Pampa Daily News from Pampa, Texas on June 8, 1936 · Page 5
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Pampa Daily News from Pampa, Texas · Page 5

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Monday, June 8, 1936
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MONDAY EVENING, JUNE 8, 1936 THE PAMPA DAILY NEWS, Patnpa, Texai BRIEF ANALYSIS OF PROGRESS OF TEXAS EDUCATION GIVEN <*> METHODIST DELIVERED FIRST PROTESTANT SERMON AUSTIN, June 8.—In the commencement address which he delivered to some thousand graduates of the University of Texas Monday evening, t)r. Frederick Eby, distinguished professor of education at the university, gave what Is believed to be the most comprehensive brief analysis of the progress of education In Texas ever prepared. Dr. Eby brough out many liltle- knowlii facts concerning this stale's sometimes halting but Irresistible march toward universal education for Its youth. He cited that the first half-century of Texas history was full of blunders, with educational endowments being scattered here and there, all meeting with disaster; with strife and discord hounding the lawmakers uiilil no adequate policy could be evolved from, the chaos of Ideas. It was not until the years following the Civil war that circumstances and conditions developed that made possible the evolution of a sound educational system. These conditions being ripe, It was natural Hint great educational institutions such as Texas Agricultural and Mechanical college, the University of Texas, and others should be founded at that time. Since then, there has been no retrogression, only a steady progress toward (he goal of a great educational system, he declared. This year, as Texas observes her hundredth anniversary, it was considered fitting that the saga of Texas education should be recounted, and it was in tribute to his distinction in the field of educational history that Dr. Eby, a member of the university's own faculty, was asked to deliver this address. The context of his address fol r lows: "The cultural traditions and educational policies of the people who came into Texas varied more sharply than those of any other portion of the continent. Overlooking the Spanish and Mexican, that affected the situation but slightly, one can note the policies of Puritan New England, the Scotch Presbyterians, the -French Huguenot, French republicans', the English Cavalier, the German, and still others. From this social mixture there emerged a number -of different educational systems, s -First, there were those who regarded . education entirely from the .standpoint of "national .policy. Second, there were those who contended that education is the sacred right of the family—the most sacred of all rights, the right of the father. Third, -were those who looked upon education as a religious affair. The church has ever been the mother of , schools. Fourth, there were those who saw in the school a local institution, a means of building the town. Fifth, there was the group who considered the school a charity • for the' orphaned and indigent. It took half a century from 1836 to 1884 for these conflicting elements to compose their differences and lay the permanent foundation of education in this state. Those first 50 years were years of experimentation of Institutional building followed by catasclysmical change. ' Lacked Vf.iion. "The group that believed in public education embraced many of the leading men of Texas. Stephen F Austin, Mirabeau B. Lamar, Luke Lesassier, Anson Jones, J. A. Collingsworth, and the most importan of all; Andrew J. Yates. "So much has been made of the attitude of these leaders that a false conception of the educational poli- .. cies of the people of Texas a century ago has risen. Comparatively few rose to the height of the nationa conception of the significance o education. Not all the leaders did ^ so. Even Sam Houston lacked thi vision ;of free public schools as thi foundation of democracy. "Private and local school interest; had been in the-field prior to In Revolution and they continued Mexican era schools were taught by itinerant schoolmasters in practically every community. Among the most notable of these were Tromas J. Pilgrim, from Connecticut; Mrs. E. R. Welghlman, the first woman school teacher; Luke Lesassier. an ardent supporter of public education; Gail Borden, inventor of 0911- densed milk, and Miss Frances Trask, who established the first boarding school for girls in Independence. After the Revolution, schools and colleges sprang up everywhere In great numbers. Among the most important were the University of San Augustine, Nacogdoches university, Marshall university, Washington college, Galveston university, Houston academy, and many others. First Sermons. "In 1817 the first Protestant sermon on Texas soil, was delivered by a Methodist circuit rider at Jonesboro on the Red river, the northern gateway into the stale. During the 1820's Methodists, Baptists, and later, Presbyterians held occasional services in scattered parts. All such religious activities were illegal, prohibited by Ihe constitution. The first church in Texas was organised in Illinois and brought into Texas by wagon in 1833. The first to be organized in Texas was a Methodist church In East Texas in 1834. "There were three things thai challenged the Protestant bodies of the United States to make Texas a point of attack. First