The Algona Republican from Algona, Iowa on September 5, 1894 · Page 7
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The Algona Republican from Algona, Iowa · Page 7

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Algona, Iowa
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Wednesday, September 5, 1894
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FARM DMPiRTMMT. USEFUL ftitfitifiti FOR flnd Stock, frntlttft Gfcfrdefc— lit* Afiiff consin. Thg shipments frorthwestetii last yea* about d.OOO.tfOO cans, or 100;000,60'0 quarts, and the revenue reeeited for transporting them to about $500,000. .;_ Chicago's Slltfc ttadfe ___^ Chicago's milk trade is considered 6fcS 6f the small items in the city's emnfiserce and yet it is one of those fcmftll things that gb to show the great* ftess of the city, says a write* in Chi- «&gb Evening Post only a mighty metropolis With att immense "population could coMstime 60 ( 00o»000 gallons 6f inilk annually. ¥et this is the quantity which is delivered here from the surrounding country. The value 6f this milk is not lesS than $4,600,000 at wholesale. It costs the consumers not K iess than $12,000,000. The- daily ffiCelpts by tail average 18,600 cans of eight gallons eachyor168,000 gallons, The supply is never less than 12,000 cans pet day. it is never .more than 16,ooo cans, but the average for the, year round is as already stated. The aggregate receipts for 1893 were in the neighborhood of 6,000,000 cans, from the transportation of which the rail* toads bringing them into the city Derived a revenue of about $1,000,000. This milk was shipped by 3,200 dairy farmers who owned from eighteen to twenty>flye milch cows each. It requires four milch cbws to make up an eight-gallon can of milk per day. On arrival in Chicago this milk was received by 1,150 milk dealers, who used 3,380 wagons in its distribution to consumers in the city. The supply of milk is largest during the months of June and .July. It is smallest during November, December, January and February. Until quite recently milk shipments to Chicago were not made from points more than: fifty miles from the city. It was claimed that they could not be . with profit, but last year the Chicago Milwaukee & Si. Paul took a new de. parture and extended its milk ter- 'ritory to seventy-nine miles from the Sttitiag , Tb put any preservative upon h&y when inbwing of stacking it h&s always been & te*ed questibfl and cftn not vet be considered settled. The practice of salting hay .will, we pie-' Bume, continue to have its advocate^ while there will on the other hand f e* main the equally strong army of ttten that CO ndemtt the practice The latter doubtless are those that keep, breed* ing sheep, for we fail to see that salt can possibly do any harm to stock unless it be to pregnant ewes, and in* deed it would be very salty hay that would bring about abortion in the sheep pens. On general principles it may be asserted that perfectly cured hay needs no condiment or preservative other than its own fine iroma and that which isun and wind gave it! but how small a proportion of the hay crop annually harvested can be considered perfectly 6ured, tence needing no adjunct to render more palatable. Much of it would mold in the mow or stack unless liberally salted, having been ^cut extra early or in weather that did not allow of thorough drying in the field, the latter being the common reason for- salting ••' hay in Grea 1 Britain, where, however, salt is no as a rule given to stock "straight" on the pastures or 'among the feed dally as is the custom here. In that coun try, too, where hay is seldom put up So perfectly as here on account of excessive moisture, it is a common practice to use an aromatic powder to sprinkle upon the hay, layer by layer, as it is trampled into the stack or mow. Such "spice," as it is called, cornea high, and as a rule could be compounded very cheaply did the owner know the ingredients, but which he buys at 1,000 per cent profit in the shape of condiment. The fine amell of the stuff is due to a little powdered fenugreek, which may be purchased at small cost from any large city drug n the night &fl the sheep hemseltes, as usual, under tfcs bus new walls, of" which my fattief milt miles during his occupation of he farm. Driven by a f dsrtous wind, he snow gathered in big drifts undlir ,he walls which run fight across IM lurrent of the gale, and scores of fifeeftfj