Carrol Daily Times Herald from Carroll, Iowa on July 12, 1957 · Page 10
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Carrol Daily Times Herald from Carroll, Iowa · Page 10

Carroll, Iowa
Issue Date:
Friday, July 12, 1957
Page 10
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Court Followed Four Steps Reaching a Decision on Gl By JAMES MARLOW j Associated Press News Analyst WASHINGTON OF) - The Supreme Court ruled only that the government had the right — and not on whether it was right — to let the Japanese try Gl William S. Girard for shooting a woman to death. The court reached its decision in four steps. Some background is necessary to understand them: Every foreign country, being a sovereign power, has the right to try an American, civilian or serviceman, for a crime committed within its borders unless, by agreement with the United States, it willingly gives up its right to do so in certain cases. The United States worked out the following agreement with a number of countries where it has troops stationed, including Japan: 1. It an American, civilian or serviceman, commits a crime while not on official duty, as in the case of Japan, the Japanese are free to try him. 2. But the United States has first claim — or primary right — to try him for a crime* committed in performance of duty or in certain other circumstances. • 3, In cases where the United | States has the primary right to try — but Japan insists on bring- 1 ing .him to trial — this country will give "sympathetic consideration" to the Japanese claim. In short, in such a case this country could turn a serviceman over to Japan even though the crime he committed was "in performance of duty." The Japanese did not deny that Girard was on duty when he killed the woman while she was picking up empty shells on a maneuver area. Girard had been assigned to the area by his commanding officer to guard a machine gun. But the Japanese did argue his shooting the woman was not "in performance of duty." They asked to try Girard on a charge equivalent to manslaughter. Eventually, this country agreed to turn Girard over to the Japanese. Girard's lawyers appeal to the Supreme Court. They said turning Girard over to Japan was a violation of his constitutional rights as a citizen. The Constitution guarantees a citizen in this country a right to trial by jury. In Japan judges do the trying. The court took the following • Girard Predicts Verdict Of Acquittal in Jap Trial By GENE KRAMER CAMP WHITTINGTON, Japan (^-William Girard predicted today a Japanese court will acquit him of charges of causing the death of a Japanese woman on a military firing range. The 21-year-old U.S. Army specialist from Ottawa, 111., issued a statement to reporters a few hours* after the U.S. Supreme v Court upheld the American government's decision to turn him ever to Japan for trial. Asked about the high court's ruling, Girard said he had "no comment on the way }t went." Girard told reporters "I am hoping to get a fair trial" in the Japanese court. His Army legal adviser, Maj. Stanley Levin of Hollywood, Calif! was asked earlier if Girard expects a fair trial and gave this reply: "He might not put it just that "way but you can say that." At Maebashi, where Girard will be tried, Dist. Court Judge Juzo Kawachi announced he will open the trial Aug. 26. He said other sessions will be held Sept. 6, 7, 13, 14 and Oct. 4. Kawachi declared he will give the American Gl a fair and fast trial and said he expected the proceedings to be completed in October. Girard's prediction as to the outcome of the case was issued through Levin. "It is our (Levin's and Girard's) belief," the Army lawyer said, "that the court will reach the conclusion that Specialist Girard was in performance of his duty and that it was a regrettable accident." Girard has been indicted by the Japanese court on charges of "inflicting bodily injury resulting in (the) death" of Mrs. Naka Sakai, 46. He is accused of having fired an empty cartridge case from a grenade launcher that struck and killed the woman as she collected scrap metal on a firing range Jan. 30. Girard and Levin said the Gl expects to ask Itsuro Hayashi, a prominent Japanese attorney, to serve as his chief defense counsel. Hayashi was first, selected by Girard June 6, but Girard announced two days later he was dismissing the attorney on the advise of his broth e r Louis in Ottawa. Girard, who appeared poised and smiling while talking with newsmen, said he spoke with his brother Louis today but declined to disclose what they talked about. "It was