the Idea got abroad that the new republic had become a rendezvous for outlaws, freebooters, and infidels. Second, it was looked upon as the vantage point for Protestant efforts to evan- gellzo Latin America. These challenges were irresistible. Again, various people in Texas sent burning appeals to their co-religionisls back home In the states. Travis Wrote Letters. In 1835 Colonel William B. Travis wrote two letters to the Methodist conference of the United States urging that mission work be cstab- slied. As a result Dr. Martin Ruler, resident of Berea College, Ky.. was ispatched to survey the field. On .is return he contracted fever, and lade the supreme sacrifice for his hurch, his Master, and, shall we ay, for Texas. His chief recom- icndalion was the establishment of college. The Methodists nobly esponded and Ruterville college, six niles northeast of La Grange was he first to open its doors for an- anced instruction for the youth of Texas. This was in 1840. Baylor Founded. "A Baptist church of nine work- rs in Washington-on-the-Brazos, n 1837, sent an appeal for help to heir brethren in the United States. They did not even know to whom o address their plea. By chance it ell into the hands of Jesse Mercer, 'ounder of Mercer university in ieorgia. Two missionaries, James •luckins and William M. Tyron, were ent to Texas. In 1841 they estab- ished Ihe Texas Baplist Education iociety and this in turn founded Baylor university at Independence 'our years later. "In 1837 the Episcopalians of Mat- igorda set out to secure a teacher 'or their children. In response to their efforts the Rev. C. S. Ives was appointed missionary and In .839 he opened Ma'tagorda academy which he later attempted to make a university. "In 1839 Dr. Daniel Baker, one of God's noblemen, paid a visit of some length to Texas. Some years .ater he came permanently and in 1849 founded Austin college in Huntsville. "Denominational education dominated the field of secondary and higher education in Texas down to the dawn of the present century. From 1830 to 1860 Protestant pastors came into the southwest in great numbers. Down lo the Civil war 90 per cent of all teachers were men, and 90 per cent to 95 per cent of these men were preachers. With but few exceptions every church building was also a school house. Pastors received little • or no salary for preaching; they eked out a scant living by teaching. Teaching and preaching were but two means of making Christians. "In 1856, a report was made to the Brazos Synod on Larissa college. The single member of the committee declared: "The school is under a good moral influence, as well as a good course of literary training, but I fear that there are more ministers of the gospel directly connected with the school than heaven will appreciate their being there.' tury there lay side by side in the office of the secretary of state two documents; the one, the declaration of Independence with its arresting accusation against the Mexican regime; the other, was a stirring memorial signed by 62 men calling upon congress to establish a system of public education and to set aside land for its endowment. This petition was the work of Andrew J. Yates, college professor, author, and financial agent of Texas. Yates was an authority on government, the best informed man In Texas on education, and probably the wealthiest man In the republic. Among the great signatures on this memorial are those of Dr. Asa Hoxey. J. A. Collingsworth, Francis R. Lubbock, Robert Barr, David G. Burnet, and Anson Jones. Yates favored the New York state system of education. Jefferson Is Ideal. "Nothing was done to promote public education by the first and second congresses. The election of Lamar was the signal that a new day had dawned for the interests of the children of Texas. He had taken as his ideal statesman, that great educational pioneer, Thomas Jefferson, who look more pride In founding the University of Virginia than of his authorship of' the declaration of independence. "In accordance with the demand of Lamar a law was passed in 1839 setting aside three leagues of land for a school in each county and 50 leagues for two colleges or universities. Andrew J. Yates was sadly disappointed with this law and wrote President Lamar a lengthy letter. He outlined a complete system of slate education from Ihe primary school through the graduate department of the university. As a consequence a system of education was provided in the new law of 1840. Strange to say, not a single public school was ever established on these local endowments. The fact Is, state education was neither understood nor desired by the rank and file of Texans a century ago. Schools Kmlorscd "The leaders of education In Texas u century ago pinned their faith to a land endowment policy. The same day the law of 1839 was passed giving each county three leagues of land, DeKalb college and the University of San Augustine received four leagues of land each from Congress. The same day the law of 1840 was passed Rutersville college was given four leagues of land. All seven of these local colleges were endowed with land by the Congress of the Republic. Thus the local and private school interests countered every moye made by the advocates of State education. "By one of those inscrutable accidents of human 'experience which human intelligence cannot explain, in 1845 a terrible tragedy took place in