The Algona Republican from Algona, Iowa on December 11, 1895 · Page 2
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The Algona Republican from Algona, Iowa · Page 2

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Algona, Iowa
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Wednesday, December 11, 1895
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-s**** ''i'? •hfe*tV*f* *Oi, ?«M if* Utrf^ « rH IE MESSAGE. the cf tho Views President to Presented CAUSE AND CURE OF BOND ISSUES, Notes Should He ttetlred—Evils stii Ss:t.".! Ssy Free Coinage - Neutrality With Ketci-eiice to Cttban Revolt— Afrhciiliin Ontrnsrcsi Washington, Dec. 3.—The following is the full text of President Cleveland's aniiual message to congress: To THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES: The present assemblage of tho legislative branch of our government occurs at a timo when the interests of our people unrl the needs of the country give especial prominence to the condition of our foreign relations and the exigencies of our national finances. Tho reports of the needs of the several administrative departments Of the government fully and plainly exhibit what has been accomplished within the scope of their respective duties, and present such recommendations for tho tho betterment of our country's condition as patriotic and intelligent labor and observation suggests. I therefore deem my executive 1 duty adequately performed at this time by presenting to congress the important phases of our situation as related to our intercourse with foreign nations, uml a statement of the financial problem!-, which confront us, omitting, except as they are related to these topics, any reference to departmental operations. 1 earnestly invite, however, not only the careful consideration but the severely critical scrutiny of the congress and my fellow countrymen to the reports concerning theses departmental operations. If justly and fairly examined they will furnish proof of assiduous and painstaking caro for tho public welfare. I press tho Vccommenckitious they contain upon tho respectful alu•nlion of those charged with tho duty o" legislation, bc-!- causo 1 believe; their ;:ao;Hio:i would promote the people's good. FORI31GN K.HE,A'JT11>NS. Neutrality witli Kc>re:joo io Cub:.i—Armenian Outrages— Ymu".'.:i<:l.-in Dispute. By amondutory tariff legislation in January last the Argentine lie-public, recognizing tho value of the large market opened to the free -importation of its wool under our last tariff act, hsvs admitted certain products of the Uniteil f.Uatos to entry at reduced duties. It. iw pleasing to note that tho efforts we have mudo to enlarge the exchanges of trade on :i sound basis of mutual benefit are in this instance appreciated by the country from which our woolen factories draw their needful supply of raw material. Decided in UiMBil'fl Favor. The missions boundary dispute between tho Argentine Republic and Brazil, re- ferrccl to the president of the United States as arbitrator during the term of my predecessor, and which was i-uibniilted to me for determination, resulted in un jiward in favor of Brazil upon the historical and documentary evidence, thus ending a long-protracted controversy tind again demonstrating (ho wludom and desirability of settling international boundary e] is putts by recourse to friendly arbitration. Spccfu Uvsunii>tio:i I>y Chill. Negotiations nre progressing for a revival of the-- United SI atea and Cnilian claims commission, whoso work was abruptly terminated last year by the expiration of the stipulated time within which awards could be maiie. The resumption ot' species payments by Chili is a step of grout lnte.re.st and importance both in its direct consequences upon her own wc.ll'rir.--- i:r.i\ as evincing the ascendency of sound linarielal principles in one of the most influential oi' the South American republics. Seriijiis I)oan.vitlo Coii'.UJ.lo-.i In Ouimi. T'ho cl'-'ss OL the ma y-aentous.struggle between <Jhi.ua and Jair.r.i, \vhile relieving the diplomatic agents oi' this government from the del it-ate duty they undertook at there- quest of botJi countries, of rendering such service to lh> :i subjects of cither belligerent within tlio territorial limits of the other as our neutral position permitted, developed a domestic condition in the Chinese empire which has ciiustel much anxiety and called forth prompt and cartful attention. JClther as a result of a weak control bv the central government over ihe provincial administrations, following a diminution oi' traditional .yoverr.mi-nUil authority under -Can stress of an overwhelming national disaster, or us a manifestation upon pood opportunity of the aversion or the fl'.inr-.sft population to all foreign ways and undertakings, there have occurred in widely-scTiarattd provinces of China serious outl'ii-ttalcs of the old funatle-iil. spirit against foreigners, which, unchecked by the local authorities, if not. actually connived at by them, have culr.niia.ted in mob attack.-.; on foreign .missionary stations, causing much destruction of property and attended with personal injuries as well as JOBS of life. . . Although but one .American citizen was reported to have been ai.-turilly \vouncuu, and although the destruction of property may have fallen more heavily uyion thv mission;'rir>s of other nationalities tuan from ,*hich appear the constitution ancl (.rganizatton of the court, the charges aa formulated, and the general course and result of the trial, by Which it is shown that the accused v.-as tried in open court and was clcfenued by counsel. But the evidence adduced in support of the charges, which was not received by tho French minister for foreign affair.3 till tho first week in October—has thus far been withheld, the French government taking the ground that its introduction In response to our demand would establish a precedent. The efforts of our ambassador to procure it,*howevor, though impeded by recent changes in the French ministry, have not been realized, rind it is confidently expected that s^nie saliafautory. Solution of the matter will shortly be reached. Meanwhile, it appears that Mr. Waller's confinement has every alleviation which the state of his health nml all the other circumstances of the C.TKP demand or permit. In agreeable contrast to the differences above noted respecting a matter of common concern, where nothing is sought except such a mutually satisfactory outcome as the true merits of the case require, is the recent resolution of the French chambers favoring the conclusion of a permanent treaty of arbitration between the two countries. t An invitation has been extended by France to the government and people of the United States to participate in a great international exposition at Paris in 1900 as a suitable commemoration of the close of this, the world's marve-Uous century of progress. 