Were buried under four or five feet 6f the white blanket of winter. Tb find where all the buried sheep were was nb little task, for they had-the rim of a dozen or fifteen fields. Sdtte of them, ndeed, were not released for nearly ft week from their prison of snow, and ifc was a relief to see how very little harm they had taken) they had been warm enough, anyway, and though no food could be gbt at, they tobk no great har'm for want of it Breathing we might think would be difficult, but their warm breath found its way to the walls close under which they lay, and these provided many avenues for air,, whilst in other cases tiny chimneys, were formed to the surface of the snow. All available hands were soon at work with long rods—rake handles they were, chiefly—poking dbwn through every square foot of snow until the end of a rod would prod something softer than the frozen ground; then would the men go to work with spades to dig away the snow, and the sheep was "pulled out by the scruff of the neck." Before all the sheep had been found, on that anu an adjoining farm, the frozen snow Would carry a light youth like me, and the prodding could be done witl better effect and less discomfort, But» it had to be done with care'all the time, or a sheep's eye might have been missing, or a rib broken, or a life lost The animals were helpless enough, and apparently conten£ • when bared OJ snow, but they £oon recovered tho use of their limbs, and of their appetites sooner still! Afttf #<•*» tt. tn bulletin No. 20 of the Penn- 8yl*ania experiment statioft, Prof. A. S. Waters and R. J» Weld report the results of a comparison of the yields of digestible inattef prb'dueM by mangels, sugar beets and silage Corn when grown tinder similar conditions, and also a comparison of the faetite of roots and silage for the pro* diietion of toilk and butter. On faitly good upland clay limestone Ibil, made rich enough for a fair crop of corn or beets, and under reasonably gbbd field culture, the following results Were obtained: Yield of corn per acre Yield of beets Increase of corn over roots.. t n § i Ibs. 18,59. 13,8')C 4.78.' Ibs. 5,522 •J,196 3,826 BE «• IS Ib8. 3.BS9 1,829 I.WJ ' Turnips for Milch ; Oow* „ A correspondent writes asking if it b\j profitable to feed turnips to cows giving milk, and wants to know if they influence the character of the milk and butter. Of course, it is easy P00LTBY HOUSES OF A FANCIER NEAR BOSTON, MASS.-FEOM FARMERS REVIEW. city. New York draws its milk supplies from a district that extends 3&0 miles from the city, but the system pursued in handling it is quite dif. fioult and much more expensive than that followed- here. There refrigerator cars are used in summer for its transportation. It is taken. into the city by night. Here no refrigerator, cars are used and the milk arrives in the city about 10:30 in the forenoon. An abundant supply to 'm^etalXthe city's demands oan usually be ob- tutted, There have been occasions ,wb§n, owing to some exception^ and unforeseen cireumstences, supplies - have run short, but this has been but . "lor a very short time, gtttl the etyy i^jjk^alers have' active competitors in rtf ereaperiee that are quite inw- the entire territory presence these warn- house. It is the chief ingredient of value in a hay spice, as it imparts a pleasant odor, cloaking the mustiness due to mold or old age. To give the spice bulk corn meal and other cheap and finely ground feeds are added and the condiment furthor medicated by an admixture of such drugs as pulverized gentian and ginger root, and perhaps a certain percentage pf saltpeter. In storing hay, whether a condiment is used pr not—and we consider pne entirely superfluous in most cases—the chief point should be to see that the hay is properly spread out and trampled. Much of tbe spoiled bay results from the Sow fashionable way of dumping the bay In mammoth heaps over the mow just as ibe forte brought it up frP*n the wagon. Often these ( 'f prkf uls" are so beavy that tbe wen in' the J»PF c *w not or dp not.c»re to tackle them? and so they are left like islands here and there, tbe rest of tbehay Odnp P&ekeft in around tbesj, Tbe reeu^ i^th&t w a bay wpw so $J-le4, tbere ;arj .suwr- to answer his questions, as nearlj all farmers have had experience along this line, but we wish to give him the benefit of the experience of the multitude. . We are aware that some-dairy' men are enthusiastic oyer the