The Algona Republican from Algona, Iowa on December 12, 1894 · Page 7
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The Algona Republican from Algona, Iowa · Page 7

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Wednesday, December 12, 1894
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?-7s»&r*?f •»- < '^r.^'^VoVirpv^f'''^ 1 ^'^"^ l&t HIS ANStAt MESSAGE, CLEVELAND TAKES UP MANY SUBJECTS. tte Sa?s Thllt the Cotmtry Is !<t a Good Condition — thinks Con Kress Should fags a JPfeW Banking Tnflft Latr. 2* To the Congress of the United States:, The^asseinblage within the Nation's legislative hall of those charged with the duty of making laws for the benefit of a generous and free people impressively suggest the exacting obligation and inexorable re- spctosibilUy involved in their task. At the threshold of such labor now to bo undertaken by the congress of the United States and in the discharge of an'Oxecutive duty enjoined by the constitution I submit this communication, containing a brief statement of the condition of our national affairs, and recomending such legislation as seems to me necessary and expedient. Foreign Relations. The history of our recent dealings with other nations, and our peaceful relations with them at this time,additionally demonstrate the advantage of consistently adhering to a firm but just foreign policy, free •from envious or ambitious national schemes and characterized by entire honesty nnd sincerity. I have endeavored to impress upon the Belgian government tho ueedlessuess nnd positive hnrmfulness of its restrictions upon the importation of certain of our food products, nnd have strongly urged that the rigid supervision and inspection under our laws ore amply sufficient to prevent the exportation from this country of diseased cattle aud unwholesome meat. A gratifying recognition of the uniform itni nrtiality of this country toward nil foreign states wns manifested by tho coincident request of the Chinese and Japanese jrovernments thnt the agents of the United States should, within proper limits, afford protection to tho subjects of tho other during tho suspension of diplomatic relations duo to a state of war. This delicate office was accepted, nnd a misapprehension which gave rise to a belief that in affording this kindly unofficial protection our agents would exercise tho same authority which the withdrawn agents of the loligerents had exercised was promptly corrected. Although the war between China nnd Jar an eudnugers no policy of the United States, it deserves our gravest consideration, by reason of its disturbance of our growing commercial interests in tho two ?ouutries nnd the increased dangers which may result to our citizens domiciled or sojourning in the interior of China. Acting under a stipulation in our treaty with Korea (the first concluded with a western power) I felt constrained at the beginning of tho controversy to tender our good offices to induce an amicable niraiigeuieut of the initial difficulty growing out of the Japanese demands for administrative reforms in Korea, but the unhappy precipitation of actual hostilities defeated this kindly purpose. Deploring tho destructive war between the two most powerful of the eastern nations nnd anxious that our commercial iii- te'ests in those countries may be preserved nnd that the safety of our citizens there shnll not bo jeopardized. I would not hesi tnto to hoed any intimation that our friendly aid for tbe houoinble termination of hostilities would l:o acceptable to both beligereuts. Franco anil Germany. Our relations with tho republic of France continue to be such as should exist between nations so long bound together by friendly sympathy .and similarity in their form of government. The German government lias protested against that provision of tho customs tariff act which imposes a discriminating duty of one tenth of a ceut a pound on sugars coming from countries paying an export bounty"thereon, claiming thnt tho action ot such duty is in contravention of articles five and nine of the treaty of IS2S with Prussia. '• :• • • ;. .• Early in tho present year nil agreomout WHS reached with Great Britain concerning inslructious'to be given to the naval commanders of the two governments iu Bearing Sea and the contiguous North Pacific Ocean, for their guidance in the execution of tho award of the Paris tribunal of arbitration tuid the enforcement of the regulations therein prescribed, for the protection of seal life iu the waters mentioned. An understanding hns also been reached for the payment by the United States of ?43.V 000, in'full satisfaction of nil claims which may 1 e made by Grout Britain for damages growing out of the controversy a? to fur sea's in Behriiig son, or the seizure of Brit- it h vessels engaged iu taking senl iu those waters. Thus far only France and Portugal have signified their willingness to adhere to the regulations established under the award of the Paris tribunal of .arbitration. Since communicating the voluminous corrrsppndeu- e in regard to Hawaii and the action inken by the senate and house of representatives on' certain questions submitted to the judgement and wider discretion of congress, the organization of a government in jjlnce of the provisional arrangement which followed the deposition of the queen has been announced with