1 heartily recommend Its acceptance, together with such legislation as will adequately provides for a duo representation of this government and Its people on the occasion. Injures Our Interests In Germany. Our relation with the states of the German omph'o are, in fiorno aspects, typical of a condition of thins-a elsewhere found in countries whose productions and trade are similar to our own. The close rivalries of compelIn-v Industrie:;: the Influence of the delusive doctrine that the internal development of a nation is promoted and its wealth increased by a policy, In linder- takinrr to reserve its home markets for the oxclnp'ivo use of It.;; ovn producers, nec- i'sr.nrily ot.Hcruc-ts their s«lc3 in foreign nirii-vot* and prevents free access to the proeineta of the world; the tit-Mire to retain trtido lii tinie-v.-ori! i-utss, rcgartlU-SB of the inexorable lavs of now needs ara changed cordltions of dc-mnnd and supply, and our own bailir.-.r t:\rdinewa in inviting a freer o::ch,".niT'.» of comtnodltien, Mid by this mc-iir.!! 'imporiliivr oiv footing in the external ;-nr.i;-!;.c!:i r::t can ''-v;'.',-.! t < wl-.c-iv t!i' but in adjacent cu.^... i -.u. tuIf :•?•;(.•« ,-i.li'c. i.-.J. Tli" e:-:porlK affected are largely American cattle and other food products, the reason nK/.l-.vncd for unfavorable discrimination V.-..I:-::r that their consumption ta deleterious to the public health. This 13 all tho more Irritating in view of the fact that no European state is as Jealous of the excellence and wholcsomencss of its exported food supplier i;.y the United States nor so easily able on account of inherent soundness to guarantee those qualities. Nor are these iliflk-iilties confined to our food products designed for exportation. Our great Insurance companies, for example, having built up a vast business abroad and invested a large ebare ol then 1 gains in foreign countries in compliance with the local lawn ii.nd re?r.iHUions then existing, now find thi-mflclvots within a narrowing circle of oiic-rouB and uni'orBoen conditions, and are confronted by the nece'ssitv of retirement from a field thus made profHi'Ulo, if ii.uped they are not summarily oxp-.'-ilc-d, r.r> some of them have lately been, from Prussi-J.. It ia not to lie forgotten thru international track- cannot bo one-sided. Its currents are alternating and Us movements should bo honestly reciprocal. \ViUiout this it almost necessarily degenerates into a device to train advantage or a. contrivance to secure btsnt-Iits with on!y tl-.o semblance of a return. In our dealings v.'ivb other nations we ought to bo open-handed and scrupulouslv fair. This should be cur policy as a producing nation, and it plainly becomes us as a people who love generosity and- tho moral aspects of national good faith and reciprocal forbearance. Ihese considerations should not, however, con- stra'n us to submit to unfair discrimination nor to silently acquiesce in vexatious hindrances to the enjoyment of our share of the legitimate advantages of proper trade relations. If an examination oi the situation suggests such measures on our part as would involve ; •: '.:'!•: '.:ors similar to those from which wo si-iVer, tho way to create Ameri :i to uri, have ;• injurious to n ' i only in -.l notice-able, our C'vr ic plainly behooved this ; lot i to t ilxi the in j t Jio i t jt cidrd action to |U id igun t •> peiliipi moic ditidlu! c ' i iti ing 'lie hundudy ol A nei *. i stdt % lnea hi e hie n up th e the mtenoi of China u idti U tci rule of toleration, custom ancl i "no ci naifi, of tl" Fit d < othri pj\ ci fui the cle-,i iu nun ishintl t ui the icspon^ible uiliL ctiy citic 3 ai d jnovinc rove i ;id tie- in e i 1 < 11- u liout i il u 1 1 „ i d i d pun i o/ the ho 1) r lit flee, i 01 otici\ 1 o, "I 1 cl pmnit I up nsfi ^b and toi the iiJoptKn oi st in mea-uics bj tho emp<»oi Atinn it lor the piot<-ction ol the lif n d pi < ] i of foiei ncr«s uc follow . ^ '' •"--•'' and d i i •-•> 1 "C if 1,1 '. in c i t , elu . 1 b ' tho d ii picMiuial c 1- le ith of i . i 1- cl u i tllO i3 lO i 1 1 lici tli found i hmmt b^ i 1 id]ud t ed f Mil tl i o tr t^e Good KHcct of Uie Ai'A«r i J t «. n » s <•!" This government also insisted that a special American commii- ;ion shouJd visit •the, pio^ in< e -ftlieie 11 e In it di ti b u e s occurr d, 101 thcpuipo^ot in^ e«tu ot.on This U ttci con mi ion loi nut <UU i muoli opposiiun hat. ,011 o ihintl fioi i J 1- T >in, accomj) in 1 In i- -> italnc <. 1 KSL tscoit, and by its del i > i tiation ol icadi cs and iblity ci »ui t,f^e u to piotcct its ell' n' ^ 11 ct, it n He^ ^d spiirtJii i il eet i c .in l>ml i cut in K i I ' <•' •-tti > o h e fhu i ttil n nl t i liKt 1 LO i csuU in luiuK s if ti t bt- of lL such a course is easy. It should, however, by no meant-', bo li-- v htly entered upon, since the necessity for the Inauguration of such a policy would be j-egrcitcd by tho best sentiment of our people, and because it naturally and log'.eal.iy might lead to consequences of the gravest character. 1 take pleasure in calling to your attention the enccninms Ix-atowed on those vessels of our new navy which took part in the notable ceremony of thu opening of tho Kiel canal. Jt'w^s lit ting that this extraordinary achieve.::;', rt cf the newer German nationality yiiovld be celebrated in the presence of Ar.-i-rica'a exposition of the latest devc.lopmtr.ts of ihe world's naval energy. isehrln;;- t!e-.i Affuivs rjiisnUsl'.ictory. Our relations with Great Britain, always intimate anil important, r.ave demanded during the pawf. year even n greater share of consideration than is usual. Several vexatious questions were left undetermined by the decision cf the nchring sea arbitration tribunal. The application of tho principles laid down by that august body has not been followed by tlio results they were intended to accomplish, either bacause the principles themsel-'CH lacked in breadth and def'lniter.e&s or because their execution has been more or less imperfect. Much corresponeieue-o lias been exchanged between the tv/o governments on the subject of preventing Iho exterminating slaughter of seals. Tho insufficiency of the British patrol of liebring sea, under the regulations agreed on by ihe two povernments, has been pointed out, and yet only tv/o British ships have Iv.