personal, .between me and him," he said. Levin said Girard "unquestionably" can remain in American custody during the trial just so the Army produces him for the Japanese court sessions. Girard's Japanese bride Haru (Candy) Girard said "it's a good thing" that her husband will be tried in a Japanese court instead of by a court-martial. "Everybody tells me the Japanese court will be more lenient on my husband than a court-martial," she said. steps in deciding not to interfere with the Eisenhower administration's decision to let Japan try Girard: 1. It found that an American In a foreign country has no immunity to trial by that country's government unless it has agreed to let the United States, in some circumstances, try him. 2. It found that the agreement with Japan was not unconstitutional. This country had made its agreement with Japan under a treaty approved by the Senate. The treaty therefore was constitutionally okay. 3. It found further that this agreement wes not. contrary to any existing American law. 4. Since there was no conflict with the Constitution or any law, the court would not interfere with the constitutional right of the executive branch of the government to conduct foreign affairs. This treaty came under foreign affairs. So the court refused to intervene for Girard. 10 Timet Herald, Carroll, Iowa Friday, July M, 19S7 51,000 Scouts Open Jamboree VALLEY FORGE. Pa. Wl — America's Boy Scouts Friday officially opened their fourth national jamboree. With red rockets bursting in air and a band playing the stirring martial' tune "Colors" four Eagle Scouts hoisted Old Glory on a 60- foot pole. Drums rolled as the flag reached the top of the gleaming aluminum pole—and then there was a moment's silence. Not a sound came from the 51,000 scouts and their leaders standing at attention in the grassy valleys and wooded hills of history Valley Forge. It was the first time the American flag had flown over the encampment, though thousands had been living for more than three days in tents pitched on this historic land made famous 180 years ago' by George Washington's colonial army. The flags of 62 other nations also were raised on 28-foot poles that lined the headquarters quadrangle. Until Friday evening's manru^ moth pageant, featuring Vice President Richard Nixon, the day's program will run the gamut of the usual scout routine: Walking tours to historic areas in Valley Forge Park; archery, angling marksmanship, log-rolling, log-sawing, flagpole-raising and various physical fitness competitions; and visits by 7,000 to Philadelphia to see Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell. The pageant in the jamboree arena, with the entire 51,000 present, will feature "a roll call of the regions" — with scouts portraying in various tableaus the heritage, traditions and local_ characteristics of U.S. areas. Book Pictures Devastation of An Enemy Attack WASHINGTON Ufc-The government Friday released the first comprehensive picture of the sprawling devastation which might occur from an enemy attack with super hydrogen weapons. The issuance of a bulky handbook entitled "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons" coincided with the beginning of Operation Alert 1957 -Uhe fourth nationwide civil defense exercise which includes mock nuclear attacks on U.S. cities. The 579-page book, issued by the Defense Department and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). details the blast, heat and radiation effects of high-yield bombs ranging up to 20 megatons —the power of 20 million tons of TNT and a thousand times more powerful than the atom bombs dropped on Japan in 1945. In a foreword, Secretary of Defense Wilson and AEC Chairman Lewis Strauss said references to a 20-megaton device should "not be taken as an indication of capabilities or developments." The volume brings into sharp focus the blast and burning effects, which have received little emphasis in the recent debate over hazards of fallout. For example, it said that in the aerial detonation of a 20-megaton bomb there would be these effects: 1. Wood frame houses would be almost completely destroyed out to about 12 miles in all directions from the point of the blast, and there would be some damage to such buildings out to 20 miles. 