Estherville Daily News from Estherville, Iowa on January 24, 1973 · Page 9
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Estherville Daily News from Estherville, Iowa · Page 9

Estherville, Iowa
Issue Date:
Wednesday, January 24, 1973
Page 9
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Became an American Way of Life ESTHERVILLE DAILY NEWS, WED., JAN. 24, 1973 Pag9 8 Protest Was Mode of Expression for War By SID MOODY AP Newsfeatures Writer As the dominant fact of American life of the last decade, the Vietnam war reached directly or indirectly into public and private spheres alike. The campus, the ghetto, the counting house all became something they hadn't been as the war crept step by little SK>P across the Pacific from the JUTS- gles of Indochina. This was the period wbsm blacks rioted, cities barne-i kids dropped out, a president dropped out, crime flourished, campuses revolted, gaps widened, the dollar wilred. Ken: State ... communes ... Peace Now! ... do your own thirds ... How much all of this was born of war will long be argued. But the war touched it all, for it was the linchpin of all those swift years of change. Protest became a mode of expression for any complaint: The war, ROTC, the draft, high prices at the meat counter. The raised voice and the raised fist supplanted the letter to the editor. of yvwns soucfrt refuge in Canada rather than face service in Vietnam. 5s.v.>e went to jail for burn ins draft cards. Storefront draft counselling centers became * campus fixture. Radical youth groups such as the Students for a Democratic Society made opposition to the war one of their main causes. Student d;-*f: deferrals were a sore point with some who served. "3 was over there set- tine. sh»x as when my peers were back home sipping gin at the country club," said Dean Phillips, * ^-year-old law student and member of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War who won 14 decorations as a paratrooper in Indochina. But the nation's mood of what to do about draft evaders was ambivalent. Even a veteran such as Sgt. C.J. Huhn, who lost a ieg to a land mine, was measured in his criticism. •'The veterans against the war I don't mind. They've been there. But the guys who haven't have no conception of what they're talking about" But if be didn't condone amnesty, neither did he demand jail. Godfather Of Dissent The godfather of youthful dissent was the University of California campus Berkeley. Clark Kerr, then "head of the school, traces the initial breaks to the patterns of demonstration established in the South as well as the uproar of the 1964 Republican convention in San Francisco. "I don't think we would have had Berkeley in 1964 without the convention, if we had not had the long, hot summer in Mississippi when if you didn't like something, you sat down," he said. Campus violence began to fbess OB the war. i'fralpnt'i protested with sit-ins and seizures at schools with ROTC imftg or Virgin War Was Whore "Young people in this war were more innocent than we were," said Maurice Mitchell, chancellor °* 106 University of Denver* and a World War II veteran. "Bui the virgin war to stop communism turned out to be a whore. The government blew its credibility 7 right out of the water, and that has not yet come home to roost. "Vietnam really destroyed that generation's faith in government, maybe for their life- tiroes." And maybe that had been part of the trouble, all the . murk. There had been, at first, whose eaaowmeM portfolios ^ ^mmo theory. If the United States doesn't stop Red China, z-z-zap, there goes the rest of Asia. But in 1972 Rich- axdf VuoinhaWu^wfa& saii fa- MnJS coaained war-oriented securities. Radicals such as Herbert Ap- f ^'^^^^^^^-iTlW to aid the French made MTMPT ^ at such schools as the tmiversiry of Wisconsin to their fees with a repeated litany peace in Peking. And the war was still there. There had been the Gulf of a^inst the^ war: "Stop it: Stop Tonkin that spurred a moment hi Stop it." oj nan anal cohesion, but even today it is not clear just what the radar saw out there in the night. There had been My lii and Li. Galley and the national uproar at his conviction that The draft was another focal became stuck in the throat point of resistance. Tboasaods when one reflected that whate- Draft Point Of Resistance vcr he was, William Callcy was no hero. Maybe that, too, was part of the trouble. A lot of people had said that. And maybe no villains. Just victims. l^ndon Johnson had been one. The immense credit he amassed in his landslide election in 1964 had so eroded four years later that he chose not to seek re-election. And maybe part of the trouble was that it had gone on so long. 