-on on poliee duty during this season in those waters; The need oi' a more effective enforcement of existing regulations, as well as ihe adoption of fuieh additional reguUiiicry as experience lias ohown to be absilut«:ly necessary to carry out'tho intent 01' the ;-.v,'ard. have been earnestly ursed upon the British government, but thus far without effective results. In the meantime ilie depletion of tho :;oai herds by means of pelag.ie hunting has BO niarrnlnp/ly progrcssctl that unless their ;-,!-Lu;.;incr is at once effectually checked their extinction within c. fe.v-/ years stems to be a matter of absolute certainty. The understanding l:-y v/hlch the United Suatc-s v/us to pay, and Oreat Britain Io-rcs- ce-iv-s, :L lump aum of ".'.2~>,W() in full HOttle- mt-nt of f.il nritlsh clairn;; for damages arlsin;; Ir^ra our seiBure of British scaling \-i---ss-!s wsp.-itharised under t!ie r.v/ard of •riv.al of arbitration, v/as not lows the Mist mefidlaftnorthwaMl. _. Mount St. Ellas to the Frozen 6'cean.lns settlement of. which involvea the physical Ideation of the meridian mentioned, iw conventional agreement has yet been m The' ascertainment of a given meridian fet a particular point is a work requlfiftg much time and careful observations and lurvevs. Such observations and surveys ttcre 'undertaken by the United States coast and goedetic survey in 1890 and 1891, while similar work in the same quarters under British auspices are believed to gif g nearly coincident results; but these surveys have been independently conducted, ahd no international agreement to ftiark these or any other parts of the Wist ftierU dian by permanent nionuttients has *et been made. In the tneantittie, the, valley of the Yukon is becoming a highway through the hitherto unexplored wlldS Of Alaska, and abundant mineral wealth has been discovered in that region, especially at or near, the Junction of the boundary meridian with the Yukon and its tributaries. In these circumstances, it is expedient, and, indeed, imperative, that the jurisdictional limits of the respective governments In this new region be speedily de" termlned. Her Britannic majesty'6 goV^ eminent has proposed a Joint delimitation of the 141st meridian by an International commission of experts, which, if congress will authorize it and make the provisions therefor, can be accomplished with no unreasonable delay. It is ihipossible to overlook the vital importance of continuing the work already entered upon, and supplementing it by further effective measures looking to the exact location of- this en* tire boundary line. Needs ilMliiiHlitite Attention. 1 call attention to the unsatisfactory de^ limitation of the respective Jurisdictions of the United States and the Dominion of Canada In the great lakes at the approaches to the narrow waters that connect them. The waters In question are frequented by fishermen of both nationalities and their nets are there used. Owing to the uncertainty and ignorance as to the true boundary, vexatious disputes and injurious seizures of boats and nets by Ca- r.adtan cruisers often occur, while any positive settlement thereof by an accepted standard is not easily to be reached. A Joint commission to determine the line in those quarters, on ri practical basis, by measured courses following range marks on shore, is a neec«:-ity for which immediate provision should be made. Voiicr.uoiiMi IMftpiitn. It being apparent that the boundary dispute between Great Britain n.nd the republic of Venezuela concerning the limits of British Guiana was approaching an acute stage, a definite statement of the Interest ;uid policy of the United States as regards the controversy seemed to Vie required both on its own account and in view of its relations with the friendly powers directly concerned. In July last, therefore, a dispatch was addressed to our ambassador at London for communication to the British government, in which the attitude of the United States was fully and distinctly set forth. Blonroo Uoctrlno Upheld. The general conclusions therein reached and formulated are in substance that tho traditional and established policy of this government is firmly opposed to a forcible increase by any European power cf its territorial possessions on .this continent; that this policy is as well founded in principle as it ig strongly supported by numerous prec.cdc-.nts; that as a consequence the United States is bound to protest against the enlargement of the area of British Guiana in derogation of the rights and against the will of Venezuela; that, considering tho disparity in strength of Great Britain and Venezuela, the territorial dispute between them, can bo reasonably settled by friendrf and impartial arbitration, and that the resort to ouch an arbitration should include the whole controversy, arid- is not satisfied if one of the powers concerned is permitted to draw an arbitrary line through the territory in debate and to declare that it will submit to arbitration only the portion lying on one aide of it. In view of those conclusions, the dispatch in question called upon tho British government for a definite answer to the question whether or not it would submit the territorial controversy between.itself and Venezuela in its entirety to impartial arbitration. The answer of the British government has not yet been received, but is expected shortly, when further communication on the subject will probably be mado to tho congress. Relations with HawKii. Early in January last an uprising against tho government of Hawaii was promptly suppressed. Martial-law was forthwith proclaimed and numerous arrests wore made of person:, suspected of being in sympathy with the royalist party. Among these were several citizens of the United States, who were either convicted by a military court ar.d sentenced to death, Imprisonment, or fine, or were deported without trial. The United States, while dony- m j i i «. mi i 1 <~ in i 1 " ! l mt.Pt i i am i e u 1 d < ' i ,> c i tl L t \ I tl f I/ 111 1 U I I lion i i i i ciU t i i n vion tli i r h IAI. u '< \iohd o i d uliv-i 11 cli =1 i 11 I c lltical or othcrw --r < I i i % ill n t 1 nif Iv ti in 1 J 1 i ( i 1 ce \ .r, nor t.h a it 1 lurnlMiin 'i 11 » i r u H cl to t i i i t t it f iv> ( I id) '11- I 1 t 1 V I til II I. >.l or othci'W u u duin u hei that, v.'hi! it 01 i f COUJ ' ) no d\ uit i nl Hi hv o tllt.il 1 li in ic e e vpi ( -. d in pu tclul ai i i tliv-ir eiti 11 and ~t i. )L \ Wi)J 'O t UK t'O'li \ 11 j i t' of ' he t, d , if i i Jn I Cu 1 i 1 f j i I Oi U e ;.ie of our ui ij I jn i i i r i i ui i ii < i 1 i i i C I I id 1 (1 tl ' 1H v\c (t no 1 1 ti t'l 1 \ it lit ill u i i Jl t to t Ic tho i! He ttijlomai ' c idi i this to iti*' it d I r m< i tuiuf d, \ 'la the c \i 1 1 * plan itic i uf liic ti iti c Iti b v tno tVjitc U nat / ties et 1 uu c > -itill Kr \ll V 111 1 " 1 !, 'Ol IK I 1 V I sul at 'Jd.'ndta\c. i n aftei hij turn of o»i < e patent;!