LENOX TIME TABLE. LENOX. TOWA IDtr.Jchn Me Lou qh I in, ~ the " By ELMO SCOTT WATSON ECENTLY newspapers In many parts of the United States printed this story: "OREGON CITY, ORE.—Nnturallza- ' tlon papers of Dr. John McLoughlln, 'Father of Oregon,' have been discovered In the vaults of the county re- border's office here. "Doctor McLoughlln, factor of the ) British Hudson Bay Fur company, befriended American settlers In Oregon In the early days. When the fur post was discontinued, after Oregon was ceded to the United States, Doctor McLoughlln remained and took a farm. The naturalization papers were Issued by the Second District court of Oregon Territory, September 5, 1S51." Back of that brief news Item lies one of the most romantic and significant—and at the same time one of the most tragic—stories In American history. For this Dr. John McLoughlln was more than just a "factor of the British Hudson Bay Fur company"—yes, even more than the "Father of Oregon." There was a time when he was known far and wide as the "Emperor of the West," a wilderness king whose word was absolute law over. 400,000 square miles, an empire that extended all along the Pacific coast from California to Alaska and as far east as the Great Salt lake In Utah. There was a time when he held an influence over the Indians such as no white man had since the days of Sir William Johnson's dominance over the Iroquols on the other side of the continent. There was a time when he, by speaking a few words, could have embroiled the United States and Great Britain In a third war and If that had happened it Is doubtful If the Pacific Northwest would now be under the American flag. But he refrained from speaking those words and by refraining saved the lives of hundreds of American settlers and probably thousands of American and British soldiers and sailors. Thus the romance and the historical significance In the life story of Dr. John McLoughlln. As for the tragedy, It was the tragedy of a "king" who lost his kingdom and of a real "man without a country," a more pitiful figure than the fictitious hero of Edward Everett Bale's famous book. Such Is the story, In part, back of the discovery, after more than three-quarters of a century, of the document which made John McLoughlln an American citizen. But even though he was no longer a "man without a country," that document could not save him from going to his grave six years later, a broken-hearted old man, the victim of the selfishness and the basest Ingratitude on the part of those who had best reason to be grateful tp.h.lm—the American settlers he had "befriended."' The complete story is told In a new biography which, by an Interesting coincidence, appeared a short time after the discovery of the McLough- lln naturalization papers In the vault In Oregon City. This biography Is "The White-Headed Eagle: John McLoughlln, Builder of an Empire," written by Richard G. Montgomery of Portland, Ore., and published by the Macmillan company of New York. Much has been written about Mc- Loughlln (the list of authorities occupies five full pages at the end of this biography) but Mr. Montgomery's book is one of the most authoritative and most interesting word portraits of McLoughlin that has yet appeared. McLougtilin was born at Riviere du Loup some 120 miles below Quebec on the St. Lawrence In 1784. His father was an Irishman, his mother, a Fraser In whom French blood was mixed with the Scotch. As a boy he was serious-minded and very religious, with none of the dashing recklessness that characterized the men engaged In the business In which he was to become famous —the fur trade. Due to the influence of one of his uncles, Dr. Simon Fraser, It appeared certain that young John would become a doctor and at the age of sixteen he began studying medicine. Although he practiced for a while In Montreal, It soon became apparent that "a professional career In a well-settled community held no fascination for him. The lad's gray eyes were focused on the West—there was no hankering for city life In his nature." That was largely due to another uncle—Alexander Fraser, who had become prominent in the affairs of the North West company, which had been organized In 1784, the year young John was born, to compete with the Hudson's Bay company for the rich prize of the fur trade throughout Canada. Through Uncle Alexander's influence the young doctor received an appointment as resident physician In the North West