2. People could suffer third degree burns out to nearly 30 miles in all directions from the heat flash of the bomb, and first degree burns out to nearly 50 miles. The report offered no estimate of the total casualties that would result from such an explosion, but it recalled that at Hiroshima, out of a total population of 255,000, 70,000 were killed and missing, and another 70,000 injured. At Hiroshima, the area of total destruction was 4.7 square miles, from a bomb having the explosive equivalent of 20,000 tons of TNT. With weapons in the megaton range, the report said, "the damaged region may cover a hundred or more square miles." The report implied, however, that casualties of the Hiroshima order could be cut down by preparedness. The Daily Record — = —ijr— ST. ANTHONY HOSPITAL Admission*— Mrs. Eva Timberlake, Carroll. Mrs. Daniel Chamberlen, Audubon. .. • l t . Frank Wageman, Defiance. Otto Behrens, Carroll. Timothy Dull, Carroll. Alan E. Andersen, Coon Rapids. Mrs. Laud P. Buckley, Sac City. • Jerome William Schreck, Dedham. Dismissals- Jerome H. Schumacher, Carroll. . Cletus A. Anthofer, Gray. Newmark B. Nelsen, Carroll. Mrs. W. Irving Ealy, Glidden. Duane J. Petersen, Carroll. William J. Wieland, 'Carroll. Bird Leffler, Audubon/ Gail DeAnn Buswell, Carroll. Births- Mr. and Mrs. Dpnavon K. Stanzwk, Carroll, a son, Thursday. Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence E. Lindquist, Sac City, a son, Friday. Sgt. and Mrs. Lowell Walter, San Francisco, Calif., a son, David Lowell, July 4. The paternal grandparents are Mr. and Mrs. William Walter of Arcadia and the maternal grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Mesaros of Miami, Fla.' . METHODIST YOUTH RALLY Young people of the Carroll Methodist Church will take part in a sub-district rally of the Methodist Youth Fellowship to be held Sunday afternoon and evening at Springbrook State Park near Guthrie Center. Carroll MYF members will be in charge of the worship service. A recreation program is planned from 4 to 6 p.m. followed by a picnic supper and evening program. WANTED 11 GOOD Used Baby Buggies or Strollers This week one Daily Times Herald Subscriber advertised a good used baby buggy and stroller. She sold them both on the first call and still received eleven more phone calls asking about one or both of the items advertised. If Your Children Have Outgrown Their Buggy or Stroller, Why Not Turn Those Unwanted Items; Into Cash Quick! TIMES HERALD WANT AD GETS RESULTS Whatever you hsve to sell can be sold with a went ad Per extra vitttien money, advertlit thoee unwanted Htm* BABY BED, HI-CHAIR, BABY Basket, all in good condition. 3H60-2tc The above ad placed by a Daily Times Herald Subscriber, was scheduled to run two days this week, but was cancelled the second day because the lady who placed the ad said she bad already sold the items and had received "at least a dozen calls." Why Don't You Let the Doily Times Herald Classified Section Work for You? Just Phone 3573 And Give Your Ad to the Adraker. Mr. and Mrs. Arlo Jorgensen of Pittsburgh, Pa., a daughter, Ann Marie, June 27. The Jorgensens have a son, Dana. Mrs. Jorgensen, the former Sheryl McClintock, is the daughter of Dr. and Mrs. R. H. McClintock of Waverly, formerly of Carroll. Carroll Markets GRAIN Soybeans, No. 2 Corn, No. 2 yellow Oats 2.16 1.26 .59 Chicago Livestock CHICAGO (A—Hogs reached another new top in more than two years Friday at $21.65 for 40 head of No. 1 200 pound butchers. This was the best level since $22.00 paid June 21, 1955. Butchers were generally steady and sows steady to strong. (USDA) — Salable hogs 5,000; moderately active, generally steady on butchers; sows steady to strong; No. 2-3 190-240 lb butchers 20.75-21.25; several lots No. 1-2 200-220 lb most sorted for grade 21.25-21.50; larger lots mixed grade 330-400 lb sows 17.25-18.50. Salable cattle 500; calves 100; cows steady to strong; vealers steady; not enough other classes offered to test prices; small lot choice 1,000 lb fed steers 25.50; package choice 880 lb heifers 24.50; utility and commercial cows mainly 14.00-15.50; good and choice vealers 19.00-23.00. Salable sheep 200; all classes about steady in a clean up trade; good to prime spring lambs 22.0024.00. • Chicago Grain Theie Markets ate Furnished by the Humphrey Grain Company High Low Close Close WHEAT July Sept Dee. March CORN July Sept. Dee. 213% 312% 212 % 212 \ 212% 215% 214 % 215% 215 220 % 219% 220% 219$ ' 220% 221U 221 # 222% 221 221% 221? i29% 128% 128% 128% .132% 131 131 129% 127% 128$ March 133% "132% 132^ OATS July Sept. Dec; * March SOT BEANS July . 250 67% 67% - 70% 72% 243' 1324 68 . 