evidence of its effective operation. The recognition usual iu such cases has been accorded the new government. Good will, fostered by many interests in common has marked our relations with our nearest i outhern neighbor, Pence being restored along her northern frontier, Mexico has asked the punishment of the lute disturbers of her tranqnility, There ought to be a new treaty of commerce and navigation with that country to take the place of the one which terminated thirteen years ago. The friendliness of the intercourse between the two countries is attested by the fact that during this long period the commerce of each has steadily increased under the rule of mutual consideration, being neither stimulated by conventional arrangements nor retarded by jealous rivalries or selfish distrust, The problem of the storage and use of the waters of the Ilio Grande for irrigation should be solved by appropriate concurrent action of the two interested countries. The Ulueflelrts Incident:. Prominent among the questions of the year was the Bluefields incident, in what is known as the Mosquito Indian strip, bordering on the Atlantic ocean and within the jurisdiction Nicaragua. By the treaty of 1860 between Great Britain and Nicaragua the former government expressly recognized the sovereignty of the latter over the strip, and a limited form of self government was guaranteed to the Mosquito Indians, tp be exercised according to their customs fpr themselves and • other dwellers within its limits. The sp called n«t»ve government, which •-screw tp be largely made up of aliens, fpr wany years disputed the s»ig»typ£ Nicaragua over the strip iami/d the right tP maintain thereto tjpaliv independent municipal gpv- „ ^*ftt. fcarty la the p»st year efforts of Nicaragua to maintain soveriegnty over ike Mpfqi"'to territory led tP sewus dis- |urba,nc.es, culminating iw the suppression ,oj the native government an4 the at• substitution of »n w } ™»te administration, w »„, , and. alien residents were to . . fePe- V&Hvn v» followed by *an in- """rjpotiojtt, which fpr a t»»P subwtutea ^fS^^^^JB-feL^WJ beeln and still is chiefly couttolled by citizens, we can not for that reason challenge the rightful sovereignty of Nicaragua over this important part of her ddmaifl., For some months ono, and during part of the time two, of our naval ships have been stationed at Bluefields fdrtheprot&etidtt of all legitimate interests of ouf citizens. la September Jasfc the government at Managua expelled from its territory twelve of more foreigners, including two Americans. for alleged participation in the seditious or revolutionary movement against the republic at BlneSelds already mentioned; but through the eatneatteinon- straUce of this government the two Americans have been permitted to return to the the peaceful management of their business. Onr natal commanders at the scene of these disturbances, by their constant exhibition of firmness and good judgment, contributed largely to the prevention of more serious consequences and to the restoration of quiet and ord*r. 1 t egret that in the midst of these occurrences there happened a most grave and irritating failure of Nicnurnguan justice. An American citizen named Wilson, residing at Rama, ih the Mosquito territory, was murdered by one Argtiello, the acting governor of the town. After some delay the murderer was arrested but so insecurely confined or guarded that he escaped, and notwithstanding our repeated demands it is claimed that his recapture has been impossible by reason of his flight beyond NlcaragUau jusisdiction. Tho Nicaragmm authorities having given notice of forfeiture of their concession to the canal company on grounds purely technical and not embraced in the contract, have receded from that position. Trouble with Spilti. Unreasonable nnd unjust fines imposed by Spain on the vessels and commerce of the United States have demanded from time to time dnring tho last twenty years earnest remonstrance on the part of our government. Iu tho immediate past exorbitant penalties have boen imposed upon our vessels and goods by customs authorities of Cuba and Porto Rico, for clerical errors of the most trivial character in the manifests or bills of hiding. Iu some cases fines amounting to thousands of dollars have been levied upon cargoes or the carrying vessels, when the goods in question were entitled to free entry. Fines have been exacted oven when the error hod been detected and the Spanish authorities notified before tho arrival of the goods in port. This conduct is in strange contrast witn the considerate and liberal treatment extended to Spaoish vessels and cargoes in our ports iu like cases. No satisfactory settlement of these vexatious questions has yet been reached. Relations \vlth Turkey. In my last annual message I adverted to the claim on the part of Turkey of the right to expel, as persons undesirable aud dangerous, Armenians naturalized in the Uuite.l States and returning to Turkish jurisdiction. Numerous questions in this relation have arisen. While this government acquiesces in the asserted right of expulsion it would not consent that Armenia us may be imprisoned or otherwise punished for no other reason thnu having tcjuired without imperial consent American citizenship. Three of the nssnilants of Miss Melton, an American teacher in Mosul, have