/ succcs-iful in ] collections lion ilio f lesp \dlue After the et la\G and tit" tUclai.Uiu by the IV m li lie \ a* < <' ilous '•hi e 1 - imoi Hi 11 munltatipf, iMiUu,/ in'oni enernkg oi 1'iat <e, v»,. tiud by a miliUiiy tubun_i j. < ' impmonimnf , , , . 11 o cou» ) Ju'tin tl l>y r-Un- fpjtacdentj, ihi4 GUV eminent jcq r !it"from that of Fiance Iho iccoiU oi tho i i t rni be ween i" I t n ui d Ji in I i n 11 t\- ri ) i\ ulj \ d 111 it i \ authaii a 1 i) i j it r n en ou d tc t' *> on- d 111 i>! t <l }• vloC ell iiiu I nd v s>ai x in in v is ol up i ! tho i-V.i In con!iMii-.:d clined to i-'i. tion. I. jirn »i ra!.'f;cme;-it v ta?;vour-: e^io earnest iv i-'.-c B'.e'U-.rc-d ni-d doe,a not mee r;^, %vl '.;o the- nocesiiary ar,i i!l of t'i<> cjiir.ioa thac r-.s n .iv.dicie.us a.nd f •.-.;• tlie ;,(jvermnt;at, .;r.r.icnd that it l;e a !:viotlc5:od. Tf, ' v.-itii tlv.; f k,!i de- :.opria- ililaar- i.dvar.- in ccn- ho^>-.o-'vcr, this of cor.t;i-es,'j, Erittiin i'ine >ti r 01 i if i. ion ol in u t I It 1 upon tl t ti c d ti m K ted iHtncul to «.'>> \c ' eji i- it certainly will bai'cily dissent froni tho V!rcpo;i!l!on tl.'at l!:o govornment ia bomul by ovory t-onniile-'alliji-i of hones'find good iriiti^to provide for ti'.e pjiccdy i:cljiisi;;,u-!iit of theae e!.".ii::n l:-y f.rldt i luion uu tho only o!.hcr £-.,Ue; ::-:i'.ivf. A trep.ty of yrbim-.- tipn liari tiioiei'ovo been ai.:Tec-d i-]:L:n, tiiid v/iil bi) iin:ii>:-di:;ieiy hud before t!io f-onate, so that in cne of ih'.- mode:) BU final st-ttiuniant may l.<a reaelied. A oiv.-ii.-jio land ivig that Gri-r.t n;it:c-v:u! i-..lies for Ui;s preventJciii cf col- •lisior;3 at !:-i-a, l'/as:.-d ca Iho ic*-.yn:mr.iidy.- t'ons ot' tho jnai-ilimo c-or.f'erc:-i:t- of "Washington, and conourred in st.';:;;.:-es;ti:i:.rivlarc}» ], l£f)">, as the date to bo (set by i-'rc'vlauiatlon for carrying those rules into gcTieial eft-Vet, her majesty's goverraneia, having encountered opposition on the part of British uhipping interests, announced ita inability to ucycrjt that- date, v/liich waa conse- iiuontly "cancelled. The entire matter ia Htili in abeyance, without prospect, of a better condition in tho near future. Tlio commissioners appointed to mark the international boundary in Passama^ qwocldy bay according to the description of the treaty of Ghent have not yet fully agreed. TUP 44aaJ>s»n i!ouwcl:iry, The completion of tho preliminary aur- voy of that Alaskan boundary which, follows the contour of tho coast from the southernmost point of Prince of Wales island until it strikes the 14is>t meiidiari at or near the summit of Mount St. Klias. uwuits further necessary appropriation, which is urgently recommended. This survey was undei taken under the pro- vlsiona of the convention entered into by this country 'and Great Britain July 2i. JS92, awl tho supjvlemtnlary convention of of llie'^a^^'w fcoywJqry. ,whicU tW:4, ing protection to such as had taken the Hawaiian oath of allegiance, insisted that riarlial-lav,' though altering the forms of justice could not supersede Justice itself ,-ir.cl demanded stay of execution until tho proceedings had been submitted to this rovcrnrnoht and knowledge obtained tiif-rcfroni that our citizens had received fair trial. The de-ath sentences were subsequently commutes! or were remitted on condition of leaving the islands. Tho eases of certain -Americana arrested and expelled by arbitrary order without formal charge or trial havo had attention, and in iiome instances have bc-Qn found to Justify remon- fHraneo and a claim for indemnity which Hawaii has not thus far conceded. Mr. Thurston, the Hawaiian minister having furnished this government abundant reason for aaUlng that he be recalled, that course waa pursued, and his successor has lately been received. I'lxdrono fjyastim (Jhnul.l I'.o Uprooted. The deplorable lynching of save nil Italian laborers in Colorado was naturally followed by international representations, and 1 am happy to say that the best efforts of the state in which the outrages occurred have been put forth to discover and punish the authors of this atrocious crime. The dependent families of some of the unfortunate victims invite by their deplorable condition gracious provision for their need:;. These manifestations against helpless aliens may bo traced through successive stages to the vicious padrone i-ystem, which, unchecked by cur immigration and contract labor statutes, controls these ivorkers from the moment cf landing on our shores, and farms them out in distant and often rude regions, where their cheapening competition in tho fields of breadwinning toil brings them into collision with other labor interests. While welcoming, as we (should, those who cook -our shores to merge themselves into our body politic and win personal competence by honest effort, we cannot regard such assemblages of distinctively alien laborers, hired out in the mass to tho profit of alien speculators, and shipped hither »nd thither as tho prospect of gain may indicate, as otherwise than I'cpvp-nant to tho spirit cf our civilization, dei.crr-.-nt to individual iidvaneement, and hindrances to the building oi' stable commui-.U'i-r. resting- 'upon the wholesome ambitions of the citi- sen, arid constituting the prime factor in the prosperity and progress of our nation. If legislation can reach this growing evil, it ce-i taii:ly should be attempted. (5!IJ!K« EulOglzOi!. , Japan has furnished abundant evidence of her vfist gain in every trait and characteristic that constitutes a.nation's greatness. We have reason for oongro.tiilations in the fact that the government of the United Blates, by ihe exchange of liberal treaty stipulations with the.new Japan,was first to recognize her wonderful udvancp and to extend to her the oor.slcleratlon ancl confidence) dj;o to her national enlightenment and progressive'character. The boundary dispute which lately threatened to embroil Guatemala and Mexico has happily yielded to pacific counsels, and its determination has, by the Joint agreement of the parties, been submitted to the pole arbitration of the United Utatey minister to Mexico. The commission appointed under the convention-of February IS, ISSSi, to set new monuments along tho boundary between tho United Etulcs and Mexico has completed ita task. Aa