The Algona Republican from Algona, Iowa on August 28, 1895 · Page 7
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The Algona Republican from Algona, Iowa · Page 7

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Algona, Iowa
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Wednesday, August 28, 1895
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CHSSBOFTMKTAtK Harvey ahd Horf End ivc* Debate. t!.t PRODUCtlON OF GOLD AND SILVEP On 6 of the Subject* Elaborated at Us* Flnnl Session— Hotr Devotes Most of H\t Time to tlio Question \Vhethcf tut tTnltcd State* Alonfi Should Adopt 1 rc< Coltirtgf — ttttt-ttjr Farther GtempiifM i\ifi theory of Scientific Bimetallism. [CopyHtf lit, 1S95, by Azel F. Hatch J Hot r had the floor again at the begin fcifag of the last days' debate on tho silver question, and proceeded to crltidft fiafvey's use of the only correct figures Harvey had given of American grain prices"— "thoso ho gave Thursday last for corn in 1873 and 1894. Said Horr: '•When analyzed they show a per c:ipltii decrease for man and beast in the latter year of )iB per cent, and an advanct- in gold prices of 26 per cant. This corresponds with what Mr. Harvey repented).*' has said is to be expected under normal conditions according to the law of vury ing supply and demand, and thus prove.- that silver legislation has not nffocU'ii corn prices in the United States." Continuing Horr said that tho Sauerbeck tables proved nothing for this country; they wore competed from European figures. "I defy him to produce tho ttibie of averages agricultural prices in Ainim- ca, constructed by himself or any oiw else that will show n, decline for the whole country since 1876 " Hu then questioned Harvey's statement; that there were 3,OUO,000 or 4,000,000 people out of work in this country at present, which was quoted from Carroll D. Wright, and Horr read a telegram from Wright denying that he had ever given such figures. Harvey replied that about the only fnet, ho had used without confirming it was the one last mentioned by Horr. He had asked some labor leaders if it could be relied upon and they said it could. He bad found out later that it wus wrong, and it was no longer in his book. HJ had never knowingly printed or stated a fact ho did not believe %vas comsur.. But when those working half time ana those not working at all were considers i "you have got more than 4,000,000." The silver champion began his continuation of the argument with tho proa action of a "table from pages 181 to ISO of the mint report for 1893, of tho gold and silver coined in this country from 17(W to Jti78. I do this to remove the representation that has gone all over the country that for the first half of tho century we wero on a silver basis and from 1850 to 1873 we wore on a gold basis. Tho best answer to that argument Is the production of the table of coins themselves. The statement that gold did not seek thu mints for the first fifty years and thus silver did not seek the mints for tho lust thirty yenrs prior to 1873 is not true. "Page l.'IO of the United States coinajro laws, appendix and statistics, 1894, gw,-s tho approximate stock of mouoy in the world. The stock of gold there given is $8, 001, 900, 000; the stock of silver there given is f 2!, 03 1,830, 000. This estimate includes gold and silver coins and gold and silver bullion available for coinage into money. The quantity of these two inctnls available for coinage into money is what is left after tho demand for them of the arts and manufactures are supplied. As civilization has grown the use in arts and manufacture of these metals has grown out of proportion to the increase in population." Horr then took tho floor 'and proceeded to discuss what he considered tha moat of the question: "Can this nation alone establish the ratio of 16 to 1 and maintain it among the nations of the world?" He did not believe Harvey took the affirmative of that proposition. He quoted Harvey's book as follows: "They say it is not bimetallism unless two metals stay at exactly the parity of 10 to 1. These men do not know what bimetallism is. We may have bimetallism and bimetallic prices whether one metal has a tendency to leave us more than the other or not, and if desirable to stop this leaving a change in the ratio would do it." Harvey, consequently, said Horr was not a stickler for 16 to 1. Continuing Horr said: "Now I start out