Freeport Journal-Standard from Freeport, Illinois on July 19, 1975 · Page 7
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Freeport Journal-Standard from Freeport, Illinois · Page 7

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Saturday, July 19, 1975
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Page 7
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Department of Labor projections, 1972-85: 15.3 million college graduates 14.5 million jobs Freeport (III.) Journal-Standard, Saturday, July 19, 1975 p age 7 Underemploymen t Also A Problem By MARY COSTELLO Editorial Research Reports ' Unemployment has'captured the national spotlight in recent months but, with a new crop of graduates in the labor force, a related problem is now receiving attention. This is the problem of underemployment - working at a job that does not make'good use of' one's ability, training or experience. Ph.D.s have been driving cabs and engineers have been slinging hash for years. What's new is that it is no longer unusual to find large numbers of "over-educated" people holding menial or routine jobs. Analyses of the American job market offer little hope that this condition will improve. In fact the gap between job supply arid demand is likely to widen, according to official projections. Unlike unemployment, there is ho official or objecive measurement of underemployment. But its prevalence is well known. A study of working conditions conducted for the Department of Labor in-1974 found that 35 per cent of all American workers Relieved they were overqualified for their jobs. Myron Clark, former president of the Society for the Advancement' of Management, puts the figure at about 80 per cent. James O'Toole of the Center for Futures Research at the University of Southern, California feels that the problems of underemployment "are basic and enduring shortcomings in the labor market;" His thesis is a gloomy one. It holds that many young people who grew.up believing that education was theg key to career success will be forced to take unchallenging jobs in which they have little interest arid where the opportunities for advancement are slight. In the process, many of the less-educated workers, will be displaced. O'Toole is not the oniy Cassandra. The U..S. Bureau of Labor'statistics, in a recent survey of the' job outlook through 1985, found that "problems for college graduates will more likely be employment below the level of. skill for which they were trained, resulting in job dissatisfaction'and high occupational .mobility rather than unemployment." According to the bureau's projections, there will be 800,000 more college graduates in the labor force by 1985 than there will be job openings for them. The oversupply of college graduates has an impact on the whole work force. Workers already in the labor force are aware that employers would have little difficulty replacing them and remain on jobs which, in another era, they would probably have left for more satisfying work. Underemployment, and the feelings of entrapment and dissatisfaction it engenders, has not only human but economic consequences. It has been shown that highly educated or intelligent workers in unchallenging and tedious jobs tend to be less production and more accident-prone than their, less gifted co-workers. Their frustra- . tions are often relieved through irresponsible or destructive behavior and unexplained absences. This, in turn, serves to lower the morale of other em- ployes. ',-.;• Some see one answer to the problems of unemployment and underemployment as the creation of thousands of public service jobs. But "leaf- raking make-work," as; critics have called these programs since the Der pressioh, is not likely to satisfy or challenge today's educated job seekers. Career education - training for the world of work in academe T is another proposal for relieving unemployment and underemployment.. But it too has its critics. Henry M. Wriston, president emeritus of Brown University, charges that "technology, and scholarship for that matter, move' so swiftly that old jobs' .become obsolete and new ones arise for which specific 'preparation' is not available." Others complain that needed skills can be learned more easily .on the job than in the classroom. Underemployment relief can come about in two basic ways. The first is the creation of many more good jobs that would use the skills and knowledge of an increasingly well-educated \york force. The second, and probably more feasible, is a revolutionary change in the concept of work. ' Such a change might include greater job flexibility, options for career change and opportunities to move in and out of the labor force with more freedom than is now possible. If, as expected, the problems of underemployment and worker dissatisfaction grow in the years ahead, these and other alternatives are likely to be given more attention. ' Letters TO THE EDITOR Kilpatrick Column Does Injustice Editor Journal-Standard: A misstatement of fact in.one of James J. Kilpatrick's recent columns hurt me very much. He was disgussing President Ford's appointments to the board of directors of the newly-created Federal Legal Services 'Corporation and the current difficulties over confirmation in the U.S. Senate,. He .pointed out that there was considerable "thunder on the left" concerning some of the "conservatives" on the President's tentative list of appointees, including myself whonUhe President had slated to become chairman of the new board. He went on to state that I "backed out under fire." This statement is completely incorrect. I did not back out under fire. I am not built that way. I asked the Presi- dent.to drop my name from further consideration immediately when, after thorough testing and re-evaluation by the best