turnip as a food for cows, as Friend Hyatt will tell us, but it is equally true that mpst dairymen consider turnips risky feed if they expect to send their butter ^o a discriminating, market, Now let us hear the experiences of our readers as to the value of this root in the production of milk and butter, nd eaek heap &» d the mold m\l be in J ' i§la»{||" Tnflnenco of first Henry S, Russell says; I am a thorough believer in tb$ pp,wer of, the first parent to mark all the succeeding progeny,' J believe that tb e sire of the mare's first f pal has m influence upon every one of her progeny, fading out, * >9, as it goes pri, It is not nee» tp refer to my ow» exneriences< je ( Mthe tb§ D»ke • L " lw "WftPi OH* spniQ a yerj flne In other Words, as much digestible organic matter was produced by one acre of corn as was secured from al« mbst two acres of beets. Similar although very much less striking results were obtained at the Maine state experiment station in a Comparison of several classes of forage crops, and involving in each case two year's work At the Ontario agricultural experiment station silage corn gave second highest yield of digestible material per acre as the average of two seasons comparisons of six types of forage crops. Both of these experiment stations are out of the corn belt, and a less favorable showing for corn was to be expected. ' In the Pennsylvania experiments a . careful account of the cost of growing, harvesting and storing the two crops was kept with the following results: Cost of one acre of beets in pit...$56.07 Cost of one acre of Corn in silo 21.13 In 1890 the cost of one acre of beets was $00. The Wisconsin experiment station reports the cost of one acre of sugar Tjeets from a two-acre field, without charging rent of land and using no fertilizers, at 853.80. The Ohio experiment station grew sugar beets at a cost of $31.36 per acre in 1890, and $38.84 in 1891,'making no .charge for fertilizers or rent of land. The average cost per acre of sugar beets,-when grown on a 'commercial scale in California, as reported by seven large growers, was $48.85. At the United States sugar beet experiment station, Schuyler, Neb., the cost per acre in 185& was $49.78, exclusive of fertilizers and rent ' fn special cases these figures may be considerably reduced for both' crops, but it is believed that the relation between them given above is ap- approximately correct for average' conditions. " _. -, '. In a feeding trial involving two lots of five cows each and covering three periods'of twelve days,' 100 pounds of digestible matter in the silage ration produced 13 L 92, pounds of milk and 7.21 pounds of butter, while an equal amount, of digestible dry matter in the form of roots prod ace 137.36 pounds of milk and 6.53 pounds of butter—a difference in the butter produced of 10.4 per cent. But when the two lots of cows were fed alike on a combined ration of beets and silage, the silage lot produced, per 100 pounds of digestible matter, consumed, 139 pounds of milk and'0:7:9'pounds of butter, and the roots lot 150 pounds of milk and 6.46 pounds of butter, thus showing an apparent superiority of the cows constituting the silage lot 'When this is taken account of it leaves a net gain in feeding value of the silage' over the roots of 5 per cent Similar results were obtained at this station in 1890. These results are also in accord with those of trials extending over four years, and involving in two experiments twelve cows each, and in two, sixteen cows, at the Ohio experiment station.. Below is given a summary of their results: POUNDS QTf MIMC PRODUCED PER 100 POUNDS OB 1 DBY MATTER CONSUMED. 1889. J890, 1891, 1892. BeefrratiOT 69' 59 63 69 Sifeeratlon , ... 68 6J 66 7& The average of all experiments points to the Qonciusion that, when compared upon the basis of digestible master, silage is at least as effective as sugar beats or mangels for the pro* duetion of mi}k or butter. A BuLi.tAiN ef the ttebrgia stattdn says: Natural tegetatioo—that Which grows "wild'.'