been convicted by the Ottoman courts, and I am advised that au appeal against the acquittal of the remaining five has been taken by the Turkish prosecuting officer. Samoan Affairs. In my Inst annual message I referred briefly to the unsatisfactory state of affairs in Samoa under the operation pf the Berlin treaty as signally illustrating the im- policy of entangling alliances with foreign powers, nnd on Ma/ 0, 1S94, in response to a resolution of the senate, I sent special message and documents to that body on tho samo subject, which emphasized my previously expressed opinions. Later occurrences, the correspondence in regard to which will bolnid before congress, further demonstrate thnt the government which was devised by the three powers and forced upon the Snmoans against their inveterate hostility can bo maintained only by continued presence of foreign military force aud at no small sacrifice of life and treasure. , The suppression of the A'atnffa insurrection by the powers, nnd the subsequent banishment of the leader and eleven other chiefs, as rociied iu my last message, did not bring lasting peace to the islands. Formidable uprisings continued, and finally a rebellion broke out iu tho capital island, Upolo, headed in Aana. the western district, by the younger Tanmsese, and in Atua, the eastern district, by other leaders. 'ihe insurgents ravaged the com try and fought tho government's troops up to ^ the very doors of Apia. Tho king again appealed to tho powers for help, and the combined British nnd German naval forces reduced the Atuans to apparent subjection, not, however, without considerable less to the natives. A few days later Tamagese and his adherents fearing the ships and the marines, professed submission. Reports received from our agents at Apia do not justify the belief that the peace thii? brought about will be 'of long duration. It is their conviction that the natives are at heart hostile to the present government; thnt such of them as profess loyalty to it do so from fear of the powers, and that it would speedily go to pieces if the warships were' withdrawn. In reporting to his government on the unsatisfactory situation tince the suppression of the late revolt by foreign armed forces, the German consul at Apia stated : "That pence will be lasting is hardly to be presumed. The lesson given by firing on Atua was not sufficiently sharp and incisive to leave a lasting impression on the forgetful Samoan temperament. In fact conditions are existing which show that peace will not last and is not seriously intended. Maliotoa, the king, and his chiefs, are convinced that the departure of the warships \\ ill be a signal for a renewal of war. Tho circunistanf-e that the representatives of the villages of all the districts which were opposed to the government have already withdrawn to Atua to hold meetings, and that both Atua and Aana have forbidden inhabitants of those districts which fought ou the side of the government to return to their ^villages and have already partly burued down the latter, indicates that a i-pfil conciliation of the parties is still far off. The Country's Finance?, The secretary of the treasury reports that the receipts of the government from all sources of revenue during the fiscal year ending June 80,139», amounting to *373,SJ3,- 498.29,and its expenditures to $443,605,788.87, leaving a deficit oE $e9,SQ8,?60.58. There was a decrease of #15,953,674-66 in the ordi* uary expenses of the government, as compared with the fiscal year of 1898. There was collected from customs $181,818,580.03, and from internal revenue $147,168,449.70. The balance of the inconV fpr the year, amounting to, $98,815,517.97, was derived from the sales of lands and other sources! The yalne of our total dutiable imports amounted to |975,,199,08tS, jess than the imi 4O«n for we the preceding year. The receipts from tultoms were $78,538,486.11 less and -from, - • - * ...... internal , 1.5SS-97 Jess than in. The total tax ' collected from 4istiUe spirits was fS5,&59,3aU.i§L . liquors f8.1,4W,?83.p4, owjpxpwts P! merph,$md,ise, yet*, lotas and 928taofg tHafi at the same ti&e tfie vtotts year.fttid checks and.otnet eftfth items were I &J,849,96a more, the total resources of the banks at the date tt-tefttioneti Amounted td t&.4?5.023,055, ft* ftgfciast 13,109,668.284.88 In 18&. the Witt l>cr)ftHtntftt, From the report of the sectetary of wat it appears that the strength of the army on Sept. 80,1894, w&* 2,185 officers an* 25,765 enlisted men. 'i*his is apparently a very slight decrease bompared •with the previous year. The execution of the policy of concentrating the army at important centers of population and transpoftation, foreshadowed in the last annual report of the secretary^ has resulted itt the abandonment of fifteen of the smaller posts, which was effected under a pltfn which assembles organizations of the same regiments hitherto widely separated. This renders our small forces more readily effective for any service which they may be called Upon to per^ form, increases the extent of the territory under protection without diminishing the security heretofore afforded to any locality, improves the discipline, training and esprit de corps of the army, besides considerably decreasing the cost of its maintenance. While the maximum legal strength of the army is 