a sequel to the failure? of a scheme for the colonization in Mexico of negroes, mostly emigrants from Alabama under contract, a great number of these helpless and suffering people, starving and smitten with comasious disease, made their way or were assisted to tlje frpntior, wb,ere t in wretehed plight, they, were quarantiiwa by the Texas authorities. Learning of their destitute condition, J directed rations to be temporarily furnished thorn through the war dcp'a'rtm.ent, At Uie expiration of their Quarantine they were eojuveyed by tho ralhvay companies at comparatively nominal rates tQ their boroea in Alabama, upon irty assurance in. ifoa absojico oi p,ny - " avaUabl9 <9r'th0cof|Pf tUeiyjraps,- " j'wouicj taken wefte dlctateid fiol cfily by i syrtiftSthS > and humanity, but by 6. conviction that it was nat compatible <Wth the dignity of IWs government thdt eo large a body of our dependent cltifcens should be thf&wn for relief upon the tharlty of a neighbor-' ing state. Tho IStostJnJto AffalP. In last year's message. 1 narrated at some length the Jufisdlctlonal questions then freshly arisen in the Mosquito In-* dian strip of Nicaragua. Since that time, by the voluntary act of the Mosquito na* tion, tho territory reserved to thetn has been incorporated with Nicaragua, the Indians formally subjecting themselves to be governed by the general laws and regulations Of the republic instead Of by their own, custotns and regulations, and .thus availing themselves.of a privilege secured td them by the treaty between Nicaragua and Great Britain of January 28. I860, After this extension of uhifof'm Nip* oraguan administration to the Mosquitt* strip, the case of the. British vice consul, Hatch, and of several of his cbuntryhiettj who had been summarily ejtpeiied f rent Nicaragua and treated with considerable indignity, provoked a claim by Great Britain upon Nicaragua for pecuniary indemnity, which, upon Nicaragua's refusal to admit liability, was enforced by Great Britain. While the sovereignly ahd Jurisdiction of Nicaragua lvas t in no Way questioned by Great Britain, the former's arbitrary conduct in regard to British subjects furnished the ground for this pro' ceeding. A British naval force occupied without resistance tho Pacific seaport of Corlnto, but was soon after withdrawn upon the promise that the sum demanded would be paid, Throughout this incident the kindly Offices of the United States were invoked and were employed in favor of as peaceful a settlement and as much consideration and indulgence toward Nicaragua as were consistent with the nature of the case. Oiir efforts have since been made the subject of appreciative and grateful recognition by Nicaragua. Isolations with Hussla. The coronation of the czar of Russia at Moscow in May next invites the ceremonial participation- of the United States, ahd in accordance with Usage and diplomatic propriety our minister to the imperial court has been directed to represent our government on the occasion. Correspondence is en foot touching the practice of Russian consuls within the Jurisdiction of the United States to interrogate citizens as to their race and religious faith, and upon ascertainment thereof to deny to Jews authentication of passports or legal documents for use in Russia. Inasmuch as such a proceeding imposes a disability, which in the case of succession to property in Russia may be found to infringe tho treaty rights of our citizens and which is an obnoxious invasion of our territorial Jurisdiction, it has elicited fitting remonstrance, the result of which it is hoped will remove the cause of complaint. The pending claims of sealing vessels of the United States seized in Russian waters remain unadjusted. Our recent convention with Russia establishing a modus Vivendi as to imperial Jurisdiction in such cases has prevented further difficulty of this nature. The Russian government has welcomed in principle our suggestion for a modus vl- vendi, to embrace Great Britain and Japan, looking to the better preservation of seal life in the North Pacific and Behring sea and the extension of the protected area defined by the Paris tribunal to all Pacific waters north of the 35th parallel. It is especially noticeable that Russia favors prohibition of the use of firearms in seal hunting throughout tho proposed area and a longer closs season for pelagic sealing. An Inconsistent Position. In my last tv/o annual messages I called the attention of tho congress to the position we occupied as one of the parties to a treaty or agreement by which we became Jointly bound with England and Germany to so interfere with the government and control of Samoa as in c'ffcet to assume the management of its affairs. On the Oth day of May, 1S'J4, I transmitted to the senate a special message with accompanying documents giving information on the subject and emphasizing the opinion I havo at all times entertained, that our situation in this matter was inconsistent with the mission and traditions of our government, in violation of the principles we profess, and in all its phases mischievous and vexatious. I again press this subject upon the attention' of the congress and ask for such legislative action or expression as will lead the way to our relief from obligations both irksome and unnatural. Tilts Revolution 111 Cuba. Cuba is again gravely disturbed. An insurrection, in some respects more active than the last preceding revolt, which continued from 1S68 to 1S7S, now exists in a largo part of the eastern Interior of the island, menacing even some populations on the coast. Besides deranging.the commercial exchanges of the island, of which our country takes the predominant share, this flagrant condition of hostilities, by arousing sentimental sympathy and inciting adventurous support among our people, has entailed earnest effort on the part of this government to enforce obedience to our neutrality laws and to prevent the territory of the United States from being abused as a vantage ground from whicluto aid those in arms against Spanish sovereignty. iMimt Maintain a Position ol 1 Neutrality. Whatever may be the traditional sympathy of our countrymen as individuals with a people who seem to be struggling f or larger autonomy and greater freedom, deepened as such sympathy naturally must be in behalf of our neighbors, yet the plain duty of their government is to observe in good faith the recognized obligations of international relationship, The performance of this duty should not be made more difficult by a disregard on the part of our citizens of the obligations growing out of their allegiance to their country, which should restrain them from violating as individuals the neutrality which'the nation of which they are members is bound to observe in its relation to friendly sovereign states. Though neither the warmth of our people's sympathy with the Cuban insurgents, nor our loss and material damage consequent upon the futile endeavors thus far made to restore peace and order, nor any shock our humane 'sensibilities may have received from the cruelties which appear to especially characterize this sanguinary and fiercely conducted war, havo in the least shaken the determination of the government to honestly fulfill every international obligation, yet it ia to be earnestly hoped, on every ground, that tho devastation of armed conflict may speedily bo stayed and order and eiulct restored to tlio distracted ialancl, bringing ill.