company and in the winter of 1803-04 proceeded to Fort William, the company's chief depot and factory on Lake Superior. Tills marked the beginning of thai amazing career which resulted in McLoughlin's becoming the "Emperor of the West." From being a medical officer he soon progressed to the position of chief trader. In 1S20, when the. bitter rivalry between the Hudson's Bay company and the North Westers ended in a truce, young McLoughlin went to London as a North West representative to drive the bargain which consolidated the two companies. He then became a Hudson's Bay man and continued as such through the remainder of his active life. For a time he served as chief factor at Fort Francis on the Lake of the woods. Then Gov. George Simpson, head of the H. B. C., recognizing the great ability of the young doctor, made him assistant to Chief Factor Alexander Kennedy on the Columbia river, with the idea of his eventually superseding Kennedy there. This was all a part of the bold scheme which Simpson had in mind. The American, John Jacob Aator, had failed In his attempt to found a fur empire in the Pacific Northwest and his post, Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia bad fallen into the hands of the North West company first and then the Hudson's Boy company. The Oregon country was held jointly by Great Britain and the United States, but Simpson planned to win this vast region with Its wealth of furs for England but more particularly to "bring all the territory west of the Rocky mountains within a single Hudson's Bay company Jurisdiction." McLoughlln was selected as the Instrument to bring this about and there could have been no better one selected. From the moment be took fort Vancouver *•*•*•«-'«•» Dr. John. .M.e4>ou<jhlin House of Dn McLouqhlin in Ore<]onCitij,Ore. Grave Stones of Dr. JVfciouyWm and His Wife The 109-Year.OttAppleTree charge In 1824, abandoned Astoria and moved up the river to establish Fort Vancouver It became apparent that here was the man who could rule both the Indians and the turbulent trappers and fur traders. Rule he did, sternly but justly, and the Indians, who called McLoughlln the "White-Headed Eagle" because of his shock of snow-white hair, respected and loved him quite as much as they feared him. For a period of ten years Fort Vancouver was the center of a feudal empire the like of which the New World never before, and seldom since, has seen. -It was a "sanctuary of civilization In the heart of the savage western country" and to It came many a traveler and explorer whose name is written large In the history of the West —Jededlah Smith, Nathaniel J. Wyeth, Hall J. Kelly, Jason Lee, Marcus Whitman, Captain Bonnevllle and a host of others. One of the notables who came to Vancouver was Capt. Aemilius Simpson of the British navy and a symbol of his visit Is to be seen near the site of Fort Vancouver to this day. "During his sojourn at Vancouver, Simpson unwittingly contributed in no small degree toward the agricultural progress of the community," writes Montgomery. "While dining one evening with the doctor he was reminded by one of his men of a promise he had made a certain young lady back In London. It appears that during the dessert course of a farewell banquet given in his honor, this young lady had extracted the seeds from an apple and had laughingly presented them to Simpson with the request that he plant them when he reached his destination In the Northwest wilderness. The Incident had been forgotten until that moment, but when the captain's attention was called to It by his aide, he reached Into his coat pocket and there reposing under his kid gloves, he found the little packet of seeds. A ripple of laughter ran around the table as he handed them over to his host. "Doctor John was not the man to underrate such a gift. The very next day he entrusted the apple seeds to Kobert Bruce, the venerable Scotch gardener of the fort, who planted them with great care under glass. Thus, In the spirit of jest, the redoubtable white-gloved Aemilius made possible the first Oregon apple." That was 109 years ago. One of the trees which sprang from those seeds still stands where the venerable Robert Bruce planted them and It still bears fruit, as the writer of this article, who took the photograph of It shown above, can testify. Unhappily for McLoughlin other seeds were also being planted In the fertile soil of the Oregon country and they bore a crop of trouble