35,003 men, the eff ctive strength, through various causes, is but little over 20,000 men. The purpose of congress does not therefore seem to be fully attained by the existing condition. While no Considerable increase in the army is, in my judgment, demanded by recent events, it is hardly necessary to recall the fact that in obedience to the commands of the constitution and the laws, and for the purpose of protecting the property of the United States, aiding the process of the Federal courts and removing lawless obstructions to the performance by the government of its. legitimate functions, it bo- came necessary in various localities during the year, to employ a considerable portion of the regular troop?. The duty was discharged promptly, courageously and •with marked discretion by the officers and men, and the most gratifying proof was thus afforded that the army deserves that complete confidence in its efficiency and discipline which the country has at all times manifested. The total enrollment of the militia of the several states is 117,538 officers and enlisted men, an increase of 5,843 over the number reported at the close of the previous year. In recognition of the long and distinguished military services of and faithful discharge of delicate and responsible civil duties by Major-General John M. Schofleld, now the general commanding the army, it is suggested to congress that the temporary revival of the gra-ie of lieutencnt-general in his behalf would 'be a just and gracious act. Union Pacific Railway. A-subject of pressing moment referred to bv the attorney-general is the reorganization of the Union Pacific railway company on a basis equitable as regards all private interests and as favorable to the government as existing •conditions will permit. The operation of a railroad by a court through a receiver is an anomalous state of things which should be terminated,on all grounds, public and private, at the earliest possible moment. Besides, not to enact the needed enabling legislation at the present session postpones the whole matter until the assembling t f a now congress and inevitably increases all the complications of the situation, and could not but be regarded as a signal failure to solve a problem which has pending a more complete reform,practically been before the present congress ever since its organization. Postiolfice Department. Tne report of the postmaster-general presents a comprehensive statement of the operations of the postoffice department for the last fiscal year. The receipts of the department during the year amounted to $75,080,479.04 and the expenditures to 184,324,414.15. The transactions of the postal service in- di ate with barometric certainty the fluctuation in the business of the country. The postmaster-general states that the deficit is unnecessary and might be obviated at once if the Hw regulating rates upon mail matter of the second-class was modified. The rate received for the transmission of this second-class matter is 1 cent per pound, while the cost of such transmission to the government is eight times that amount. In the general terms of the law this rate covers newspapers and periodicals. The extensions of the meaning of these terms from time to time have admitted to the privileges intended for legitimate newspapers and periodicals a surprising range of publications and created abuses, the cost of which amount in the aggregate to the total deficiency of the postofflce department. Pretended newspapers are started by business houses for the 'mere purpose of advertising goods, complying with the law in form only and discontinuing the publications as soon as the period of advertising is over. "Sample copies" of pretended newspapers are issued in great numbers for a Hfee purpose only, Tho result is a great loss of revenue to the government, besides its humiliating. Use as an agency to aid in carrying out the scheme of a business house to advertise its goods by means of a trick upon both its rival houses and the regular and legitimate newspapers. Paper covered literature consisting mainly of trashy novels to the extent of many thousands of tons is sent through the mails at one cent per pound, while the publishers of standard works are required to pay eight times that amount in sending their publications, About the Navy, Attention is called to the report of the secretary of the navy, which shows very gratifying progress in the construction of of ships tor our new navy, All the vessels now building, including the three torpedo t.oats authorized at the last session of cougress, and excepting the first class bat-, tie ship Iowa, •« ill probably be completed during the coming fiscal year. The estimates for the increase of the navy for the year ending June SO, 1896, are large, but they include practically the entire sum necessaryto complete and equip all the new ships not now in commission, so that unless new ships are authorized the appropriations for the naval service Xpr the fiscal year ending June SO, 1897, should fall below the estimates for the coming year by at least ilS.OQJ.OUO. The secretary presents with much earnestness a, plea for the authorization pf three additional battleships and (en or twelve torpedo boots. While the unarmored yes- sels heretofore authorized, including those now aear)ng completion, will constitute a fleet, which it IB believed is sufficient for ordinary crusing puposes in time pf peace, •yv e have now completed and J n process of construction but four first Class battleships and but few • tprpedo boats, If we 'are to have a navy for warlike operatipns, offensive and defensive, we certainly ought tp increase both the number pf battleships and to,rpe<io boats. The vigorous action pf Rear-Admiral Penham in projecting the personal a»4 cpmmerciaj rights of our djigens durin the disturbed conditions in JJrazU affprd results which will, it is believed, have far-reaching and WfeoJeSQHie i Whenever jn like pirou,in48»ce v s it »ay com? necessary Jor onr naval cpnw to inter!ere pn peh.