-,their train the. activity and thrift of peaceful pursuits. itfifs fettles ft* t^d f« HM mate 6icm ef streh finis's i« ifsrstAKdes tMiegrtt* feqtiitfc of twe ceSrpIaiht was ft»i?&^tf tliouih thfe v6*atltitii frfactidis has not Blfeii •wholly diseotitintfea/ _ *fi6 AMtfiSMftfi Msittftttfet, Occurrences 1ft Tuflfey 1 fia^e fc'ontlhlieo 1 to eicite concern. The f-epbMedttaS&aferfes of Christians in Armenia, ahjl the development there and, lh other districts of a spirit of fanatic-hostility to Christlaft/n* fluences, naturally 'e*cited iftf)fehen8ion fot the safety of the devoted Men, and Poteen, Who ae dependents of the foreign missionary, societies ift the United States, reside in Turkey iihdef the guarantee of law and usage, aftd in the legitimate peJ-- forriiahce of theif educational an<l religious mission NO efforts h&ve beeii stated in their Behalf and their protection in person and property has been earnestly and vigofousir enforced by every fneans with* lh t r eg^?rhoWever, that an attest pfi Oilf part to obtain better information concern^ ing the true cOttditloh of affairs in the disturbed Quarter of the .Ottoman empire :by sending thither the United States consul at Slvas to make investigation and report, Was thwarted by the objections or the Turkish government. This movement on our part Was in no Sense meant as a gratuitous entanglement of the United States ih the so-called eastern question, nor as an officious interference with the right and duty which belong by treaty to certain great European powers, caning for their intervention in political matters affecting the good government and religious freedom of the hon*Musselmah subjects of the sultan, but It arose solely from our desire to have an accurate knowledge of the conditions Itt our efforts to care for those entitled to our protection, The presence of our naval vessels Which are now in the vicinity of the disturbed localities affords opportunities to acquire a measure of familiarity with the condition of affairs, and will enable us to take suitable steps for the protection of any interests of our countrymen within reach of our ships that might- be found im- perilled, Will ICoep a Watchful iS.ye. The Ottoman government has lately issued an imperial irade exempting loreyer from taxation an American college lor girls at Scutari. Ilepeatecl assurances have also been obtained by our envoy at Constantinople that similar insUtutlpns maintained and administered b.y WM- <iouti- trymen shall be secured- hv'thc enjoyment of all rights, and that our citizens throughout the empire shall be protected. 1 lie government, however, in vlcwof'cxisunu tacts, is fa.r from relying upon ctuch assurances as the limit of its duty. Our minister has boon vigilant and alert in affording all possible protection in individual cases where? danger threatened or safety was imperiled. Wo have sent ships as far toward the points of actual disturbance as it is possible for them to go, where they oner rer- uiyc to those obliged to f.co, and we have the promise of other powers which have chips in the neighborhood that our citi- sens as well as theirs will be received and protected on board those ships). On the demand of our minister orders have been issued by the sultan that Turkish soldiers shall guard and escort to the coast A.merl- can refugees. These orders have been carried out, and our latest intelligence gives assurance of the present personal safety of ,nd missionaries. Though thus « wtt| !eTnarf6ViliwW| peratffefy freettifre'd. In' afty * eftofts, to Ifflpto-vji the i trtifht ttf be immediately i ...,,,, ,**,,.„. legislation fefoVidinf for consular in|gec« tlon. This has frequently teen ^f«W|« of executive recommendation, ^aSM*" 1 tot-fire such action by .congress as will Begum the freciuent and thorougl' inspection of consulates by officers appo 1 - -ffllgry}" 1 purpose or by persons ftlrciu in the flip'- fomatic or consular service. The expense attending- such a plan would be insignificant compared With its usefulness, ahd I honfe the legislation necessary to set it eti foot toill be speedily forthcoming. One notable instance of interference by 'Spain with passing American ohips has occurred. On March i>, last, the Allianca, while bound from Colon to New York, and following tho cuetoir.ary track for vessels near the Cuban shore, but inside.the three- mile limit, waa fired upon by a.Spanish gunboat. Protust was promptly made by thcUnitcd States against-this act as not being Justified by a state of war, nor -permissible in respect of vessels on the usual paths of commerce, nor tolerable in view of the wanton'perii occasioned to innocent Jifo and property,' The act -vyasdisavowed, with full expression of regret and assurance of nonconcurrence of "such Just cause of complaint, while the offending, officer was relieved of his command, AiTCsi'j of Aniorioniis iu Military arrests of citizens of the United States in Cuba have occasioned freciuent reclamations. Where held on criminal charges, their delivery to tho ordinary civil Jurisdiction for trial has been demanded and obtained, in conformity with treaty provisions, and where merely detained by way of military precaution under a proclaimed state of siege, without formulating accusation, their release oi trial has been insisted upon. The right of American consular officers in the Jslanc" to prefer protests and demands in BUC! cases having been questioned by the insular authority, their enjoyrnopt of the privilege (stipulated by treaty for the, con sitils of Germany, was claimed imclcr the moot favored nation provision of our ovn convention, a,r.d waa pror.