for him. For just when he was well established as the "Emperor of the West," the energetic Yankees who were to dispute with Great Britain ownership of the Northwest began to appear —first as competitive fur traders and later as missionaries and settlers. The doctor, being of a pious disposition, (he was baptized a Catholic, his mother's faith, but grew up an Episcopalian, the faith of his father), was naturally well-disposed toward the missionaries and he gave both medical and other aid to them when, as so often happened In their early days, they were in distress. For that matter, he did the same for the settlers even though he, as factor for the Hudson's Bay company and therefore obligated to consider Its Interests first, would have been justified, by the rules of "big business" which were even then In vogue, in letting them starve. Instead of doing that he gave generously from his own resources and that very generosity resulted in his downfall. Governor Simpson had never approved of his open-handed hospitality to the American settlers and that, combined with innumerable other disagreements between the head of the Hudson's Bay company and Its representative in Oregon, resulted in 1845 in Me Loughlin's retirement from the H. B. C., a retirement which seems to have been little more than a summary dismissal. In the meantime the American settlers, who had been coming into Oregon io ever-increasing unmbers since 1842, had been beseeching congress to guarantee their land titles on the Col urn bia and had taken steps to form a local government McLoughlin had become Involved la :he political maneuverlngs Incident to that action and made a number of enemies among the future leaders of the new American territory. After retiring from the Hudson Bay company service he moved to the present site of Oregon City where "he had every reason to expect that his new neighbors, so extensively the recipients of his largess, would welcome him as a benefactor rather than spurn him as a fallen autocrat. He made the very human mistake of count- Ing too heavily on the religious tolerance and anticipated gratitude of these people." For they were Protestants and he was a Catholic, having returned once more to the religious faith of his youth; he was also a British subject and they were roused to a high pitch of patriotic ardor over the Oregon boundary dispute. Although he Immediately took steps to become an American citizen, his motives were suspected and there were numerous annoying delays before his final citizenship papers were signed. But even that did not end his troubles. American settlers had squatted on some of his lands and there were disputes over land titles. After Oregon became a territory, Its first delegate to con- ress, an enemy of the doctor, Influenced the passage of legislation, the Oregon Donation Land Oaw, which cheated McLoughlln out of real estate that was rightfully his. No wonder that toward the close of his career the embittered old man penned these lines: "By British demagogues I have been represented as a traitor. For what? Because I acted as a Chris;Ian, saved American citizens, men, women and children from the Indian tomahawk and enabled them to take farms to support their families. American demagogues have been base enough to assert that I had caused American citizens to be massacred by hundreds by the savages. I, who saved all that I could ... I could not have done more for the settlers If they had been brothers and sisters ... To be brief, I founded this settlement and prevented a war . . . and for doing this peacably and quietly, I was treated by the British In such a manner that, from self-respect, I resigned my situation in the Hudson's Bay com- [iiuiy's service, by which I sacrificed $12,000 per annum, and the Oregon Land Bill shows the treatment I received from the Americans." The end of his troubles came on September 8, 1857, when he died peacefully In his home in Oregon City. Five years inter the Oregon legislature made partial amends for the Injustices he had suffered by passing an net which permitted his heirs to acquire all of hL original land claims, with the exception of one Island, upon the payment of $1,000 which was designated for the University Fund of Oregon. Although he Is generally hailed as the "Father of Oregon," no monument in keeping witli his importance In the history of the Pacific Northwest has ever been erected In his memory. The simple, white-painted