§}{ pf pur people eign ports,., he way now in progress between Jw renAergd jj necessary, to 4isp,atPh flight y§e-«els JQ Jh waters- TJw The report of the WDv the • it ii estimated (hat the public domain Still femainiftg amottats to ft little fti'Ore* than 600.( OJ.OOJ Sores, incladifig, foowever, about 860,0t»,030 Bores Ifa Alaska, ftfi Well ai militar* reservations and rfttlrofid" and Other selections of lattdsytttinftdjnditiated. The selection of swamp lafids and that taken as indeminty therefof since the passage of the act providing f of the same lh 1849. amonhHftg to neatly oi- qtiite 60,500,000 acres, of which 68,000,000 have been patented to states. About 183,OtX) actes Were patented during the last year. Nearly three hundred and twenty thottsond acres of school and education, grants were approved during the year, and at its close 1 r 250,863.81 acres remained unadjusted. It appeafs that the appropriation f ot the current year on account of special service for the protection of the public lands and the timber thereon is much less than those of prc -ions years and inadequate for an efficient performance of the work. A larger sum of money than has been appropriated during a htimbe* of years past of this account has been returned to the Government as a result of the labors of those employed in the particular service mentioned, and 1 hope it will not be crippled by insufficient appropriation. 1 fully endorse the recommendation of the secretary that adequate protection be provided for our forest reserves and that a comprehensive forestry system be inaugurated, 1 concur in the opinion that the commissioner of the general laud office should be relieved from the duty of deciding litigated land cases; that a nonpartisan court should be created to pass on such cases, and that tho decisions of th's court should be flnnl,.at least so for as the decisions of the department are now final. Tho Indians. Though the condition of the Indians shows a steady aud healthy progress, their situation is not satisfactory at all points. Sjnieof them to whom allotments of land have been made are found to be unable or disinclined to follow agricultural pursuits or to otherwise beneficially manage their land. This is especially true of the Cheyennes and Arapahoos, who, as it t appears by reports of their agent, have in many instances never been located upon their allotments, and in some cases do not even know where their allotments are. Their condition has deteriorated. /They are not self supporting, and they live in camps and spend their time in idleness. I have always believed that allotments of reservation lands to Indians in severally should be mnde sparingly, or at least slowly, and with the utmost caution, In these days when white agriculturists and stock raisers of experience and intelligence find their lot a hard one, we ought not to expect Indians, unless far advanced in civilization and habits of industry, to support themselves on the small tracts of land usually allotted to them. If tbe self supporting scheme by allotment fails the wretched pauperism, of the allottees which results is worse than their original condition of regulated dependence. It is evident that the evil consequences of ill advised allotment are intensified in cases where the false step can not be retreated on account of tbe purchase by the government of reservation lands remaining after allotments are made and the disposition of such remaining lands to settlers or purchasers from the government. j I am convinced that tho prcp?r solution of the Indian problem aiH the success of every step taken in.tha 1 ; direction depend to a very large extent upon the intelligence and honesty of the reservation agents and the interest they have in their work. The intelligent Indian school management of tho past, ycBr has been followed by gratifying results. Efforts have been made to advance the work in a sound and practical manner. Five institutes of Indian teachers have been held during the yeni^and proved very beneficial through the views .exchanged and methods dis?ussed particularly applicable to Indian education. Efforts are being made in the direction of a gradual reduction in the number of Indian contract schools so that in a cornpnrn- tively short time they may give way altogether to government schools, nnd it is hoped that the change mny be so gradual as to be perfect el without too great expense to the government or undue disregard of investments made .by those who have established and are maintaining such contract schools. The Pension Rolls, At the close of the last fiscal year, on the 80th day of Juno. 189-1, there were 980,544 