-iptly recognized Tho long-standing asmatuJ of A» lonl Maximo Mora, against Spain has fit las boon settled by the payment, on the J-ltnof September last, of the, sum originally (ig-rucicl upon in liquidation of tho ,claim. fls Distribution among the parties entitled \q receive it has proceecl,ecl as raplqly as the jClGhto pf those vlajmlnjf-tbo fu,n<l co.ulfl bq safely determined., Tho enforcement of Aiffevential duties ' products of this country' exported & our citizens and . far no lives of American citizens have been sacrificed,, there can bo no doubt that serious loss and destruction of mission property have resulted from riotous conflicts and outrageous attacks. By treaty several of the most powerful European powers have 'secured a right and have assumed a duty, not only in behalf of their own citizens and in furtherance of their own interests, but as agents of the Christian world. Their right ia tp enforce such conduct of Turkish government as will restrain fanatical brutality, and if this fails their duty is to so interfere as to inwuro against such dreadful occurrences in Trrkey as have lately shocked civilization. Tho powers declare this right and this duty to be theirs alone, and it is earnestly hoped that prompt and effective action on their part will not be delayed. The new consulates at Erzcroum and Harpoot,' for which appropriation was mado last session, have been provisionally filled by trusted employes of the department of state. These appointees, though now iri Turkey, have not yet received their exequaturs. v More Aid to Venezuela. The arbitration of the claim of the Ven- eauela Steam Transportation company under tho treaty of January 39, 1S92, between the United States and Venezuela resulted in an award in favor of the claimant. The government has used its good offices toward composing the differences between Venezuela on the one hand, and France and Belgium, on the other growing out of the dismissal of the representatives of those powers on the ground of a publication deemed offensive to Venezuela. Although that dismissal was coupled-with a cordial request that other more personally agreeable envoys bo sent in their (Stead, a rupture of intercourse ensued and still continues. Needed Improvement ia Consular Service. In view of the growth of our interests in foreign countries and the encouraging prospects for a general expansion of our commerce, the question of an improvement in the consular service has increased in importance and urgency. Though there is no doubt that the great body of consular officers are rendering valuable services to the trade and industries of the country, the needs of some plan of appointment and control -which would tend to secure a higher average of efficiency is not denied. The importance of the subject has led the executive to consider what stops might n-operly be taken without additional legls- ation, to answer the need of a better •system of consular appointments. •• The natter having been committed to the consideration of the secretary of state, in pursuance of his recommendations, an execu-, ive order was issued on the 20th of Sep;ember, 1S95, by the terms of, which'.it is 31-ovided that after that date t kiy vacancy n a consulate or commercial 9kenpy.AVith- an annual salary or compel; tation from official fees of not more thari/?2,5CO or less than $1,000, should be filled either by transfer or promotion from some other position under the department of state of a character tending to qualify tho incumbent for the position to bo filled; or by the appointment of a person not under tho department of state, but having previously served thereunder and shown his capacity and fitness for consular duty; or by the appointment pf a person who, having been selected by the president and sent to a board for examination, is found, upon such examination, to be qualified for tho position. Posts which pay less than $1,000 being usually, on account of-their small compensation, filled by selection from residents of the locality, it Yv'as not deemed practicable to put them under the new system. The compensation of ?2,DOQ was adopted as the minimum limit in the classification for the reason that consular officers receiving more than that sum are often charged with functions und duties scarcely inferior in dignity and importance to those of diplomatic agents, and it was therefore thought best to continue their selection in the discretion of the executive without subjecting thorn to examination before a board. Including 71 Places with compen» nation at present less than $1,000,, B3 places above the maximum in compensation, the number of positions remaining within the scope of the order is 186, This number will undoubtedly be increased by the inclusion of consular officers "whose remuneration in fees, now less than-$l|000, will bo augmented with tho growth of our for* oign commerce anil a return to more fa- yorable business conditions. In execution \of tho executive order veto-red to, the sec-* Votary of state has elcsignated aw a board to conduct tlio prescribed examinations dhrt date ttf B oita Issttea— tolrcs t3f« feet 'o( frr'ce Coinage. As we ttlfh from a review of our foreign relations te the contemplation of our national financial situation we are immedii ately aware that we approach a subject of doteestjc concern more important than ani- other that can engage our attention, ana one at present in such a perplexing and del* icate predicament as to require prompt aftd wise treatment. We may well be encour* aged to earnest effort in this direction when we recall the steps already' taken toward improving 6Ur economic ahd financial situations and when we appreciate ho^v Well the way has been prepared for further progress by art aroused ahd intelligent popular interest in these subjects. Monetary Evils ftot ttlre.i.