with this proposition: Nations by their laws do noc fix tho value of things, They cannot do it if they try. Tho actual value of tho two metals at the present time is wide apart. The figures 10 to 1 do not represent tho commercial value of the two today. Nobody claims they do. Always, from the earliest foundation of society, the relative value between gold and silver has been fixed by the people of the world and not by legislation. That is a fixed fact. They have never been able legally to determine any ratio and have it remain permanently. "Now, Mr. Harroy and I both agree that the free coinage of silver will decrease the measure of value used here in tbia country, He don't deny that, The burden of his whole talk in this debate is that we ought to have a cheaper measure; that the unit is worth too much, go now we agree that it will change the measure, He proposes to relieve the distress of the people by letting them pay what they owe in cheaper money. I answer him, 'No, tho debts of the day, the bulk of them, have been contracted with the gold dollar as the measure, and to relieve the payment! of them In any way by a trick of this kind Is repudiation,' "He answers me by saying; 'I ngree with you, the unit of values should be used, by both parties the same,' but he says 'for twenty-two years your unit has been increasing in value und silver has remained stable.' • Harvey said he would, reply to the f oyt?« gp}ng a? the proper time, aa$ prpoeedetl With, his estimate of the precious metals used la the arts, He then introduced a table showing the production of gold »nd its use IB the arts each, year from 183Q to J89S in the Unite4 States, showing u pro* auct'.pn varying irregularly from ?8V,QOQ,' OQQ to ${$,000,000, and, use IB tho arts ai» most regularly Increasing frojn a little thw $i\,QQO,ooo to over f IH, op. 0,000. palled, ftMQRMo-u to the quantity Qf left each yea? to be* used as roo^ey, showing $5,000,009 1ft J830 ojn.4 less ?Ji<XW,000 Jo 189?, 'jjhon he tppfc up sliver a»4 saW of tho whole sigok fi.tjpi.a.Q^you was In Ja4i», China, Mexico »oS tbe American states, JapaR a»i<J thp Straits, India hftvi«g $'§p,QOQ,Q,QO o.f It. Qt .tha tbe Uuitoa States hM t United Ktiiffdw, rtiv. impQWs fi»wwjr» that tfr& ale at &Utt* la Mrs grottn wofldeffttlty ««<* that in the European market wa "ridiculously <niall ftt any one Mmo, t/nst .rear's silver production of tlr countty wns $40,000,000 and 137,134,71 was exported, showing that there Wn» demand abroad for substantially all o;i BiU*»r, and theso facts had an imporinn bearing on independent action by the United State*. '-" He laid down the propositions that tin demand by the rich for either metal u- came greater as the metnl become cost. ly; that the dearer Was hoarded whi: used exclusively for primary money; r.'nil When both wero used the plain p3»i>.< hoarded silver to Serve them in time o need, the rich hoarded gold to bull tho money market. Hoarding of silver \,\ the people was beneficial; hoarlin* >[ gold was an injury. That was ono of tlv? reasons why silver has always proven t i.- more stable money. Gold was not rcgul;i! In production. Here he introduced another table showing the production of gold from 131.1 to 1893, inclusive Ifc showed $37,030,OJ) in 1849, going up to S155,00:>,030 in 1853, dr p ping variably to ?90,000,000 in 1374 .n- creasing to $119,000,000 in 1878, droppinJ to $95,000,000 in 1883, and then increav.n : pretty regularly to S133,OM,000 in l*ii. Tho production of the two metals coin binod was more regular than either separately, which made them safer for use n- money. "In tho oa-ae of the two metals we ;tr considering they differ from corn in this: The use of these inetals for money, when given full money functions, is comparatively unlimited. The supply, un like corn, is limited." Horr then proceeded with his argument against a change of the present system. ''There is no disguising the issue botwo.