persons on our pension rolls, being a net increase of 8,583 over the number reported at the end of the previous year. The commissioner of pensions is_ of the opinion that the year 1SI9."), being the thirtieth after the close of the war of, the rebellion, must according to all sensible human calculation see the highest limit of the npension iroll. and after that year it must begin to decline. The claims pending in tho bureau have decreased more than 10,000 during the year. A large proportion of the now clnims filed are for increase of pension by those now on the rolls. The acousation that an effort to'detect pension frauds is evidence of unfriendly- ness toward our worthy veterans and a denial to their claims to tbe generosity of the government suggests an unfortunate indifference to the comniis«ipn of anyoffeqso which has for its motive the securing of a pension and indicates a willingness to be blind to the existence of mean and treacherous crimes whifli play upon demagogic fears and make sport of the patriotic impulse of a grateful people, The Eleventh Census. The completion o'f the eleventh census is now in cnarge of the commissioner of labor. The total disbursements on account of the work for the fiscal year ending June 30,1894, amounted to$10,865,676,8!, At the close of the year the number of persons employed in tbe census o!Bce was 670. At present there are about 400. The whole number of volumes necessary to comnre- hendthe eleventh census will be twenty-five, and they will contain 83,370 printed pages. *j he assurance is confidently made that before the close of the present calendar year the material still ipcpmplete will be practically in hand, and tbe census can certainly be ojpsed by March 4, 1895, After that the revision and prpof reading necessary to bring out the volumes will still be required, '4 he census is being prepared accprding to the theory that it is designed to collect facts and certify them to tbe public—not to fJabprate arguments pr to present per- Bonal views, Our Farming Interests. The secretary of agriculture in bis report reviews the pperations pf his department for the last fiscal year, an4 wakes recommendations for tbe further extension. P( its usefulness, Efe reports a, pvmgin expenditures during the year o*'$000,oo0 which is covered back into the treasury, Tjjjs sum is 93 per sen,* 9l the entire appropriation. , - / '• - .' A special study b,as pees wade pf the „ j,—. A 1 — t rpdjipts m flU , &»8J •row iU «e^ tfsS* to wnldn « ft «Sfi- sTftutly u&ifttr ft61brojbrii*t0ci* Juuft oxpOitS : Ot BiKl*iCultnTAl pi*(HltfC < t6 iruIH tu.6 UfiltSCl States for the fiscal year ending Jutie 80, 1804, Amounted to t$8,36o.083, being 72.28 •pre* cent of AfSef ieafi e*pt>fts of evef y d& s6tiption, and tbe united kingdom of Great Britain took mofls than 54 p«r cent of all farm pfodticts finding foreigtt mat-' fcets. AfUttifti Ihflnstrtes, The eciefatiBc inquiries of the buteitt of animal industry have progressed Steadily during the year, Much tuberenlofi and mallem have been furnished to state authorities for use in the agricultural colleges aad experiment stations for the treatment of tuberculosis and glanders. , Quite reeeflUy this department hai published the results of this investigation of bovine tuberculosis and its researches -frm bo vigorously continued. Certain herds in the District of Columbia will be thoroughly inspected and will probably supply adequate scope for tbe department to intelligently prosecute its scientific work and furnish sufficient material for .purposes of illustration, description and definition, Tho recommendation contained in the report of the secretary for 1898, that ihe vicious system of promiscuous, free distribution of its departmental documents be abandoned is ngain urged. These publications may well be furnished without cost, to public libraries, educational institutions, and the officers and libraries of states and of the federal government, but from all individuals applying for them a price covering the Cost of the document asked fpf should be required. The secretary also ngain recommends that the gratuitous distribution of seeds cease, and that no money bo appropriated for that purpose except to experiment ftntions. A further important utility in agricultural statistics is found in their elucidation of the relation of the supply of farm products to the demand for them iu the markets of Uie United States and of the world. It is deemed possible that an agricultural census may be taken each year through the agents of the statistical division of tbe department. .Such a course is commended for trial by i.ne chief of that division. Its scope would be: 1. The area under each of the more important crops. 2. The aggregate products of each of such crops. 