'My Fellow Americans' Three presidents had gone on television beginning, "My fellow Americans and then somberly telling why advisers would be sent or bombs dropped or Cambodia invaded, and still the war was there, all tunnel and no light One looks back with surprise at photographs of Berkeley in 1964. Students wore jackets and ties and crewcuts. It seems no one has had a haircut since and fugitive students are on the FBI's most-wanted list Against the backdrop of a war that would not end, some young people simply decided that if it would not go away, they would. Into drugs. Into communes. Into Hare Krishna. Into their own thing. "The war in Vietnam has had a tremendous influence on young persons wanting to drop out of society," said Dr. Dave Smith who worked in the Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic before that garden of the flower children in San Francisco became a jungle of crime. There were others who had nowhere to go: No figure can be provided to prove a negative, but many black leaders were to ask what could have been accomplished in the gnettoes of America with the billions spent in Vietnam. The Rev. Martin Luther King was to make the war a racial issue when he pointed out the high rate of black casualties, and black leaders began protesting that Negroes were fighting a white man's war. If this did not kindle Watts and Detroit and Newark and Washington and other cities of the long, hot summers, it certainly was present in black resentment. National Boredom For the war was always there, right there in the newspapers and on the 7 o'clock news, night after night. It had come so quietly, like frost in the night, and as it slowly- wound down, it seemed to have left a national boredom, an apathy. "You just can't shock people any more," said Tom Wolzien, a Denver television newsman and veteran of the war. What could shock you after Kent State and Calley and the riots and Attica and the peace parades and all the shouting and bombing and marching? The war had been an immense binge, inflating the paycheck and deflating the dollar. And what had it bought? Even those whose loss in Vietnam was direct seemed to have undergone a metamorphosis. Richard Hamm, a retired businessman and university official, sat in his home in the Colorado farming town of Longmont the day after Henry Kissinger said, "Peace is at hand." He wondered what that meant for his son, James, an F4 pilot missing in action since he was shot down during the Tet offensive in 1968. "I don't think my war attitudes changed entirely because of our involvement with Jim, but I think now it's almost an impossibility for one country to set up a bulwark against communism. I think that unless we're asked, it's probably better to Vietnam: America's Most Expensive War By FRED S. HOFFMAN AP Miliary Writer WASHINGTON (AP) - The 11-year Vietnam war was the longest in U.S. history. b was one of the most expensive, costing nearly $135 billion. It killed more than 56,000 American servicemen, the fourth largest toll in any U.S. war. These are some of the statistics which etch the scope of the Vietnam war and fit it into its place among this country's armed conflicts. Until Vietnam, the eight-year Revolutionary War was the longest on the U.S. record. Such documents as are available list only 4,435 battle deaths over that span but say nothing about other deaths such as those caused by disease, often a bigger killer than bullets in those days. The four-year Civil War took the heaviest payment in American lives. A total of 498,332 .Americans died in battle and from other causes, 364,511 in Union uniforms and 133,821 in the Confederate forces. World War II ranks next in human cost Over three years and eight months of fighting, 405,399 Americans died in combat, from injuries and disease. World War I lasted 19 months for the United States and led to the deaths of 116,516 Americans. s »v Vietnam war the 54,246 resulting fi three-year Korean'War. The shortest war in American history was the four-month Spanish-American War in 1898. Some 365 died in battle, bat 2,081 succumbed away from com­ bat, mostly from yellow fever and spoiled beef. The more than 153,000 wounded and requiriag hospitalization in the Vietnam war also ranked well below previous major wars. In World War n, Pentagon records show, there were 670,£46 listed as wounded. In the Civil War, the count was 281,881 on the Federal side, with no reliable records available for the Confederates. World War I produced 204,002 wounded and Korea 103,284 War prisoners hare received greater public attention in Vietnam than in previous wars, but the totals of Americans held captive are infinitesimal when compared with the two other recent conflicts in this century. According to the Pentagon, 545 Americans currently are listed as captured or interned in Southeast Asia, with another 1,154 missing. In World War H, there were 128,782 Americans taken captive by the Germans and the Japanese, m Korea, 7,152 American servicemen were imprisoned in North Korea. Missing figures were not available for those wars. Over the past 11 years, a total of 2.6 million Americans have served in Vietnam and another 700,009'' elsewhere in Southeast Asia or offshore as part .