frame dwelling In Oregon City where he spent Ills last days Is preserved as a museum and n memorial to him. The Inscription on his old-fashioned tombstone, set In the brick foundations of the brown-painted Catholic church where he lies buried, records the fact that he was "The Pioneer and Friend of Oregon. Also the founder of this city." The magnificent column at Astoria, Ore., honors the names of Capt. Robert Gray, of Lewis and Clark and of John Jacob Astor but not that of Dr. John McLoughiln. The monument at Wlshram, Wash., lists his name along with 40 other "dauntless pathfinders and pioneers" of varying Importance. On a grassy plot within the city limits of Vancouver, Wash., stands a hexagonal marker, on one face of which is this simple Inscription: "Under the Influence of Dr. John McLaughlin (sic) I, manager of the Hudson Bay Co., civilization of Washington started at Vancouver, A. D. 1825." Meager as Is this tribute, they might at least have spelled correctly the name of the man of whom this latest blogra pher says: "Of all the heroic figures of the early West, Dr. John McLoughlln was the most remarkable. As a leader, a benefactor and a Christian, he was unrivaled, and, though his life ended In tragedy, the passage of time has not only enhanced his greatness but placed him. with the charmed circle of our national heroes." C W»«t«ra N«w«pap»r Union. What Owl Wagon Chefs Hav» Done for Hams, Eggs, Etc. "TT WOULD be an excel-*- lent idea," writes a communicant whose advice is much appreciated, "if in your column you were to devote more space to the subject of cooks, cooking and the influence of food upon the human race." While concurring In the broad proposition that in matters dietetic there Is endless Interest, the fact remains that Americans are not as a race sufliciently advanced to make a stand against the horrors compounded In our kitchen under the guise of home cooking. That our forebears, farseeing enough to draft the Constitution, a nearly perfect Instrument until the tamperers bit into It, could have perfected a system of diet designed to weaken the national stomach, passes all understanding. Coincident with the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights and the framing of constitutional law came the mince pie, the frying pan and the greasy conglomerations believed to be essential to the preservation of life. United States Richest Field. We have been slugged with overcooked meats and vegetables, death- dealing biscuits, cement puddings, hell-brewed condiments and kitchen bouquets for so long a stretch- that the scientific study of metabolism and digestion finds our United States the richest of all fields for experimentation. "Save Amor- lea for us," Is the battle cry of the test tubers. In reviewing the past one must take into consideration the tendency to overindulge, superinduced by a prolific supply of provender. No country on the face of the earth produced more of the raw material, requisite to slack hunger, or less capacity for the proper serving of it. The flood of cook books handed down from Colonial days should have been expurgated with the same care that cautious mothers, lest their daughters blush for no good purpose, combed best sellers during the mauve period. Good (11- gestlon is equally important with good manners. Immortality and bicarbonate of soda unite in the pit of the stomach. In the great revolutions that have taken place In human history there is always to be found a cause that though seemingly trivial, is the very fountain head of what in time conies to he recognized as a renaissance into which civilization plunges with exultation ami joy. In the present disorder I look for the reconstruction to tnke its inspiration at the snug counters of Hie vast army of owl wagons lining the highways and bisecting the Atlantic states. Chefs Are Future Saviors. Believe It or not, the white cupped chefs ruling over the destinies of the owl wagons, wielding :he pancake turners, broiling ham ind Imcon, scrambling eggs, putting a golden brown on thin toast, browns, fresh colTee and serving the simple menu on hot plates are the 'uture saviors of our afflicted peo- ile. Indeed, these former dlstrihii- ;ors of vitrllied sandwiches, pies :hut curried a content of fruit peel tig served between slabs of horse Blanket; fried eggs burned on both sides, flapjacks of synthetic rubber splashed with New Orleans molasses, each, every and all courses smelling of