68% ' 71% 738 246% 129 1291, 131" 131 128% 128% 132% 68 V« 71 % 78 247 Sept. 249 240% 246 246 % 239% NOV. 343 % 245% 241% 242; 242 \ 239<! Iowa Regents Relate Needs To Governor DES MOINES Wl—A delegation representing, the. State Board of Regents and the three state educational institutions took to Gov. Herschel Loveless Friday their problem of immediate needs for more new buildings at the schools. After a lengthy closed'meeting spokesmen for the delegation said the governor raised several questions about their needs. It was decided to 'obtain more information and then hold a half-day session with the governor in several weeks. David Dancer, board secretary, said the group didn't ask the governor to call a special session of the Legislature for reenactment of capital' improvement appropriations. He said also that the governor didn't suggest the delegation go to Republican legislative leaders with their problem. The 1957 Republican-controlled Legislature passed a bill to provide about 11 million dollars for new buildings in the next two years at the State University of Iowa, Iowa State College and Iowa State Teachers College. The 'Democratic governor vetoed that and other capital improvements appropriations measures at the same time he rejected the Legislature's tax program. The delegation and the governor discussed the problems privately earlier this week and then sought the conference with Loveless. Loveless said Thursday if the delegation wanted re-enactment of capital improvements appropriations for the schools it should go to Republican legislative leaders. He indicated he thought it would be useless to call a special session because he said indications were the Legislature would only recess and go home. The governor said after Friday's meeting that he wanted particularly to know about three points. One was whether the schools are making full utilization of their facilities, including night classes. The governor said he also asked why the State University of Iowa and Iowa State College seek additional power facilities when it might be cheaper to buy than produce the power needed. Loveless said also he wanted to know why ^he university is seeking funds for both a new pharmacy and a new chemistry building, and whether the old pharmacy building could be used so as to require only one new building. The governor asked why both I the university and Iowa State edu- , cate engineers, and whether it , could be done more efficiently at 1 one of the schools. The vetoed bill included $1,100,000 for power plant equipment at Iowa State and $1,700,000 or additional distribution facilities at the university. Also included in the measure was $1,580,000 for a new chemistry building additional • wing, equipment and site, and $1,470,000 for a new pharmacy building, equipment and site, both at the university. As to night classes, the delegation told the governor there has been some increase along that line but it also creates problems. There will be more of that but it still won't avoid the need for new buildings, the delegation added. In addition to Dancer, members of the delegation included Arthur Barlow of Cedar Rapids, Roy Stevens of Ottumwa and Clifford Strawman of Anamosa, members of the board; President James H. Hilton of IoWa State; President James W. Maucker of State Teachers College; and Harvey Davis, provost at the university. Civil Rights(Continued from Page, 1) Ing the day for a vote on his motion early next week. However, he admittedly had no assurance that Southern senators would not object. They planned a huddle in Russell's office to dis» cuss the situation Khowland's breakfast appointment with Eisenhower followed by two days a White House interview Russell had with the President to explain why he and other Southerners regard provisions of the civil rights bill as "extreme" and "vicious." ' t , Afterwards RusseU said he felt the President's mind' was not closed to "clarifying" amendments and indicated he entertained some hope that the administration might initiate a compromise move. But Knowland told newsmen before seeing Eisenhower that the President had made clear he intended to leave any "clarifying" changes to his legislative leaders. In response to a question, he said he himself had no amendments in mind "at the moment." He said he was concentrating now on "this first hurdle" — his motion to get the bill before the senate. • However, his colleague Sen. Kuchel (R-Calif) said in a separate interview ne thought "it would be well for the White House to indicate its continuing support of the legislation or how it thought it might be clarified." Knowland said he hoped he and Senate Democratic Leader Lyndon Johnson of Texas could join later in the day in offering a unanimous consent agreement to fix a time