3. The quantity of wheat and corn in the hands of farmers at a date after the spring sowings and plantings and before the beginning of harvest; nud also tho quantity of cotton and tobacco remaining in the bauds of planters, either at the same date or at some other designated time. Tbe cost of the work is estimated at 5500,000, Civil Service Reform. The advantages of the rmblic service of an adherence to the principles of civil service reform are constantly more apparent and nothing is so encouraging to those in official life who honestly desire good government as the inct easing appreciation by our people of these advantages. A vast majority of the voters of tho laud are ready to insist that the time and attention of those they select to perform for them important public duties should not be distracted by doling out minor offices, and they are growing to be unanimous in regarding parly organization as something that should be used in establishing party principles instead of dictating the distribution of public places as rewards of partisan activity. Numerous additional offices and places have lately Leon brought within civil service rules and regulations and some others will probably soon be included. The report of the commissioners will bo submitted to congress, and 1 invite careful attention to the recommendations it contains. The National Health. • I am entirely convinced that we ought not to be longer without a national board of health or national health officer, charged with no other duties than such as pertain to the protection of our country from the invasion of pestilence and disease. There seems to be at this time a decided inclination to discuss measures of protection against contugious diseases in international conference with a view of adopting means of mutunl assistance. The L,ubor Troubles. By virtue of a statute of tbe United States passed in 1883, I appointed in July last, Hon. John D. Keruan of the state of New York, and Hon. Nicholas E. Worth- iugtou of the state of Illinois to form with Hoii. Carroll D. Wright, commissioner of labor, who was designated by said statute, a commission for the purpose of making careful inquiry into the causes of tbe controversies between certain railroads and their employe?, which bad resulted in an extensive and' destructive strike, accompanied by much violence and dangerous disturbance, with considerable loss of life and great destruction pf property. Tho report of the commissioners bus boen sub initted to me and will be transmitted to the congress with the evidence taken up on their investigation, Their work has been 'well done, aud their standing and intelligence give assurance that tbe'report and suggestions they make are worthy of careful consideration. Tho 3'tvrHT 1JI1I. The tariff act passed at the last sessio"- ot the congress needs important amend' mouts if it ,is to be executed effectively and with certainty, In addition to such sary amendments'as will not change rates of duty, I am still very decidedly iu fayor of putiiug coal and iron upon' the free list, SP far as the sugar schedule is concerned, I would be glad, under existing aggravations to see every particle of differential duty in favor of refined sugar stricken out of our tariff law, If, with all tho favoi now recorded the sugar refining interest in our tariff laws, it "till languishes to the extent of closing refineries and thousands o) discharged workmen, it would seem to present a hopeless case for reasonable legislative aid. Whatever else js done or omitted, 1 ear nestly repeat here tbe recommendation J, have made in another portion of this com? rnunicatipn that the additional duty of pne- tentb Pf a cent per ppuud laid upon sugai impprted from countries paying a bpunty pn its expprt be abrogated. It seems tp m'e that exceedingly important consideratipus point to the propriety pf this amendment. With the advent ot a new tariff policy not only calculated to relieve the opn- snmers o? our land in the cost of their daily iife but to invite a better '., ..',„.,. ment of American thrift and presto, fp»« u.s closer and nipre profitable commerfiisl re- latipns with the re>t oJ,-tte world 'it follows as fk : l9glo»l ant imperative necessity that we should at once romp ?eibaPRle$ H wot the,, only pbstaole whipb U* 8 &« JOSS prevented PUI partipipatlsn in the foreign carrying trade -"the,sea.. A tariff built upon the thepry " '6 •spiLtpioheck Imports ~" J "--' - ftgjjje, JBWfeet' should, bound t aMejtert <rf American produce.? p ( , supplemented by a, jefusai tp a.l|ow —^_'—<..,...,„ J.Q Yes,sel§ PJJ" " u ""~ j navigated, by i w*iU»S» ei3 e w swrtlw ...:.: r" JftBip WPUJf$ b«yt ujpj - lg§ we. ,ft»<|thai 9>v»e,d . Ow^eew iarif . HI felid 61 uli&K Tuft* $Xlin>eL MUUV*. -—- f statute of the United States, eeommehd its prompt repeal. Oaf fcoM fcetette. ^^ Dating the last month the gold *8t8ffi9 a thf treasttry for tne purpose of ffdlSfm* ng the notes of the government cif6tflalf, ng as money in the hands of the fttftfli became eo feduee'd, and Its. fftfthef dSpre! ion in the hear'fttttife seemed fe<$ eeftallj hat in the exercise of proper care fof tfie public welfare it b&came neceMftrf td It" , lenish the reserve and thus maintain ftffc Ular faith in the ability ftnd detefminfttt&fi of the government to meet, as agreed, Its lecuhiary obligations, It Would Eavebeefi well if in this emergency authority had existed to issiie the bonds of the government bearing a low rate of interest and maturing within a short frefldd; but the dongfess having failed to ednf6f uch authorityt resort was necessarily had ;o the l-esttmption afct of 1878 ( and pursuant o its provisions bonds' were issued dfaW* ng interest at the rate of 6 pef cent feef mnuin aad maturing tea years after theilP ssue, that being the shortest time authored by the act. 1 am glad to tay, how- *er, that on the sale of these bonds the iremium received operated to