~of.UsfW. By cjissparison, nearly 12 million seen went oversets in World War 0 whBe almost L8 million saw duty in the Far East command durw«~<ht Korean War. > —«*.. The nearly $135 billion cost of the Vietnam war is well below the estimated 8330 billion price of World War IL But the gap probably is much greater than that, because the dollar is considerably cheaper now than it was in the 1940s because of inflation over the last quarter of a century. Government records list the cost of World War I at about $27 billion and Korea at SI8 billion. The United States has lost over 4,800 helicopters and more than 3,600 jets and other fixed- w i n g airplanes throughout Southeast Asia. This compares with 3,000 planes downed in Korea and more than 27,000 lost in World War IL The United States set new records in the tonages of explosives fired by its warplanes and guns in Vietnam. Through September, U.S. warplanes unloaded a total of 6.8 million tons of conventional bombs in Indochina, roughly triple the 2,057,244 tons dropped by U.S. air forces over Europe, North Africa and the Pacific in all of World War IL The bomb tonnage in Korea totaled only 635,000, or about 10 per cent of that spent in Indochina. The volume of artillery and other ground-end ship-fired monitions » Southeast Asia has reached about 7.5 illion tons. This is well beyond the six million tons of ammunition fired in World War 0, according to records in the Office of Army Military History. The volume of ground munitions actually fired in Korea is not available, but more than 2.6 million tons of high explosives were shipped to the Far East Command in the Korean War years. not to try and 'saw' another country." His wife, a calm, handsome woman, poured some coffee. ' "I don't feel bitter about it Times have changed in the last four years. It seemed right at the time." Kight at the time. At what time? If it once was right, when did it turn wrong? $60 Billion Mistake A nation of winners was left to seek somewhere in a distant jungle the something that had been won. If there was victory with honor, what was the victory and where was the honor? If there was defeat, what had been lost? Had war brought some breakdown in the American ethic? A Rip Van Winkle walking across America after a 10-year sleep in 1972 would find porno shops and massage parlors advertising in hotel magazines and X- rated movies and sixth-graders on drugs and runaway kids and embittered vets and any number of people who would tell him, yeah, I guess it was all a mistake. AH a mistake and $60 billion and 50,000 lives? History would determine that But if there was to be peace, it would be a peace without parades. If there were not flags, neither was there crepe. A war that had lived almost too long for tears, died without cheers. "It's not that people don't care, " said Wolzien. "Maybe they just want to forget. They're tired of rhetoric and demonstrations. "Maybe they just want to sleep a while." VIETNAM: THE HUMAN COST (1961-1972) Americans Killed Wounded Died of wounds Nonfatal wounds Missing Died while niisMitg Returned Current missing Cupturcd Died while captured Returned Current captured Deaths from aircraft accidents/incidents Total deaths disunities not resulting from hostile action Current missing Deaths from aircraft accidents/incidents Deaths from other cause Total deaths Oram! total deaths .18.3% 5.158 2..KW 101 1.151 21 74 544 4.077 45.804 117 • 7,2»>7 IV.2S0 56.164 South Vietnamese Killed I88..U1 Wounded 482.159 North Vietnumes and Viet d>ng Deaths South Vietnam civilian casualties as results of terrorism (1957-1972) Killed * Al>ductcd TOTAL KILLED: 1,172,757 . w .w4 TOTAL WOUNDED: 58.4.U 785,542* *' * Does not include February 196$ Tet Offensive in which an estimated 10,000 civilians (oil their Ihes, including the Hue masiacrt ol more than 3,000 eivilions. #* tstimated br Detente Dept. * * * Does not include enemy liguiet. U.S. reports all wounded, South Viet- namete report only those seriously wounded. Source: Department ol Delenie Regretted Not Obtaining Peace By LEWIS GULICK Associated Press Writer WASHINGTON (AP) - In the beginning