for voting on the motion to take up the bill. Johnson said his hope was for a vote next Wednesday, but Knowland said he thought that the Senate should vote earlier—on Monday or Tuesday. He said a week's debate of his motion was adequate. Southern senators kept up their, steady drumfire against the bill. They contended it was designed to overturn the social order in the South by permitting the use of troops to force integration of the schools and the mixing of the races in other public places. The House-passed measure would give the attorney general power to seek federal court injunctions against violations and threatened violations not only of voting rights but other civil rights. Persons accused of defying such injunctions could be jailed for contempt without a jury trial. Southern opponents also protest that the j bill links these injunctions to a ] law permitting the use of troops to enforce court orders. Alcoa Expansion At Davenport in Production Now DAVENPORT MV — Production operations started Friday at the new 54 million dollar plant expansion of the Davenport Works lot the Aluminum Co. of America (ALCOA). The expansion adds to" Iowa's industrial capacity new machines, mills and buildings and boosts Alcoa's factory investment in this state to 130 million dollars. > The additions include a 160-inch hot mill; a plate stretcher with a pulling force of 16 million pounds; a 100-inch cold mill for rolling and finishing wide, coiled "aluminum; a foil rolling facility with an annual capacity of 24 millton pounds and plate-treating and aging furnaces which can accommodate plate in 60-fbot length. . Representatives of trade and business publications, newspapers and magazines toured the» facilities Thursday and saw Alcoa property built on ground that was only vacant river frontage nine year! ago. The company now employes 2,200 persons and has a payroll of more than 12% million dollars * year. The new completed facilities ari linked with a 144-inch rolling mill installed in* 1954 under an Air Force contract. E. B. Fassell, works manager, said the plant is now operating at 70 per cent capacity. W. T. Mittman of Pittsburg, Alcoa production manager for sheet and plate aluminum, reported that expanded operations here can produce more than 36 million pounds of rolled product each month. He also explained that the housing industry and related fields are becoming a major market while a craft needs represent only about 17 per cent of the company's production. LARD ' . July 13.95 18.70 Sept. Oct, 14.35 14.40 14.15 14.30 242 13.72 13.77 14.17 14.30 334 13.67 14.10 14.20 Pvts. Thelen and Gottsch Complete Training in Texas FORT HOOD, Texas — Army Pvt. Duane L. Thelen, son of Mr. and Mrs. Lambert J. Thelen, Carroll, and Army Pvt. Dale W. Gottsch, son of Gilmore O. Gottsch, Route 1, Westside,. are scheduled to complete eight weeks of basic combat training with the 4th Armored Division at Fort Hood in mid-July. Thelen worked for Mutual of Omaha before entering the army. He wag graduated from Creighton University, Omaha, in 1956. Gottsch was graduated from Westside Consolidated High. School in 1854, He was employed as, a farmer before entering the? army. Mr. and Mn. Frank W. Belter and Dr. and Mrs. N. J. Gradoville left Thursday night to vacation at Brainerd, Minn'., over the weekend. MOVING Local and Nation Wide Storage «» Cratinf — P«ek(n« Ph.DayiMO Ph, Nifht 3*11 Carroll, lew* John Vanderheiden 4-H Club Girls Meet At Jerrine Brinker's MT. CARMEL—Jerrine Brinker was hostess to members of the Mount Merry Makers 4 -H Club at a regular meeting in her home Wednesday night. Members answered roll call with what they will exhibit at their local achievement show, July 23. Marie Broich and Kathleen Puden? were ap-; pointed chairjnan and co-chairman to make arrangements for the achievement show which will be held in the Mt. Carmel parish hall. Alice Grote gave a talk on suitable flower containers and Karen Ru(.ten spoke on correct dusting procedures. Jerrine Brinker gave a talk on hems on curtains. Jane Fle8kes and Marilyn Koren demonstrated making a storage chest. They will give the same demonstration at the local achievement show. i After the meeting, lunch .was served by Mrs. Brinker, -her daughter. and two daughters-in- law. The next meeting will be held at-Anita Baurhhover's, August 14. METHODIST MEN MEET Colored slides of pictures taken on vacation trips to Yellowstone National Park, Teton National Park and other scenic places in the west were shown by the Rev. Ivan C. By* at the July meeting of Methodist Men in the church parlors Thursday qjght. Hersohel Heath, president,'. conducted the, business meeting.. fcunoh WAS, wrvedlby' Clyde * %iyfawm&: : 'im> Bratten. 