- usj it is simply this: Can we benefit thi people of this republic now by making ;i dollar mann any considerable amoun: less than it now is by making It actual. y less in valueP Tho free coinage of silvi-/ on a ratio of 1(3 to 1 means silver mo!i<i- tuetallism. The first result of such a Inv; will be to drive the gold out of the country. "Who will be injured aud who will be benefitted by scaling down all debts. by making our measure of value choapeti Can you bless a people by clipping the coins? Mouarchs used to indulge in it. Such efforts have always ended and ul< ways will end in robbing the mass of tho people. Whenever you change the vahu 1 of inonoy by any device which cheapen• the unit of measure and lessens the prloo of the coin in use and compel people to take It at the old price then you rob thu common people of any nation, and th < profit has usually gone Into tho pockois, not of money lenders, but of mono." changers. That is the history of tho world. "Now I como to the practical question: Who in tho United States will be ban •- flted by giving them cheap dollars for tticj good ones they now receive? I first say our census arranges the toilers, groin classes of the American people undo: different subdivisions. Tho first head' ing I find here is professional men; lawyers, doctors, preachers, editors, publishers of books, men who toll at anj kind of public work. Now I ask tlu army of professionals, do you think t' would benefit you to vote down tho pii^ of the dollar in which you are pniii They arc all paid in money for thel.' work. Will you be better off by getting just the same number of dollars ami having them worth just half as much? "There are of thoso people, Mr. Harvey, 044,343, the book is right here. I next call up thoso engaged in trades and trans' portation. That includes all the railroad hands, all the steamboat hands. Thnt includes all the people who work in different trades." Harvey replied: "He talks abou; clipped coins. Who clipped the coins in 1873P Who started tho world upon the robber measure of values of 1873? There is great concern among some of our citizens that if free' coinage of sliver is adopted those holding gold obligations will be paid in silver, also that gold wi 11 leave us, and a debtor who owes gold will not be able to get it without paying a high premium in order to discharge his debt. Both of these questions can be answered together. Gold obligations woulil be paid in gold and not in silver. To sa- oure the gold with which to do this would not be so difficult as It its now, "It would operate this way. As soon as the United States opens its mints aud confers on silver the full functions of money with the right to no one thereafter to make a debt payable in gold, the demand for gold would be withdrawn except to pay previous debts thus payable. When you withdraw the demand In such a pronounoad way from an article it must decline in value. With the demand thus suddenly thrown on silver to supply the United States with money its value would rapidly advance, Gold is now at a premium of one hundred per cent, over silver. "When the proposition Is made that free coinage of silver will send gold to a premium and make it harder for you to pay a debt, you are misled by the manner in which the proposition is put Premium over what? Premium over silver is meant. Silver would be In that event the medium of exchange through which you would get the gold—but you would have sold your property at a higher price }n silver, and when converted Into gold you would have received more gold for your property than you do now. If tho demand for wheat In the United States •were suddenly to be transferred to corn, wheat In the markets of the world would Decline, and corn would advance, "I want right here to answer Mr, Horr's proposition that we oanuot by law cop. for value upon silver or anything else, {t is not the stamp upon the coin that gives value to It—It is the law creating ic as money, When you make a new use for » thing you Increase Its value, Wheat •would BPt pe worth »s much as it Is now if it were not fop Us use when ground into flour fop bread, put we are an* pwered,'gold will'go out of circulation and a p»»le will result. It it shsuld prove trse that gold went out of olroulu. rtos it would fce because silver «a<j gonw into circulation. ' ' in isoi did Jjot bring on » panto. It brought gQ<?d timsg. Passing from a paper b,as,lg to ipegle In WT9 created np " lurpanpe, Jn |a,e$ paper and gftlft ppni9 together before the day gf resumption had »rmed< It worked then a.s ^ wfU wprfe nQWs G °W and lilver wW,i together Wore the [stiver fwnwe,' *«r J " M otrts tt&l #m ott? * the? notf receive what will bo t VASSAfi ME. '-The ne±t witnesses I waft t to call are those in domestic and personal s< vice, the hired girls of the Unltei State the men who sweep the streets, the m who do tho personal duties