Spanish onions or fish, lave so completely transformed the service that the evil wayside inn with Us odors of antiquity, its slow service and utter Indifference to .liscriniinatlng palates, must look sharp or vanish from the roadside. Some genius, whose intelligence is now being widely pirated by the letter class of owl wagons or dining ears, as they are now called, resembling as they do swank, ornate, well-lighted pullmans, set up a llm >f eating places so immaculate in cleanliness and so up to date In appointments that It Is a pleasure to climb up on the revolving stools aid watch a white-garbed, nimble- fingered young man with the art of W. C. Fields juggle a line of short orders in full view of the consumer. Sanitary and Efficient. From a sanitary standpoint, the owl wagon equipment is now 100 ,jer cent. All cooking apparatus is electric; ice boxes under glass, ham, bacon, fruits, bread, butter, etc. wrapped In waxed paper, am all edibles of. the highest grade Practically all of these diners op erate in eight-hour shifts. Sixty cents of any man's money will se cure a three-course meal with Icei fruit and perfect coffee that cannot be improved upon in the swelles hostelry on earth. I am advised by the driver of a truck plying between New York city and Poughkeepsie that the bes place to eat along any roadway Is where the truckmen stop. "If you want good cooking mark down a spot where they congregate—at anj hour of the day or night—am nothing will ever happen to you digestion," he declared. Copyright.—WNU SeryJo*. STAR DUST * * I * * Miriam Hopkins. ovie • Radio * * ***By VIRGINIA VALE*** M IRIAM HOPKINSisplan- ning to adopt another hild.She adores young Michael, tvhom she took under her wing ome time ago, and doesn't want lim to grow up alone. It's nice or Michael to have such a ood home, of course, and It's mar- elous for the beautiful Miriam to have Michael. Matrimony has not turned out too well for her, and she's not the sort of girl who's satisfied with just being beautiful and popular and having a grand time at parties. She likes having a home and having some one In It who loves her. And what better some one could Ije have than a child? So once gnln she's consulting the famous (hicngo nursery from which so many babies have gone to the omes of screen and radio stars. —*— After seeing "The Thin Man" gain, recently, there's just one lilng to say—that H Is one of the est pictures made In years and ears. Also, that though Rosalind itisscll Is very good Indeed In Rendezvous," Myrna Loy, orlginal- y scheduled for the role, would ave been ever so much better. —*— It looks as if "The Informer" vould be acclaimed everywhere as he best picture made in 1935. The National Board of Review says It s, in case that means anything to ou. Here's the board's list of the est—that is, the best American- made pictures; "Alice Adams," Anna Karenina," "David Copper, leld," "The Gilded Lily," "Les Mis- rabies," "Mutiny on the Bounty," Ruggles of Red Cap," and the silly Symphony, "Who Killed Cock Robin?" This Is the sort of thing that appens in the movie world. There s a young girl, not exceptionally iretty, and with no record so far is tnlent Is concerned. She has eon In one piny that never reached S'ew York, and recently opened In mother one, "The Season Changes." But—RKO has signed her for our pictures, at $1,50;) a week for lie first two, and $1,750 a week for he next two. And the answer to the question every one has asked—"Why should liis girl get such a contract?" is lie fact that her agent Is Leland layward, who is the agent (and ilther Is or Is not the husband) of •Catherine Hepburn. Polly Moran is going to Australia aid point-s west. She's walking out on tmerican picture-milkers because they von't give her the milury to which he's been accustsmcd. —*— Gary Cooper and his wife must mve had a grand time when they >pont their honoymoon in Bermuda, or they're going back there In February when lie starts a three- months' vacation. —*— Hollywood Is engaged In the gruesome business of adding one and one and making three; the death ? "' if Ross Aloxantl- M-'S wife, and then riielnm Twill's unexplained demist', mve miiilo people ask: "Who'll be the third?" 