1 ' *W waft',*- %',',%» f CANADIAN W&^&VAW Ninety-five per cent pf Canada'! milk supplyjs; carried byfhjghway, transport, and its. fresh fru|ta and vegeUWes mova mainly, by ^ruck, NEW SCHOOL HEAD DAVENPORT (fft-Louis L. Pickett, superintendent of the Ruthven Consolidated School, will assume duties Aug. 1 as new superintendent of Scott County schools. He was appointed to succeed Hartzel M. Perry who resigned. Relief from Current Heat Wave Forecast By The Associated Press Relief from the current heat wave was forecast but not until after more hot weather Friday. Parts of northern Iowa received rain Friday morning with Mason City reporting .37 inch. Scattered thunderstorm activity was expected to continue in the extreme northern counties Friday. Cooler air is expected to enter the northwest part of the state Saturday and cover the entire state by Sunday afternoon. Show- ners will accompany the cooler air. Sioux City and Council Bluffs had the state high of 97 Thursday. Temperatures early Friday ranged from 70 at Mason City to 78 at Des Moines and Ottumwa. FARM MISHAPS FATAL IOWA CITY Utv-An attempt to repair an oats combining machine while it was still running brought death Thursday to Charles Svoboda, 60, at his farm near Shueyville. * Deaths and Funerals MRS. K. VENTEICHER Mrs. Katherine Venteicher, 80, of Fort Dodge, formerly of Wllley, died Friday morning at Mercy Hospital, Fort Dodge, where she had been a datient since July 2. She was the widow of H. C. Venteicher, who had-served as a Carroll County supervisor. The body is at the Twit Funeral Home here, awaiting completion of arrangements. Mrs. Venteicher was Katherine Tigges before her marriage. She had lived with her daughter; Mrs. Al (Louise) Simons, at Fort Dodge about 20 years. Surviving with her daughter are a son, William Venteicher of Cooper; 12 grandchildren; two great­ grandchildren, and one sister, Mrs. Mary Broich of St. Cloud, Minn. A son, John Venteicher, died in 1942. MRS. FOREST BOOM (Time* Herald N»w» Seirl«*> LAKE VIEW - Mrs. Forest Boom died at 1:10 a.m. Wednesday at her home in Lake View. Funeral rites were held Friday, July 12 at 2 p.m. at the Methodist Church, Lakk View, with the Rev. Paul Potter officiating. Mrs. w; K. Hunter presided at, the organ. E. L. Christian wasj soloist. The Rebekah Lodge was in charge of a short service at the church. Pallbearers were: Ike Auen, Jake Auen, LeRoy Schafer, Sam Rodman, Floyd Parkinson and E P. Hackbarth. Burial was in the Ferguson cemetery with the Farber and Ottoman Funeral Home in charge. ' Hilda Beckman Boom, 37* .was born to Henry and.Maggie Beckman in Crawford County Jan. 27, 1900. She was reared in Crawford County. On Feb, 36, ,1924 ;she married Forest Boom. They lived on farms in the Wall Lake community until 19 years ago, when they moved to Lake View. Mrs, Boom was a member of thi Rebekah Lodge and of the American Legion Auxiliary. ': '; ,. She leaves her husband, two. MONUMENTS daughters and four sons: Virgil of Corona, Calif., Marjory (Mrs. Leo Ludwig), Dove, Minn.; LaVone (Mrs. Dwight Miller), Corona, Calif.; Duane, Robert and Darrell of Lake View. Five grandchildren and three sisters: Mrs. Joe Meinen, Carroll; Mrs. Ralph Peters, Breda, and Gertrude, Lake View, and three brothers: Henry and Wally of Lake View and Leonard of Westside. She was preceded in death by her parents and .one brother, John Beckman. MRS. DALE BRUNING (Time* Hitrald Now* Survlea) BREDA — Relatives and friends from Breda and vicinity who attended funeral services for Mrs. Dale Bruning at St. Mary's Church in Remsen July 5 were Mr. and Mrs. William Berning and son, Bill, Mrs. William Jennewein, Mrs. Jerry Neu, Mr. and Mrs. F. B. Ulveling, Mr. and Mrs. Mello Knobbe, Mr. and Mrs. Eldon Heisterkamp, Joe Bruning, Adelaide Bruning and Mr. and Mrs. ALReiff. Mrs. Bruning, 22, died July 2 at a hospital in teMars. She was born January 11, 1935, at Slpux City daughter of Mrs. Frances WUberding and the late Herman Wllberding of Remsen. She was married August 21, 1954, at St. Mary's Church, Remsen, to Dale Bruning of Breda. They located at Meridan where Mr. Bruning is athletic coach., at Meridan High School.' Surviving with her husband are her mother and a sister, Mrs. William Schnepf, of Oyens and her mother-in-law, Mrs. Minnie Bruning, Breda. Mrs. Katherine Venteicher' Pert 0od«e — Age 80 Arrangement! Pending.

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