENTRAL 1-6360 prospering part of the economy. The barriers that need tumbling or at least lowering are found almost everywhere. With teen-agers, obsolete "child labor" restrictions should be reworked to fit today's working conditions; the number of apprenticeships must also be greatly expanded. At the other age end, the system of pension rights might be changed so companies can hire older workers without being penalized financially. Still other needed reforms range from a relaxation of union membership barriers against both white and Negro workers to an overhauling of the vocational training given in the armed services. Of nine youths just out of the service whom I interviewed, only one had been helped to find a job by the training received while in the service. These and other needed chang- BEFORE YOU MAKE A COMMITMENT ON ANY BUILDING, CONTACT US FOR A COMPLETE PACKAGE MATERIAL PRICE! WE'LL BE GLAD TO HELP YOU . . . • PRICE YOUR JOB • ARRANGE FINANCING • ARRANGE CONTRACTING ALL AT NO EXTRA COST TO YOU! GODFREY, ILL. PHONE 466-3431 SEE OUR COMPLETE LINE OF LUMBER AND BUILDING MATERIALS FOR ANY HOME STYLE srilNGHAN ALLIED PRODUCTS es will not be pushed through easily. F'or one thing they grind against trends that have dominated the economy for some years. Good Example Last week's steel agreement provides a good example. Steelworkers, with the highest seniority are to rotate 13-week vacations which, it is estimated, may open 0,000 to 20,000 more jobs. But these jobs are likely to be used to give full-working weeks nd perhaps overtime to steelwork- rs now on the seniority recall ists. It is doubtful that the vaca- ion plan will actually open steel mployment to newer, younger workers now out of work. Naturally the steel union would be expected to think of its own nembership first. Still this very act aggravates hard-core unem- )loyment. Not only in steel but in many major manufacturing industries, the number of available jobs has been dropping because of automa- ion. The unions have responded this decline by demanding ligher pay and fringe benefits for he jobs that remain. As these seniority rights and benefits have •isen, it has become steadily more difficult for new workers to come into these industries. The newness of this situation is worth emphasizing. During the depression years as the economy recovered, the available jobs went to the newer, younger workers, while many middle-aged and elderly workers never were retired. During recent years, however we have developed a system un der which the middle-aged, high est-seniority workers have been steadily tightening their contro over the available jobs. These "protected" workers stand secure behind the fortres walls, while the brunt of unem ployment is heaped year afte year upon the younger, "unpro tected" workers on the exposed plain. The disparities between thesi two economic worlds dominat the thinking of most of the un employed. Asked what should b done to help make more jobs three out of four reply, "Lowe the retirement age." Pressed to explain why, the are likely to echo the response o an Akron salesclerk who sale "Let young people have th jobs. Older people don't nee much money. Young famlies bu more." In a number of unemployrnen enters some workers told me, "I as forced to retire." Although icy have been pushed out of the ctive economy, they remain in le unemployment statistics, since many keep looking for earnings to dd to their pensions. Shortening the work week was avored by roughly 60 per cent oi le unemployed who were inter- iewed. This support would run ligher if it were not for the pro- est voiced by many housewives I don't want my husband around he house all day long." Other workers oppose a shorter 'ork week because "those fellows All go out and get a second job' r "the companies will only work nore overtime. It won't help us.' In short, one paradox of the un- mployment problem is that ae- ons taken to strengthen "job se- urity" for some workers stimu- ate joblessness elsewhere in the conomy. This grim rule applies ot only to the effects of collec ive bargaining but to the two-sid d nature of economic growth whose left hand will eliminate old obs, even while the right hand i reating new ones. Perspective needed Another major finding of my un mployment survey is the neec or a more balanced perspectiv as to what can properly be ex )ected from the economy. In New ark, N.J., for example, a specia >roject has been set up to fine obs for young people under 22 Of the Negro youths who through this project, nearly I per cent have come from t h iouth in the past few years. Thei FORTY ODD By Peg Bracken and Rod Lull Greene 4-H Clubs Plan 'Work Day 9 CARROLLTON —Work Day at Greene County Fairgrounds for Greene County 4-H Club members, their parents and their lead- planned for Mon- 'No, dear, it didn't hurt a bit, he just read my X-rays, and you know, Frank, I was thinking .. . We really don't need a new car this year." ers has been day. Annually the 4-H clubs operate a dining room at the south end of the Grandstand and Monday they will bring paint brushes and the building will be painted during the day and made ready for the opening day ot the county fair, July 8. To Return to Okinawa CARROLLTON — S-Sgt. and Mrs. Waltes O. Tramel of Kokomo. Ind., are scheduled to return to the Naha AFB in Okinawa within three months and Sgt. Tramel will be stationed there for approximately four years. They have been in the United States a year and a half after spending almost four years at the same base in Okinawa. Sgt. Tramel will leave in July for two months of special training at Stewart AFB in Nashville, Tenn. During his absence in Tennessee and prior to the time that she will be permitted to leave being out of work can hardly be blamed on any faltering in the economy. Ironically, except for California, the heaviest Negro migrations in for Okinawa, Mrs. visit her mother, Tramel will Mrs. Esther Glenn of Carrollton. Mrs. Glenn and Mrs. Robert Blackstone and daughter, Judy, returned home Thursday from Kokomo where they had been guests since Monday at the home of Sgt. and Mrs. Tramel. recent years have poured into states which have lost industry to the South. Finally, a caution should be sounded on the "salvation" emphasis being given retraining. The idea that more schooling and technical training will help young people get work has gained general acceptance. Many unemployed youths I talked with are taking courses at night or from correspondence schools. Others explain, "I'm working to make enough money to go to school." Still, too much should not be expected from retraining. First, retraining is likely to miss the people who need it most. My interviews showed little interest in retraining among persons over 40. Among jobless youths with a high-school education, one-1 half liked the idea of being retrained. Among those with only an elementary school education, a bare fourth were willing to be re- trained. Second, retraining may lead to heartaches rather than job security. A Detroit auto worker learned to be a time-study man by going to school at night. Assured of a 'steady job" with a sizable manufacturing outfit, he quit the auto company, seniority. sacrificing 12 He had been years doing time-study work for six months when an order came down from on corporate high,"All time-study men must be college graduates." Although his work was satisfactory, he was fired. Comments of other unemployed workers indicate that perhaps it is the personnel experts who need retraining. Many have been hard at work narrowing job specifications so fewer and fewer persons will be able to fit their odd-shaped holes. It is difficult enough to retrain square pegs so they can fit into round holes. Retraining will be wasted if odd, bureaucrat ic shapes are given to more and more jobs. SAN JOSE — A project to build a rice mill has been set up in Costa Rica. BREAK THE HEAT BARRIER WITH Special Sale! GIBSON WINDOW UNITS 5,000 BTU 1 10 VOLT MODEL NOW ONLY 129 95 12,000 BTU MODELS $ 269,95 20 INCH WINDOW FANS $26.? ST. PETERS ELECTRIC and HARDWARE 2502 State St. Phone HO 5-8931 FREE PARKING IN OUR LOT "Good vacation ?" "Not a speck of trouble f When you're traveling and need local information, put your confidence in the "As You Travel, Ask Us" sign. It's your promise of help from Standard or American Oil Dealers. 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