experts in the field, I was forced to the conclusion thatrriy hearing ability, a longstanding problem, had deteriorated to the point where I could not perform in this proposed.as- signment with the complete effectiveness I would require of myself: As a result, my name was never sent to the Senate. It was tough enough to turn down an opportunity for public service of this sort - something I wanted greatly, and fully intended, to do - because of mere deafness, a sometimes laughable and always-commonplace infirmity of the aging. But now to, have to answer a flat statement from a reputable source that I "backed out. under fire" is too much. There is no way I can, do it - no way I can reach my friendsyin his national audience. I have no forum:, He has done me a grave injustice. Phoenix, Ariz. DENISON KITCHEL The Kilpatrick column referred to,appeared on this page' June 13. tttNGKONG SALE SUNDAY, JULY 20, ONLY - OPEN 'TIL 9 P.M. Custom Tailors ONE DA YIN FREEPORT 2 SUITS For 8 130°° Satisfaction Guaranteed Save To 50% Now Before Now Cath. Sport Coat 17.9.00 $45 Cash. Top Coal J 185.00 $90 Wool Sharkskin Suits ....$9B.OO $75 Doublo Knit Suits $125.00 $69 WE FIT ANY SIZE AND STYLE. Hand Tailored Suits; Sport Coats, and Slacks in Solids, Stripes and Plaids. Latest Styles, Shades and Qualities. (Local References Available). VISIT OR CALL MR. TONY .. .232-2191 ... ON SUNDAY ., AT TOWN HOUSE MOTEL, W. GALENA AVE., FREEPORT. RUSSELL BAKER Other Side Of Honey Bee Story t A fatftf VUAAlrCt *h*««K «i. _ ' ' * • .... .. . The Word Is Boring NEW YORK - The 1970s'are boring. The decade is already half over and its chief legacy is an engulfing swamp of boredom. Americans are bored by Watergate, bored by Richard Nixon and bored by the .endless tale of skulduggery in the CIA, the FBI and the IRS. President Ford is boring, which is his chief political strength. Henry Kissinger's brilliance is boring. The President's economists are boring, but not nearly so boring as { their incessant, boring predictions that prosperity is just around the corner. Playboy, Penthouse, Viva, Lui, Oui, Gent, Hustler and Screw are boring. So are Hugh Hefner and Xaviera Hollander. Unless somebody stops them soon, they will make even sex boring. England's perpetually imminent economic collapse is boring. Harold Wilson may be the most boring man of the 20th century. Incredible crowds at rock concerts are boring, and so is the music they listen to. NATO is boring. After 10, or 15, or 30 years in Vietnam - depending on how you figure our involvement there - Vietnam had become so boring that hardly anybody even complained when it finally went down. Jacqueline Onassis and Elizabeth Taylor on magazine covers are as boring as reports of UFO sightings. Beards are boring. Angry demonstrators are boring. Oil-company announcements of their splendid contributions to Western civilization are boring, as are OPEC's regular increases in the price of oil, and the ceaseless increase's in taxes and the cost of living. It is a decade without juice, spice or sauce. It is a decade of leftovers from the refrigerator of the 1960s heated up for the table once too often. The boredom is probably not entirely unhealthy, if you take it as a form of resignation. At least, the time of rising expectations is over, replaced by a time in which we expect little but bad news and accept its inevitability with resignation. After the era of rising expectations, we have entered the age of passive resignation. Governments, economists, Hefner, Xaviera, England, Wilson, General Thieu, Jackie-and-Liz photographers, oil companies, OPEC, President Ford, NATO, rock musicians - go ahead and do your worst. We expect nothing more. Soon George Wallace will run for president again, arid Hubert Humphrey. We expect it. We have been through it before, and we can take it again/Soon the Kennedy people will be reviving Camelot one more time, and the anti-Kennedy people will return us to the bridge at Chappaquiddick, and we will not scream for mercy. We are becoming gluttons for boredom. Go ahead, give us Ronald Reagan again, send the Rolling Stores on another fantastic road tour, shuttle Henry Kissin-. ger back and forth across the sands of Araby with plenty of photos of red-carpet airport-greeting ceremonies. And watch us yawn. Congress is boring. Analyses of why it can't do anything are boring. Politicians announcing that they can do something if elected are boring, which makes elections boring. Big-budget movies whose message is that American life is a sewer'are boring. Earl Butz is boring/Johnny Carson«is boring. Newspaper columns are boring. And nobody minds terribly, except possibly the unemployed, who don't count much, since, to the 90 per cent of the workers'who'have jobs, |he unemployed are bpring. True, they are necessary to shake the economy down. A large force of idle labor dampens pressure for wage increases and holds down inflation, which is boring whether it is going up or leveling off, which only means that we are resigned to the bad news which will follow either eventuality. Later, politicians will argue about it, which will be .boring; and get elected or defeated, which will be boring; and taxes will/go up again, which will be boring. The oil companies will boast that, but for the grace of them, America would be sunk, and someone will write an amusing piece about the latest chic way to behave. It will be boring. • v'l In the 1960s, of course, Americans hungered for boredom. A sleepy government, some peace in the streets, a release from passions and phonograph noises. In all-that turbulence, it seemed an unattainable drea'm of paradise. Now we have it, and may even be enjoying it. After the storm, a quiet. After the carnage, passive human resignation, and we have the boring 70s. In