1' u t s y Kelly, w li o made curne- lles with Tlielma )L>t'ore she broke into bigger and >etter pictures, Is Ireadfully broken up over Thelna's death. She took a plane for Now York as soon as she could; wanted to get away from Hollywood for a little while. —•*•— Jean Harlow isn't going to play glamorous bad girls on the screen any more if she can help it; she's abandoned them along with her platinum hair. She's always wanted roles in which she could really act. Movie actors who decide to go on the stage, and head for New York to try their luck, have been sadly disillusioned; theatrical producers are perfectly willing to engage them—if the stars will put up at le«st part of the money for the production, —*— ODDS AND ENDS . . . William S. Hart has sold a story, "O'Malley of the Mounted," to Twentieth Century- Fox; George O'Brien will do it . . . Colleen Moore is going to marry the manager of her Doll House tour . . . Is it news that Jimmie Cagney is once again threatening to leave Warner Brothers if he doesn't get more money? . . . "The Goldbergs" tfill return to the air early in the new year. t> Western Naw»pap»r Union. Progress Made in Berlin Preparatory to Olympics The Olympic games will take place In the 300-acre Reichssporffifild situated In the west end of Berlin. The huge stadium, which Is 85 per cent completed, has seats for 100,000 spectators. The stadium arena contains a running track 400 meters long. The swimming stadium contains a 65-lG5-foot pool, a large restaurant overlooking the pool. The DIetrlch-Eckert open-air theater In the form of a Greek bowl will be used for dramatic productions and assemblies. The Olympic bell which will peal to open the games) Is of steel and weighs 10 tons. It was removed from Its casting last August. The altar on the stadium tower will be lighted on August 1, of this year, by the Olympic flre, the flame of which will be brought from the site of the original Olympic games by 3,000 runners who will travel In relays.—Washington Star. Initiativo It Is true that some people lack Initiative, leadership, and executive ability sufficient to enable them to go Into business for themselves wherein they must employ others; but there are a great many things which even these people can do which will not require the employment of others, which would give them the Ineffable boon of Independence.—O. S. M. JACK - THAT FAT PORK WILL FINISH YOU! TUMS HAVE CHANGED EVERYTHING 1 JACK SPRATT NOW EATS FAT AND ANYTHING ELSE IN SIGHT) NO STOMACH SOUR CAN KNOCK HIM FLAT... FOR TUMS HAVE SOLVED HIS PUGHTI WHO ELSE WANTS TO FORGET SOUR STOMACH? •"THE way to eat favorite foods and avoid 1 heartburn, sour stomach, gas and other symptoms of acid indigestion ia no secret now. Millions carry Turns. Nothing to mix up. No. drenching your stomach with harsh alkalies, which doctors say may increase the tendency toward acid indigestion. Just enough of the antacid in Turns is released to neutralize the stomach. The rest passes on inert. Cannot over-alkalize the stomach or blood. You neter know when, BO carry a roll always. lOc at all druggists. FOR THE TUMMY. TUMS ARE ANTACID... MOT A LAXATIVE Public Opinion Public opinion molds a man as much as experience—perhaps more. Head COLDS ' Put Mentholatum In! I ike nostrils io relieve ' Irritation and promote clear breathing. Gives COM FORT .'Daily .If you prefer nose drops, or. throat spray, call for the MEW MEMTHOLATUM LIQUID in handy bottle with dropper Break up that Perhaps (he surest way Io prevent a cold from catching hold" and getting wone is, writ, rnr-f "' once ' *° C/Miu« Inter- t£ FREE nally. Do It the pleasant tea- SAMPLE cup . w ? y - Fluih lhe »y stem cnwTiDTH withahotcupofGarfield SEWS T.a-Hthemild ea,y.to-tak. Brooklyn. N. V. liquid laxative. At drug-stores GARFIELDTEA Rid Yourself of Kidney Poisons D O you suffer burning, scanty or too frequent urination; backache; headache, dizziness, loss of energy; leg pains, swellings and puffinesi under the eyes? Are you tired, nervous—(eel all unstrung and don't know what is wrong? Then give some thought to youi kidneys. Be sure they function properly for functional kidney disorder per* mits excess waste to stay in the blood; end to poison and upset the whole system. Use Dean's Pills. Doan's are for tha kidneys only. They are recommended the world over. You can get the gen« uine, time-tested Doan'i at any drug store. DOAN SPILLS Buptore. At last a truss that holds, la com. fortable. Invented by a Physician. FREH Trial. Bnpture Belt Co.. Fort UoO«e. Iowa. The liniment and counter-irritant tor YQQV borse* and co ws to Lawrence Oauatlo BoJsMi. tii* bl*ok waft wbrti earto*. fill.
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