of Lyndon B. Johnson's presidency, Vietnam was a shadow on his horizon. At the end, it cast a pall ranging far across his adinis- tration. "The strain of prolonged engagement in a distant war stirred deep controversy among our people," Johnson said later. "The war created or deepened divisions—between the President and Congress, between 'doves' and 'hawks,' between generations ..." So it was in a Vietnam speech, March 31, 1968, announcing a scaleback of the U.S. air assault on North Vietnam in a move to promote peace negotiatiins, that Johnson dropped his ultimate political bombshell: "I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president" Johnson* s deep disappointment shows in his memoirs, "The Vantage Point" He wrote: "I regretted more than anyone could possibly know that I was leaving the White House without having achieved a just an honorable, and a lasting peace in Vietnam." At the start when Johnson stepped into office in November 1963 following John F. Kennedy's assassination, Vietnam admittedly was a difficulty. Kennedy had sent 16,000 U.S. troops there, largely under the label of advisers and technicians, Johnson was to swell the force to some 50,000. In his first hours in the White House Johnson was briefed on foreign affairs. While South Vietnam "gave me real cause for concern," he recalled, "compared with later periods, even the situation in Vietnam at that point appeared to be relatively free from the pressure of immediate decisions." In the presidential election the following year Johnson rated himself as a Vietnam "peace" candidate as against his more militantly anti-Communist Republican opponent Barry Goldwater. Johnson won the election in a landslide. Yet various plans already were under way within the administration, as the secret Pentagon papers later showed, for core foeefo! set ion in the av doehina conflict In August 1944 the Xary reported attacks by North Vietnamese patrol boats on U.S. destroyers in the Golf of Tonkin. The affair spurred sponsorship by the adastoistratioft of a a*h grtssiasel retoiatk* that was to be a center of controversy in 'ensuing years during Johnson's .Vietnam buildup. The Tonkin Gulf resolution .was passed by Senate and Tlouse by lopsided majorities; In it Congress gave its support to the President for "all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression." Johnson maintained . the Tonkin Gulf measure gave congressional support to the deeper U.S. involvement in Vietnam. Critics vigorously disputed this. In February 1965 Johnson began the U.S. air assaults on North Vietnam. He followed up that spring with the introduction of U.S. combat troops whose number eventually swelled to more than half a million. Meanwhile, he was accompanying the military stepup with a continuing series of unsuccessful peace moves. In April 1965 he delivered a major address at Johns Hopkins University urging Hanoi to join in trying to reach a settlement In October 1966 he journeyed to Manila to join with Vietnam allies in proposing a peace solution. He sent diplomats around the world on secret and public peace-seeking missions, sometimes accompanied by pauses in the U.S. bombing of the North. Finally, in November 1968, Johnson was able to reach a bomb - halt - negotiations deal with North Vietnam which led to the Paris peace parley. The negotiating sessions at the French Capital g6t' under" way just after v Johnson left , office and :: haVe 1 ' 3 - coh'tmueft intermittently since. ' " In one of history's coincidences, Johnson's death came two days before the initialing of a Vietnam peace pact under the administration of his successor, President Nixon. ' Johnson felt that he' had left a springboard for Nixon to use toward peace in Vietnam when the new President entered office in January 1969. "I felt I was turning over to President Nixon," he said, "a foreign-policy problem that although serious, was Improving; an ally that was stronger^ than,, ever before; an enemy weakened and beaten in every major" engagement; and a working forum for peace." Iowa Viet POW Families Happy, Excited, Relieved By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Photographed faces and distant memories will be replaced by real Iowans in 60 days, President Nixon promises, and families of Iowa prisoners of war in Vietnam say they are very happy, very excited and very relieved. The President's announcement that the peace envoy Henry Kissinger said was "at hand" in October will be a reality after Saturday means that young Michael Naughton of Sheldon will have a chance to get to know his 34-year-old Navy lieutenant commander father, Robert, who he doesn't remember very well. Michael and