for p( plo in thia groat country of oura. The are four million three hundred six thousand five hundred and si*. Th are all of them paid Wages. Is there idiot anywhere on the face of the ear who thinks those men and Women won be benefited by giving them less for th day's work of the things they ncod—f that is what he proposes to do. "Now t come to the list of thoso mat fncturing and mechanical—all factt hands, all skilled laborers in tho Uni States. There are 6,091,669. Go 1011 nmoug them, ask them, do you want i measure of value reduced? Do you wa overy dollar you earn cut in two? r J neifc is agricultural, fisheries, mini There are 9,013,201. A part of all the who are in debt more than they have property with which to pay, would you they would like to scale down th debts and pay but 60 cents on tho doll Of these, 3,004,015 are farm hands, who work by the day, men who get th pay in cash, not in productions. H will they vote? "This makes a grand fcotnl of peo who live by labor in the United States S2,73"),ii(51. Of these people 16,000,000 ceive their pay in wages from day to and week to week, and large number others are dependent upon good moi in order to be prosperous in this worl "Now in addition to this army of w( ing people I havo a crowd of witness^ want to call to the stand to vote on question. Many of them are crutches; empty sleeves are hauglhg by the sides of many; scars Deceived by tho furrowing work of shot fthd shell when they were risking their lives that this nation might llvo. One million of them now in the United States. Ask them: 'Do you want your pensions cut down by giving you a dollar not worth as much as you havo been receiving?' ;. "Again we have in this country Savings banks. Four million, seven hundred and eighty-one thousand six hundred and ninety-five people put their money in savings banks. Do you propose to say to them: 'You have worked hard. Those dollars you deposited when they wero worth their face in gold. We propose to let those banks pay you off In dollars that are worth only 60 cents and do not intend to lot you helpjyourselves. either." Harvey said the wages of servant girls had risen since 1873 because, the men not being able to provide homes for those dependent on them, the women had to go out and occupy situations the men should occupy, thus creating a demand for Servants. Farm hands in 1873 got Sib a month, now they got $6. Going back \ to his subject he said: "Again they soy, •With silver only in circulation we are on a gold basis, 1 They are wrong. When under the law of a land either metal'has aright to enter the mints and bo coined into money, that nation is a bimetallic nation. "I now pass to the question of 16 to 1. We maintain that there will bo a commercial parity between gold and silver at the ratio of 16 to 1 if the law is passed putting both metals on an equal footing at that ratio. What we mean by an equal footing is that both shall have tho right to enter the mints free to be coined into money with .23.83 grains of pure gold to be 'a dollar and 871J4 grains of pure silver to be a dollar. The money made trom both metals to be full legal tender money in the payment of all debts, and tho debtor to have the right to pay in either metal. "No notes, bonds or other forms of indebtedness to be made payable in either metal to the exclusion of the other. All indebtedness to be payable in lawful money, and either gold or silver to discharge such Indebtedness. The two metals will then be in competition with each other to supply the demand for money. The supply Is limited and the demand is substantially unlimited. "What we mean by the demand bslng unlimited is this: When a man owns either metal and it is a surplus over and above what Is needed In the arts, he converts it into money at the mints and puts it himself into circulation. That the business interests of the country demand and will absorb all the gold and silver that .can possibly seek the mints (or coinage: Horr continued on savings banks, saying that the deposits were 51,713,7(50,026, which would'ba cut In two by free coinage. Building and loan associations had deposits of $520,852,885; life insurance companies had liabilities of «3,691,686,594 —all these would be cut In two. Then there were the depositors in other banks. Silver mines would be benefited, but all the silver produced in the country was not worth more than half the eggs produced. The