—upon a soil is also to some extent indicative of its chemical composition. The hard wood trees (oak, hickbry, etc.), for instance, the ashes of which contain a great deal of potash and considerable phosphoric acid, will only grow spontaneously upon soils rich in potash and fairly well supplied with phosphates. The cedar and certain grasses, Whose ashes contain much lime, grow naturally upon limestone soils. The pine, Which contains but little ash, grows naturally upon poor soil, as it makes but a small demand upon the soil for food of any kittd. It frequently happens that when hard wood timber (oak, hickory, etc.) has been cut off from, a tract of land and the soil cultivated for a considerable period of . time and th&n thrown out of cultivation, it is followed by a spontaneous growth of pine (old field pine especially).>. This indicates that the soil originally Con* tained a sufficient supply of available potash and phosphoric acid compounds to support the growth of hard-wood trees. The timber in its growth, how« ever, followed by a period of exhaust* ive cropping, exhausted the soil of its available mineral food, and the subsequent spontaneous growth upon it, therefore, would only be pine trees and similar vegetation requiring but little mineral food. During the growth of the pine the minerals of the soil undergo additional weathering and decomposition, thus storing up in the soil a fresh supply of available plant food. When the pine is cut off it is, therefore, frequently followed by a spon- aneous growth of oak, hickory, etc.— Farmer's Review. HOME OEM8 OF 4flfor«fttiftU AtflSiSt Recipe* M»* fa* t»e In the Kltckett—tltd fclrcl*. FUTURE OF FAHMING.—The so-called bonanza wheat farms of the,northwest and the big farms of the California valleys grow out of transient conditions that no longer prevail—the California farms out of the old Spanish land grants and the Minnesota and Dakota farms out of the congressional grants to railroads. The history, of the northwestern big farms is that the land was purchased. from the railroad companies with depreciated stock and cost originally. about $1 per acre; .The low price of wheat and the higher price ot land have changed the whole aspect .of ,large farming. There is no bonanza in the big farm now. It makes but a moderate profit on the capital it represents in average crop years, and with a bad crop it barely pays.running expenses. It requires as careful management as, a factory. I believe-that we are now in a transition period in agriculture. The influence of machinery has been fully exerted. There are no more fertile lands on the globe to be conquered by civilization and to increase, the food supply. With growth 1 of population will come better prices for farm products. Farm life wiirbecome more attractive. The tendency to large farms will be checked. A hundred acres, even with, exclusive grain farming, will aflordi a good living to a family. Better times for American agriculture are not far off..—E. V. Smalley in Forum. PLUMBS.—Fruit growers- have met, with a difficulty in the successful cultivation of the native plum in. the fact that some varieties are self-sterile, that is, they do not fertilize themselves. Isolated trees and large orchards of Wild Goose and Miner have proven shy bearers, while when planted intermingled with other varieties blooming at the same time .and furnishing an abundance of pollen, they have borne heavy crops. Hence it is important to determine the most suitable list of uarieties for an orchard so as to ensure the most perfect pollination of all the blossoms. Newman is considered a good pollenizer for Wild Goose, while De Soto, Wolf and Forest Garden are regarded as good fertilizers for Miner. Isolated trees of the eelf-sterile varieties may be made fruitful by top grafting some 'of the limbs with suitable varieties, or by planting trees of these sorts adjacent. Mixed planting of self-fertile and important varieties in hedge-lijje -rows or in alternate rows,is now ad' vocated and' practiced by our best growers- Some growers, however, prefer to confine their choice ties to those that are self-fertile, IS ONTAfitO.—A bulletin issued by the Ontario department of agriculture to the farmers of the province, urges them to make further efforts to improve their position itt the Britishi market. The summary with Which the publication concludes sayss "Prices for grain have fallen over 30 per cent in ten yearaj prices for butter and cheese have fallen less than 6 per cent. Dairy farming is less exhaustive than grain farming. Ontario is well adapted to dairying. We pro* dtice now 90,000,000 pounds of factory cheese, 3,000,000 pounds of creamery butter, and about 50,ooo,ooo pounds of dairy butter per annum. Whereas our best creamery butter brings as high price as Danish creamery in Britain, our exports to Britain averaged over 5 cents per pound less than the Danish exports. Our exports to Britain, therefore, consist largely of butter of inferior quality. The production of our butter in creameries instead of home dairies would give a large amount of high class butter of uniform quality both for home production and for export,aad would add over $1,000,000 to its value. A separator creamery with capacity for 500 cows can be built and equipped for from £500 to £000. The outlook for dairying in Ontario is promising, provided we aim to produce a constant supply of uniformly good articles^—namely, fine factory cheese and fine creamery butter." INFLUENCE OF THE CHEASIEIIY.