his two brothers — all are aged 8, 9 and 10 — "danced around, just real happy," when they heard the President Tuesday night, Peggy Naughton recalled. Her husband's plane was shot down May 18, 1967, and he was captured. Nixon's announcement "was such good news," said Mrs. Everett Sullivan of Des Moines. The Sullivans' son, Air Force Lt. Col. Dwight E. Sullivan, was captured by the North Vietnamese Oct 17, 1967 after his plane was shot down. Mrs. K.H. Monlux, whose son, Air Force Capt. Harold Monlux, 31, was shot down late in 1966, "almost can't believe it is true." But the waiting and uncertainty isn't over for some Iowans. "We're still waiting," said Mrs. Harold Palen of Dubuque, whose son, Army Sgt. Carl T. Palen, has been missing since Jan. 3, 1971. The family will "still have to wait and see what happened to him," said Mrs. Palen. Mrs. Velma Cross of Des Moines was "relieved that our Pentagon Reports Peace Dividends Do Not Exist By ROBERT A. DOBKIN AP Military Writer WASHINGTON (AP)- The so-called peace dividend— the savings expected to result from an end to the Vietnam War- does not exist, says the Pentagon. Defense Department officials said shortly after the nine-point peace proposal was announced Oct. 26 that dramatic reductions in military spending were "just not in the cards." Since 1965 the United States has spent $135.5 billion on the Vietnam war, an amount second only to the $330 billion spent in World War D. Witt an armistice it was mougbt that the vast sum of money for the war could be ploughed back into the domes- tie economy. Has me peace dividend been stolen? After all, since the war's peak in 1968, there have been large cuts in war costs as the United States slowly withdrew its forces. This should have resulted in spending cuts of $24 billion, but during this time the Pentagon budget dropped in constant dollars, by only $1.5 billion. Pentagon Comptroller Robert Moot explained the peace dividend was swallowed up by inflation, pay raises and the cost of new weapons. Over the past five years the Defense Department trimmed 2.8 millions workers, InclwUng civilian and military, from its rolls. But Increases to raise military salaries to civilian levels and the higher coat of mill, tary retirement went Into effect, accounting for $16.3 billion of the expected $24 billion savings. A 22 per cent rate of inflation, affecting Pentagon purchases as it does the housewife in the supermarket, chewed up another $6.2 billion. Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird already has predicted an increase in spending next year above the current $76.5- blllion defense budget, in part' to pay for the higher cost of an all-volunteer army as well as new strategic weapons. Despite the U.S.-Sovlet Strategic Arms Limitation Agreement, the Nixon administration is moving ahead on development of the Air Force's new Bl bomber, a $12-bllUon program, and the Navy's new! Trident missile-firing submarine at $l-billion a copy. part in the war is over." But she said she and her family was "so anxious to hear about Ariel." Her son, Ariel, is a Marine captain who has been missing since his plane was shot down July 17, 1968. "It's hard to wait," she added, "but we're happy for those whose sons and husbands will be coming home. Mrs. Donald Kolarik of Clinton said she was happy the peace would be honorable. "I wouldn't want it to be any other kind," she said. Her foster son, Marine Lt Col. Edison W. Miller, 43, wa: shot down over North Vietnam Oct 13, 1967, about one month after he arrived in South Vietnam. "It's very, very wonderful," she said. "It's been such a strain all these years. It will be wonderful to have peace and the boys home, and I'm very glad It's an honorable peace." Miller's wife, Lindsay, and the couple's five sons live in California and Mrs. Kolarik said Mrs. Miller wants her to be in California "when he comes, to share him with me for a little bit." But with the happiness was the feeling in some quarters that the conflict could have ended sooner. Paratrooper Douglas Peterson of Fairfield, who is under treatment at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Houston, Tex., for wounds be suffered in Vietnam, said the peace announcement was "a beautiful thin*." But he say he felt the war "could have ended a lot sooner. Politics were to blame for the delay, he felt "It seems like they wanted to drag it on," he said. "They could have sent more troops over and cleaned the pact;np» Toe 82nd Airborne Division .soldier said he feU mi govern-: msnt "half cleaned it up. Bat they ^putsrestrtettOBA^ troops and made it nerd for Mm to do what they bad to

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