free colnnage measure would be destructive of all credit and credit was the base of all commercial transactions, Harvey said life insurance men were moneylenders who got rich .on lapsed policies. Horr's estimate of silver as compared with eggs was a good argument for free silver—showed that its supply was limited, while under free coinage the demand would be unlimited—those conditions would take care of the ratio. He then gave England a raking down for being "heartless and cruel" in money matters and sucking the life blood of other nations, Horr took up the supply of gold and argued to show that it was increasing rapidly enough to supply the demand fpr business uses, He gave a table sbowlnsr that the supply ha d inoreaeea from 188'i to 1893 Inclusive $8:i7,01i,fi$> in six gold producing countries and gave Mulhull as authority for the statement th»t in 189? the available stock in the world was ?$,» 840,000,000—gold and silver, about equally divided. He then gives figures showing that new processes had. reduced the OQSS of producing metals while the wages of the men employed had increased between 1879 »nd 1894 about 83 pep cent. said that as civilisation ad» move m 9oey would be needed- He gave figures to ebw that {Stories were springing up all over P9untrl«s while they were depressed i mamma* (Jivo mo a spoon of olco, IBS, And tho sodium alkali, For I'm going to make n r- I'm frofng to make a pie, F>f John will bo hungry find tired, ma, And his tissues will decompose, S ) give me. a pram M phosphate And tho carbon and cellulose. Isow (five me a chunk of casein, ma, To shorten the thermic fat, And hand ir.fi tho oxygon bottle, ma, And look at the thermostat, And if the electric oven's cold Just turn it on half nn ohm, For I v.-nnt to have supper ready As soon as John comes homo. Now pass me the neutral dope, mamma, And rotate: tho mixing machine, But givo mo the sterilized water first And the oleomargarine, And tho phosphate, too, for now 1 think The new typewriter's quit, And John will need more phosphate food To help his brain a bit. —Chicago News. ANDKEANO. ,_ debate rau PO l» tbig way, by presenting Harvey with » negf 09lO, l,«W Qf Whl pau.a.1 to ao 4wejlea» sYSp o»r, pf wWoh 9,Wff Wild be purchased ej dqllftt »s It BOW ' with ft plea^ fo? free "Halt! Close up, there!" The order rang out sharply, echoing from rock to rock, and seeming to clio away in hollow murmurs up the precipitous aud bleak sides of the hills. The little baud of Italian soldiery closed up rapidly ns their grizzled old captain spoke and faced him silently with their carbines grounded and the look of dull aud apathetic discipline on their faces that is characteristic of their class. "Mymeii," said the weather beaten and gray headed leader, regarding them sharply from under his shaggy eyebrows, "the wolf is (Sriveu to his last lair. All, or nearly all, of his people havo been killed off during the weeks that wo have been following them over these dreary hills. He—the bandit, the robber, the Audreauo of the hills—cannot last out longer now. His hour is come, if wo are but watchful. Up and up ho has been driven, often nearly falling into our hands, yet as often escaping. Now, behind him rises the sheer straight line of the hills, on cither side are two good companies of our men; \ve stand in the front. The great Audreauo, terror of our hills"—the captain laughed softly in his throat—"is already as one dead. You know your orders; he is to be shot down like a dog by the first man who sights him. Yon understand?" A low, deep murmur went up from the men, aud then a single voice spoke; the speaker, who stood in the front- rank, G^'iug * ue salute rapidly. "But, my captain, what of the child?" The old man turned on him fiercely. "The child! What child?" The soldier—a little, lithe, swarthy man, with gleaming white teeth shining under his brown mustache—saluted again. "The child, my captain, ho brought from Massafiuo, below there in the valley. The child of the woman who had loved him." The captain, interested in spite of himself, knitted his brows and bade the soldier proceed. "What of this child? You may speak.'' Thus encouraged, the little man with the gleaming teeth saluted once more, and with many a gesture of fingers, shoulders and eyebrows rapidly told his story. " 'Twas but a year ago, niy captain. The woman—I know not her name— had loved him in the days when he was a lad tilling the fields down there. She was alone. Her friends were dead or had left her. There was no one but the priest who could help her, and the priest was too poor. What would you?" with an appealing glance at his fellows and a rapid shrug of his shoulders. "She had been married—this woman who had loved the Andreano—and had a child, a girl child, but her man lay in the sandy graveyard over against the village church yonder, dead, a year before, of the fever. So she sent to Andreano." He paused for a moment, spat quickly upon the ground and went on again. "She .sent a message to him up here in the .hills, my captain, and he came to her.