another five years, perhaps, half- mad with boredom, we will be ready to dance to fresh music. New York Times Service (A few weeks ago ah excerpt of a Milwaukee Journal Item appeared on this page describing the fears of "killer bees." The following information was supplied by the U.S. Department of 'Ae- riculture.) Crossing of local European honey bees in Brazil with African honey bees in the early 1960s created hybrid strains that swarmed long distances and were very sensitive to disturbance, protecting their hives with great aggressiveness and persistence, Many problems, were created over the years as these aggressive hybrids spread through Brazil. Small animals, chickens, and even people, accidentally running into these bees or their nests were often severely stiing. Some were killed, although reliable figures on bee-caused mortality, are almost Impossible to obtain. The African hortey bees arid their hybrids are good producers and thrive in tropical and semi-tropical areas. During the 18 years since they were introduced and accidentally released, they have spread .over most of Brazil and into some of the adjacent countries. A figure is often quoted that they "spread at the rate of 200 miles per year." This is .misleading. Natural spread is probably less than 50 miles per year. The rapid early spread In Brazil was due to many beekeepers carrying or shipping the hybrids long distances before they were aware of the problems they could cause. The Department of Agriculture is fully aware,of the problems caused in Brazil and is watching closely how far and how fast they'continue to migrate north. Scientists are also studying the effect of these strains of bees as they disperse through the local bee populations. They estimate that it will take several years of such study before it will b'e possible to make a reasonable estimate of how long it might take to reach the United States and what effects they might have. As of now, however, it seems safe to assume that it could take 20 years or more to reach the United States. In many parts of Brazil, where a good population of domestic colonies were effectively looked after by expert beekeepers, constant culling of the worst colonies and replacement with gentle strains has taken place. As a result; in central and southern Brazil, honey bees are rarely a problem anymore and beekeepers are benefiting from the high productivity they now get from the improved hybrids. This points out sound basis'for practical control measures in case they prove to be necessary in the future. An intensive breeding and selection program, and maintaining a high-density population of gentle, expertly managed domesticated colonies in Central America should go far to minimize any threat to North America from the natural spread of Intolerable honey bees. It is anticipated that long before the undesirable hybrid bees get close to southern North America, we will know much more about how much of a threat they will be and how to deal with them. Meanwhile, the Department of Agriculture is tightening its quarantine against honey bees to pre^. vent man-assisted importation that might shorten the amount of time we have to study the bees as they move naturally. EDITORIALS AND COLUMNS The.opinions'expressed by the . various syndicated columnists arc their own, and no endorsement of their various views which often conflict - should, be •<, . .inferred. Divorce In Illinois Has 11 Grounds (First of Two Articles) By Illinois Bar Association While some states have enacted legislation implementing the "no-fault" concept of divorce, Illinois retains the fault, or "grounds," theory. This means that in order for a married person to secure a divorce from his or her spouse, that person must prove in court that the spouse was guilty of certain misconduct which constitutes grounds. Only the court can grant a divorce. Illinois has recently expanded the number of available grounds to eleven. These include: extreme and repeated physical cruelty; extreme mental cruelty;, desertion, either actual or constructive; habitual drunkenness; adultery; drug addiction; attempt on the life of spouse; conviction of a felony; infection of spouse with communicable disease; bigamy; impotency at the time of marriage. Divorce proceedings are usually commenced with the filing of a complaint for divorce. In addition'to reciting the facts or "allegations" underlying the grounds, the moving party, or "plaintiff," must state therein that he or she is free from any guilt in the mis- conduct; that he or she is free.of causing or provoking the misconduct; that he or she has lived apart from the spouse .as a single person since the wrongdoing, and island has been a resi- . dent of the county where suit is filed. The residency statement represents to the court that it has the authority and 'right to hear and decide the case. , This is.known as "jurisdiction." The fact that the plaintiff has not been guilty of misconduct on his or her own part or has not caused the misconduct serves to avoid the • question > of condo- nation of the acts by the plaintiff. Once the plaintiff establishes the basic ingredients in the complaint, the spouse being sued, who is called .the "defendant,", must either respond to and answer the allegations'or allow the matter to proceed uncontested. Even if the case is uncontested, however, the party seeking the divorce must still prove the allegations and statements made in the complaint. Usually, in an uncontested case, only the testimony of the spouse seeking the divorce, the '•plaintiff," is necessary. The following article in this series will deal with child suppprt, alimony and property dispostion. ^fare's e/se D4lff fA/tH-St SAT. SUN. MOM. , TUES. SPECIALS 1 W. 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