reduce" tHb ate of interest to be paid by the govern-* ment to less than 8 percent. Nothing ottld be worse or further removed ffoft^ ensible finance than the relations exlsfepV the currency the GtoVAfl- rnont has issued, the gold ' or its redemption, and the means nust be resorted to for the purpose «- leuishing such redemption fund when aired, Even if the claims upon this vere confined to the obligations origi: ntended and if the redemption or thesV bligations meant their cancellation, the und would be very small. But these ob- igntlona when received and redeemed hi gold are not canceled but are reissued and nay do duty many times by way of draw- ng gold from the treasury, Thus we have u endless claim in operation constantly .epleting tho treasury's gold nnd never lear a final rest. As if this was not bad inough, we have, by a statutory decla^a- ion tlmt-it is the policy of the government o maintain the parity between gold and liver, aided the force and momentum of his exhausting process and added largely o the currency obligations claiming this >eculiar gold redemption. Our small i eserve is thus subject to drain from e ide. The demands that increase our er also-increase the necessity of pi'i ng this reserve against depletion, an nost unsatisfactory to know that th< ection afforded is only a tempora: atioii. It is perfectly and palpably hat the only wav under present con' ions by which this reserve when dang usly depleted can bo replenished is through lie issue and sale of the bonds. Now rian for Currency Questions relating to our 1 banks and cur- ency are closely connected with the sub- ect just referred to and they also present ome unsatisfactory features. Prominent among them are tbe lack of lasticity in our currency circulation and ts frequent concentration in financial enters when it is most needed in other jarts of tbe country. The absolute divorcement of the government from the business of banking is the deal relationship of tbe government to bo circulatiou of tbe currency of tbe coun- This condition can not be immediately •eached; but as a step in that direction and as a means of securing a more elastic currency and obviating other objec- ions to the present arrangement of jank circulation,, the secretary of tho .reasury presents iu bis report a scheme modifying present banking'laws .nd providing for the issue of circulating notes by state banks free from, taxation under cor tain limitations. < •• The secretary explains his plan so plainly audits advantages are developed by himl with such remarkable clearness that any effort ou my part to present argument in- ts support would be superfluous. I shall, Aierefore, content myself with on unqualified indorsement of tho secretary's proposed changes in tbe law and a brief and imperfect statement of their prominent feature. It is proposed to repeal all laws providing '"or tbe deposit of United fcjtatos bonds as security for circulation; to permit national; pauks to issue circulating notes not exceeding in amount 75 per ceut of their paid up and unimpaired capital, provided they deposit with the government, as a guarantee fund, in United States legal tender notes, including treasury notes of 1800, a sum equal iu amount to 80 per cent of the notes they desire to issue, this deposit to be maintained at all times, but whenever any bank retires any part of its circulation a proportional part of its guarantee tuud shall be returned to it; to permit the secretary of tbe treasury tp prepare and keep on baud, ready for issue iu case an increase in circulation is desired, blank national bank notes-for eetch bank having circulation, and to repeal tbe provisions of tbe preseutlaw imposing limitations and restriction upon banks desiring to reduce or increase tbejr circulation— thus permitipg. such increase or reductipn within the limit of 75 per cent of capital to be quickly made as emergencies ai'fse, In ad» dition to the guarantee fund required) it IB proposed tp provide a safety fund for the immediate redemption of' the circiu lating notes of failed banks, by imposing a small annual tax, say pne half oi' 1 per cent, tippn tbe average, cirQUla tipn of each bank until the fund amount tP 5 per cent pf ^he tPtal cjrculatipn putstandi ing, W)ien a bank fails its guarantee fund is to be paid into this safety fund and its notes are tp be redeemed in the first iff* stance from such safety fund,' thus awg-; inentedr-any impairment of s,uch fund' caused thereby to be made good 'from, the immediately available cash assets ot said, bank and if these &hP«ld be ins 1 , such impairment to be made, geoji b; rata assessment 'ampjjg the other M their contributions epm,titutmg a first upon uhe assets ' ot failed 1 in favpy ot the" contributing \)t As ft further, ewrityttJs contemplated the e$istU>6 prpvision fixing the iMivi _..,„ liity el gtoekbolders is tp be retain"^ the b a? k '8 indebtedness, PB f ocpuuti Q| , " " is to bewftde " o$the its pjrpuiating notes lien Q» "ftJJ its assets, Another very impprtaot feature^ , TTO . p^an is the exemption o| stftte banks from.', taxation by tbe United states J» qfi&es' waere it is sboivn Jo the gattsfi secretary pf the treasury sn4 of the curreRpy by bftR*8 owe, that they kar^ gpj fheir- populating J per e§at f pj.' and" wBigjpat • ,ar& 9f

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