-- By command of the people a customs revenue system, designed for the protection and benefit of favored classes at the expense of the great mass of countrymen, and which, while/ inefficient for the purpose of revenue, curtailed our trade relations and impeded our entrance to the markets of the world, has been superseded by a tariff policy which in principle is based upon a denial of the right of the gov- ormnent to obstruct avenues to our peo-. pie's cheap liylng-, or lessen their comfort and contentment for the sake of according especial advantages to favorites, and which, while encouraging our intercourse and trade with other nations, recognizes the 1'act that American self-reliance, thrift and ingenuity, can build Up our country's industry and develop its re- spurcey more surely than enervating paternalism. ' . The compulsory purchase and coinage of silver by the government unchecked and unregulated by business conditions and heedless of our currency neul«, which for more than 35 years diluted our circulating medium, undermined coniidonco. abroad in our financial ability, arid at Intit culminated in distress and panic at home, has been recently stopped by the repeal of the laws which forced this rocklesj scheme upon the country. The things thus accomplished, notwithstanding their extreme importance and beneflcicnt effects, fall far short of curing the monetary evils from which we suffer as a result of long indulgence in ill-advised financial expedients. , Knvlow of Financial Legislation. The currency denominated United States notes, and commonly known as greenbacks, was issued in largo volume during the late civil war and was intended originally to meet the exigencies of that period. It will be seen by a reference to the debates in congress at tho time the laws were passed authorizing the issue of these notes that their advocates declared they were intended for only temporary use and to meet the emergency of war. In almosVif not-all, the lav,-:? relating to them some provision was niaOc contemplating their voluntary or compulsory retirement. ; A large quantity of them, however, wero icopt on foot and inir.ivlcd with tho currency of the country, BO that at the close of the year 1S74 they amouated to S-KSl.'JyO.Wa. Immediately after that date, 'and in January, 15>7ii, a lav/ was passed providing for ihe -resumption of specie payments, by which the secretary of the treasury was required, whenever additional circulation waa -issued to national banks, to- retire United ytatos.not.es equal in amount to SO ,iivC-| <.i-v£l the third assistant secretary of state, the solicitor of the department of state and the chief of the. consular bureau, ancl hap upeciflod, Uie subjectci to which, such ex* aminatiors sha'll relate. per cent, of such additional nationa'bank circulation until such notes were reduced to $SCO,GOO,000. This law further provided that on and after the 1st day of January, 1879, the United States notes then outstanding should bo redeemed in coin, and in order to provide and prepare for such redemption, the secretary of the treasury was authorized not only to use any sur- • „ plus re\i»;< Vs of the government, but to Issue bdife.tkf the United States and dispose of them for coin, and to use the proceeds for the purposes contemplated by the In May, 1S7S, and before the date thus appointed for the redemption and retirement of these notes, another statute was passed forbidding their future cancellation and retirement. Some of them, had, however, been previously redeemed and .cancelled ' upon the issue of additional national bank circulation, as permitted by the law of 1875, so that the amount outstanding- at the time of the passage of the act forbidding further retirement was 5346,681,016, The law of 1878 did not stop at distinct prohibition, but contained', in addition, the following express provision: "And when any of said notes may be redeemed or be received into the treasury under any law from any source whatever, and shall belong to the United States, they shall not be retired, canceled or destroyed, but- they shall be reissued and paid out again and kept in circulation," Urmitlon of tho ilosorve. k This wan the condition of affairs on tho 1st day of January, 1E79, which had been fixed upon four years before as the date for entering upon the redemption and retirement of all these notes, and for which such abundant means had been provided, Tho government was put in the anomalous situation of owing to the holders of its notes, debts payable in; gold on demand which could neither be retired by receiving- such notes in discharge of obligations due the government, nor canceled by actual payment in gold. It was forced to redeem without "redemption and to pay Without acquittance. There had been issued and sold 495,500,000 of the bonds authorized by ' the redemption act of 1&75, the proceeds of wnich, together with other gold in the ' treasury, created a gold fund deemed sufficient to meet the demands which might be mado upon it for the redemption of tho outstanding United States notes. This . fund, together with' such other gold as . might be from time to time jn the treas- . ury available for the same purpose, has, * been since called our gold reserve, and . §100,000,000 has been regarded' as an adequate amount to accomplish its object. <*• This fund amounted on the 1st day of Jan-n* > uary, 1879, to $114,103,360, and though thereafter constantly fluctuating, it did not fall >,'. below that sum 1 until July, 1893, In April, - , 1&93, for the first time since its establish^ " ment, this reserve amounted to loss than '• $400,000,000, containing at that date only S87,v ' 011,830, •> "• In the meantime, and in July, 1890, an RC,J i, had been passed directing larger go,Yern>" -v mental monthly, purchases of silver than t' had been required under previous laws,, an4 '*> providing that in payment for such silyeM^j treasury notes of the United States should'-'? bo issued, payablp on demand in EP}<3 fU\$f silver coin, at the discretion of the secret i' tary of the treasury. It was, howeyer.q,*^ dared in the act to be "TJic? established, po}«?'V Jcy of the United States^to majn.tain.-the.,'" two metals on a parity •with each -other; | upon the present legal ratio, op suph rftjio'* as may bo provided by law, H In view this declaration it was not deemed p§,,,, mlssiblo for the secretary of the,treasury,;^ to exercise the* discretion in terfr^ ""•*>- * ferrod upon him by refusing to pay these notes when demanded, becav such discrimination in favor of t^i dollar the so-called, parity uf the two jnei would be destroyod apcl graves anC " — ous consequences woylcl be prooip, affirming or accentuating the cor.. widening disparity between their values under the ojslgtjmj C'»n?o o£ Dep)et|pj} pjf it thus resulted tjnat the tr i)ie mpst I'avprabl*! treatment;} ,ourla.waaa res'ar<SrUlVftPJ'ft~'" W'ieOTtfVi.es. -A, ocoBBiew. g^M^MMlP 1 ^ 1 am" thoroughly convince^, that In addition to thoir salaries our ambassadors and ministers at foreign courts shoul4 oe provided, by ,tho government wit}! Qfllokt-J residences. The salaries cf these officers Jo comparatively small, P-pd in wiost casoa insuffjelwst to pay, with other necessary expenses, the lopst of mai.n.tajni,»g houger- hold establishments to keeping with j,heip sura, w lltfer «tj4 show, accessary ellter «tj tain that Jr3(?«f.fX9t With fo'i5 an4 m n Us ravf wwi amour. ^ JieawflW Ai'9 il

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