- He came down in the night and saw her; came, armed to the teeth, and daring all or any to touch him. And in the morning, when the sun was coming up over the hills, he had gone, and the child with him, and the woman who had loved him lay dead, with a smile on her face. That is all, my captain." The man saluted again and drew back. "And the .child—where is it now?" asked the captain slowly. "Thechild is with him, my captain." "What matters it ?" muttered the captain. "Kill the child too. Kill off the whole brood. Come, we waste time. Forward!' Yet for all that, as the captain marched at the head of his men with knitted brows, he was very silent and very thoughtful .and might almost have been thought to have been in doubt. Once or twice he shook his head slowly and muttered something beneath his breath. He, too, had heard the strange story at an earlier time—had heard how this terrible and sin stained man, with a price upon his head, had gone down into the valley—»jnto the midst of men ready and willing to sell him—carrying Ws W* e *» bis hand, to see a, peasant woman who b,ad sent t Or him; -he had heard, too, how the robber had carried the child into the hills and had carefully tended it there ever since- It was late m the afternoon when the little company drew near the end of its Quest, and. With, leveled carbines, crept silently ou amid the rocks that lay strewn about tho place. Suddenly owe m.&n,Twth.e little soldier with the glean}* ing teetM, who had spoken before-*K>ried. put ^haroly; "gee, my Qftpttiiu, he the child!" was true; even, as active, picturesque figure tyg'tram rook to rock toward '-'---'--•- pn. |ts shoulders, a .^ _ - child. QMfibapJ held, the baby, the tering white cloth. Seeing them, the man stood quite still watching them, only the white cloth fluttering in the wind. ''A flag of truce!" grunted the cnp- taia, sharply calling a halt—he was_too true a soldier not to regard such a sign. "What does he want, I wonder? Lower your arms there, men, there is plfcnty of time," ho added grimly. The robber came on again rapidly nnd finally halted ti little distance above them, with the baby still perched upon his shoulder. Then he, too, lowered his carbine and stood there, with head upraised, looking at them defiantly. "You ha^e me!" he cried at last, his voice ringing out clearly through tho still air. "You have tracked me up here —you, <i hundred against one man. Yet, even jiow, you should uot have taken me calmly thus, even though I stand a l onc —you should not have taken me, thus, but for the little one." He glanced up for a moment at the baby on his shoulder and drew one little hand down to his lips, and then faced tho soldiery again, speaking directly for the first time to the old officer: "You sire a brave man, captain," he added almost appealiugly, "and sucli men do not -mako war on infants. What do you do with the little one, my captain?" Tho captain shrugged his shoulders?. "The child is nothing, Andreauo," ho said sternly. "She may die with you. " With a bound the bandit had sprung back from them, aud in an instant the child was off his shoulder and behind him, and ho knelt there with his carbine leveled, fiercely facing them. "Beasts!" he cried. "Iconic to you under the white flag, well knowing that I must die, and asking nothing for myself. I crave only that you should spare tho innocent little one. Know this, then, since you will not—I Will kill the child rather than she shall fall beneath your murderous blows, and will die such a death as few men have died, with a dozen coward souls to bear mine own to hell. Now, what say you?" He knelt there quite cnlmly, with his carbine leveled and v.