— That which most of all has tended to turn the attention of farmers to the improvement of the milking qualitias of their cows is- the advent of the creamery. It seems to have.the happy faculty of setting people to thinking, and one of the first things it teaches is a discrimination in the capabilities of cows for supplying in quality and quantity milk which shall, pay the best profit for their keep. No;w. right at this stage of action, is the' 'liime for a step which will be of far reaching importance to both the individual and the community at large. 'It 'ought not to be now; that when a> milch cow is wanted it becomes necessary to go out on a still hunt, and perhaps buy a dozen before ,one is found suitable to' the purpose. The man who intelligently sets about the business of breeding a high grade of milch cows for the trade at this time perchance r builds more wisely ' than he knows.—Ex. ,'t :'•& 4?. exchange says; We have frequently remarked, uppn the low price at^bich Qalijornia apriepts are sold frpnj IruH stands up'pn our streets. Fife wte foradpzien has'been tne prifif) lor several w.eefcs here, This eJjajys |h&.t the producer in CaUterote se»j$gly gets pay for pi«Wngi fQJ? l&e railrpad charges, commjgsjpji 1 men and retailers* profits leav 6 - birt a vwy swap, sup "j<ff tke grower m& shipper, ea ol lerttte SP» show even in the west that a large proppy tion of farmers rent instead of own their land. 'It is prpbatyy 'du§ to the retirement of those whp h,av$ passed the three score and ten iinait, arid yet hold o» to their fftrms &s ft Safe. BIWHJS ' ol securing re,vgnuVfor their remaining d&yg. We can »ot be, Jieve that the renters will not buy the faring 1! they have a good o^ftnce. The njougy.w ^ffr o» a m,°yte»ffe tjiam the rents wo»W H Wbett a ma» works a in a eonsjan.* tejap" t F°W it be 8 an and, tba^ be «s»od it an wterest to • wafee and this i§ MILK FOB HENS.—Hens should havo all the milk they can readily eat; no kind of food is better adapted to 1 egg production; Some milk mixed with bran will not fatten them; but if given, freely, the vessels in which it is"~>fed will need frequent cleansing 1 to prevent them becoming offensive.' With milk to drink fowls on a range will do, well enough on one meal a day, as this will encourage activity and picking up what they can. This feed should be given very early in the morning, and should be steamed clover hay, with a little corn and oat chop and bran mixed with it, and a little salt added to make it more palatable. The birds will have a ravenous appetite,-and they can eat all tnia food, they want without injury,'—California Cackler. MILK WELL- STBAINED. —Never • iti$e bot water upon milk pails until they have first been thoroughly rinsed in cold water. Soap should never be •used about any milk utensila It, is unnecessary and entirely out of place, Always strain milk through a'fine; • wire strainer and then through cloth, : A, single trial of the cloth.strainer w;ill '• convince any one that its use is im- ; peratively necessary in order to have,' all impurities removed. Four thick- nesses of butter cloth fastened to the under side of the wire strainer kj^*'' tin ring which slips over it, holding 'jC in place is' a very satisfactory strai^erV,^ —Ella Rpckwppd. *"" >>; ' • §UMMBB AWP J5&es,=^Dp; eouraged because. "eg£s .. ; ~ .,, r , M ^ price. Tbe summer season is, tbe" m$J$ favorable for poultry, and if egg^'° v ° cheap you will #et more of j J>be»f the post pf tbe food" will tie ;\es$, farmers will keep an aeepwt', gt" eeipts and expenses, tbey wjll'flnd tbWs the summer, is t ( be/ fesfOR, ™' h «« v -^ i »* most p,re$t',is w^e,/fiop £ess. Jabpr t less feed tp rpup and other' er§4ite4 t° tb£ ^1 IB 'K

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