-lth the child thrust behind him. Brt the old captain had stepped forward and rallied his hand. "Stop, Audreano!" ho cried. "You are right. We mako not war on babes. This hunting down of one man is but little to my liking, and I will not foul it more. The child is safe." The man rose and laid down his carbine aud took up the child again. "And tho little ono shall go with you down into the valley in safety?" he asked slowly. "J. have given my word. No harm shall come to the little one. Give it to tut Tils ettttL Woftf&ft. Mayor Strong of New York the otn<* afternoon married ti woman who refnsea to promise (hat she Would obey he* littS- band. t Policeman Kennel 1, who guards the nooT of UK; mayor's office, was just closing up when a strong minded looking young •woman and n resigned looking jnan askof to see the mayor. "We; want to see him about getting—that i*, you know, W* would li'ko to be—if ib woro not too late, you know, we would"— "Charles," said the young womaft, "can't you say what wo fire after? 1 ' Costing a Withering look nt him, she turned fc the policeman and said: "I want to get married." "We. my clear," said th« groom, pluci^ ing up eonrage. A moment Inter they stood before MayMt Strong. The young woman asked for tte book containing the marriage coremoKf and scanned it over imfil she came to tin? passage, "Love, honor and obey." The groom tugged at her dress and sai(k "Nevermind, Pauline, now. You necdn'V do it. anyhow when we arc married." The bride ignored him and said, "Mi- Mayor. 1 wish "yo" would leave the word obey out when yon marry vis." "'Well, well," said hia honor. "Is this the new wonian'i 1 " "No. I r m not the new woman, 1mb I believe in equality. That word 'obey' is a, relic of harbarism. It comes from the time when women were in bondage." And the bride gave he? head a pert lit tie toss and shot a glance at the groom. There was a twinkle in the mayor's eye as he read the ceremony, and when he came to "love, honor and obey" he left the last word out. "I'll have- to tell my wife about tliis. 1 think the young woman is right, though," mused tho mayor.—New York Times. me. The robber kissed tho baby's soft face passionately—once, twice, thrice—aud then moved quickly toward the captain, down the rocks, and passed the child into his amis. "I tharik you, my captain," he said gravely. "And now you are to shoot me?" '' Such are our orders, Audreauo. The other, shrugged his shoulders. "So ho it," ho said softly, "only cover .the face of the little cue that she may nofc see." The captain passed tho child into the hands of tha little soldier of the swarthy face, and they took it quickly out of his sight. Then came an order rapidly given and another; a volley rang out startling the echoes on those lonely hills for a moment; there was a half sobbing cry and Andreauo's course was run. So it came about that when the soldiers marched down into the valley again one of them, bore upon a light pole the head of the notorious bandit, for all the wide eyed peasantry to gape at, and, strangest sight of all, upon the front of the captain's saddle, with the captain's arm about her, sat a laughing, crowing, dark haired baby.—Firefly. PKOBLEM TO SOLVE. The Probable KiTecfc of tho New Cotton Picking Machine. There is a new machine in the eoutli which contains greater possibilities than any of the many labor Haying inventions which have been brought! into the work of production within tho past quarter of a century. It is a cotton picking machine which is now at work in many of tho southern fields, and with such success that its general introduction can apparently be postponed but a few years. The first cost Js large, but the tremendous saving in labor cost effected by its operation is such an item in tho total cost of harvesting a crop that tho item of first cost becomes insignificant by comparison to men who propose to go into cotton raising on a large scalo. It is evident that this machine will work along lines of laud consolidation, making a few large planters the owners or cultivators of practically all tho best cotton lands of tho south. Tho small growers will gradually retire, going into tho towns,, which will increase in number, size and importance in that section as manufacturing, and particularly cotton cloth manufacturing, increases in magnitude. _ But a more serious question to arise 'on* of tho changed situation is what is to become of tho negro field hand? Is he, toa to drift into tho towns and cities, there to add to tho idle and vicious population? "When the cotton field is closed to tl» mass of negro laborers in tho south, att olemeut of danger is created. Every great labor saving machine turns men out of employment, but in tho cases of whites? such temporary deprivation usually resulte. in ultimate bettering of their condition. They adapt themselves to' new circumstances. The negro field hand may be abl» to do this, and ho may not be. Tho problem is one to be solved.—St. Louis Republic. Bacteriology of the Sea. Dr. B. Fischer, bacteriologist of the 1894 Plankton expedition, in his report on the "Microbes of the Sea," says that microbes capable of germination are everywhere to be found in sea water except at great depths. They are more numerous in the Canary, Florida and Labrador currents than they are in either the Guinea or equatorial currents. They were not detected with certainty in the ooze of the ocean's bed, but were abundant at all depths shallower than 1,800, and some were found at a depth of 8,500 feet. Like the bacteria of the different diseases, those of the ocean are found in all shapes and forms, the spiral predominating. Nearly all were found provided with hooks or suckers, and one large family are reported as being phos- phoresoent. A Poor UUeness. Here is a good, story illustrative of the prosaio nature on which art makes no impression : In Westminster abbey there is a large marble tablet in memory of a famous bishop, It is a basrelief, representing the bishop— -a portrait — in the agony of death, sinking into the arms of an allegorical female figure, presumably intended for the angel of death, It is said that an aged, couple from the country were being shown round, the abbey, anfl pausing long before the 'tablet the old lady remarked, to her hus- baM; ''That's a good likness of the bishop, but, " regarding the angelic personage attentively, "it's a very poop one of M*s. -^»., I Jj-uow her -well, and she didn't look like that- "-^Boston Traveller. A Lone tived Family. A lady in this city, who is a member c£ tho family spoken of, gives tho following record of south Georgia longevity: The oW parents still live at the ages of 86 and 74- The father, now at tho age of 85. can wait two or three miles with ease, has all tax mental faculties as well preserved as * man of 50 and has his second eyesight, so that he reads entirely without the aid at" glasses. The old lady, 74 years of age, also has the vigor of mind and body of former years. They have 10 children, 29 grandchildren, 13 great-grandchildren, allstrong and healthy. The oldest is 66 years oW, and tho youngest 83 years. In three generations there have been only three deaths. — Galveston Tribune. Miss Austin's Surgical Feat, Miss Nollie Austin of Middletown, HY., is a bookkeeper, but she has a taste for surgery, and when one of a family of chickens at her home drooped and was about dead she decided to operate unassisted, She opened the chick's breast and removed a hard substance. The wouai was sewed up, and today tho chick i$ as lively as any of its mates.— New Journal. A teamed Boston She was a Boston maid of high degree', WitU eyes that sUone like' incandescent Jigfctr And just suoh pouting lips, as seems to jne, The kiss invites. ' I niet her on the Common's grassy sod Near where the fountain plays in mood, She stood reflecting while a passive wad Of gum she chewed, "It does orio good to sea this spot," Said t "Wheirweury of the city's bum and She ceased her wasio pastime to reply, "That's what it does." & "This sylvaw spot," then soft}y "The foot of jpan seems almost ft defile,'*, f Her voice game sweet as notes, of any bird. M •'Well, I should sraiiel" l> ' "The balmy breezes whispering overhead, With such enchanting softness '-'"•'' brow." In tones of languid woJody stop sajd, "You're showtin uqw!" "And have you noticed, fair Wrd ' Seems beye to phooae its swee.tasji» T g gem?" ^ rapture 04} hep svery worsj,' prfaai find. of at »»¥ Uliwljy, 1 *' were 9l» b , the,weapons m tho b^y W inpuj 49UOJS. Fat'* J» "The fat's in the fire," indicating tfcat; aw enterprise has suffered disaster, m f ouud in very old English times. The is, of ppurss, drawn from the enough at Iwg oj la.y<l twag * he flWWWfc 'ft 0 BPSet,ti«g pj the. io,sgo| "And isjwthe leaves, 4ike, ^hea i» respppse tQ tty?' Per voice oapie soft »S |flb,9$l The drewy sips? «f 4?Mj

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