San Augustine, Texas, that was to have the most extensive reverberations. Having completed their university building three years before, they had no president. From nowhere that anyone has discovered, appeared Marcus A. Montrose, evidently a man of unusual culture. Accepted a.' president, it turned out that he was a Presbyterian elder. Soon the university and its leagues of public land appeared to be slipping into the possession of the Presbyterian church. Methodists Aroused Local Methodists were aroused They created a rival school—Wesleyan college. This new Institution applied to the congress of Texas for four leagues of land and was refused. A feud ripened fast and in 1845 William Russell, graduate of Edinburg, the most erratic and encylopaedic college president Tex as ever had, was assassinated. Thi tragedy was severely paid for. I proved that the land endowmen policy for securing education, wa a complete failure. The endow ment of public schools had endec in utter futility. The endowmen of private schools with public lands resulted in bloody tragedy. Never again, though urged by the saintly Daniel Baker, the aggressive Burleson, the scholarly Crane, never again, was Texas tempted to follow the policy of endowing private schools with the public domain. Sad was the lesson, ineradicable was the memory of it. Furthermore, It greatly abated the vicious rivalry and sectarian bigotry of the churchmen of Texas. Between 1830 and 1836 HORIZONTAL ,1,6 Bryan * n M i tennis star. 11 Poetry muse. 12 Wireless. 13 Pieced out. 14 To leave out. 16 Snaky fish. 17 To place. 19 Measure. 21 Musical note. 22 Corpse. 23 Behold. 24 Tanner's vessel. 26 Narrated. 37 Pertaining to fio ™ 45 Type standard G3 47 Age. 49 To dine. 50 Bone. make themselves felt. During the "For the greater part of a cen- SUMMER FELTS CLEANED LIGHTWEIGHT felts require special care in cleaning! We are equipped to do them perfectly! Factory Finished by ROBERTS, the Hat Man Located in the DeLuxe Cleaners CAP mm ADDS NEW SERVICE TO THE LINE Leaves Pampa at 7:15 a. m., 10:40 a. m. and 4:30 p. in. for Childress, Wichita Palls, Ft. Worth and Dallas. For Okia. City at 10:40 a. m. and 4:30 p. m. over the Cap Rock making direct connections with the Greyhound Lines at Shamrock and ride big nice buses over all paved route. Don't ask for next bus, ask for the Cap Rock Pus. Call your local agent at Bus Terminal, Phone 871. were from 20 to 25 places with small private schools in Texas. After the Revolution the number rose sharply. But .everything was unsettled and teachers changed rapidly The more permanent of these schools during the Republic of Texas were Independence Academy, Rutersville college, San Augustine university, Matagorda Academy, McKenzie Institute, Marshall university, Nacogdoches university, and the Academy at Huntsville that became the Austin college. "Social, political and economic conditions after the Mexican war greatly favored the expansion of education. Fear of the return of Mexican domination restrained immigration. With this fear removed the population of Texas jumped from 142,000 in 1847 to more than 600 000 in 1860. Abundance of crops increased wealth, towns grew up, pioneer conditions receded. The marks of permanent civilization increased. Two problems of internal improvement began to agitate the body politic, a system of public schools and railroads to bear the products of farm and ranch to the outside world. By the settlement of the boundary issue Texas received $10,000,000 as a settlement; $2000000 of this was voted as a special school fund for the endowment of the public school system. Much of it was loaned to various companies for the building of railroads. "A public system of education was established by law in 1854. Schools sprang up in great numbers all over Texas. They were not however, public, in our sense of the word. They were private schools receiving public subvention. The tuition of indigents was paid first and. any balance, usually a pittance, went for the tuition of othei children. There were around 1.200 schools In over 100 counties before the war. Universities, colleges, academies were organized In great numbers. There were at least 150 in all. The Masons, Methodists, Catholics, Baptists, and Presbyterians were the chief agencies in their establishment. But local initiative was even more active thnn all these other agencies combined. Built On 2 Hills "In most instances when a college, academy or university was established, the male department was built on one hill and the female department on another hill. From a quarter to half a mile was considered the most intriguing and salutory distance between the sexes. The people of Texas had an extraordinary interest in the education of young women. The first catalogue was Issued in 1844 by Rutersville college. The first degrees were issued by Rutersville. The first law school was opened 33 To press, by Baylor at independence; the 35 Eagle's claw, first medical school at Galveston. 36 Examination. "From 1861 to 1870 the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse rode . seta, wiflly over the schools of Texas. 39 insight. Vith the call to arms the young 40 Impudent, nen and most of the faculties went 41 f 0 ca ji ou { o the war. The schools for young 43 Heron vomen and for children continued or a time. But poverty soon forced von these to close. Soule univer- ;ity, the proudest enterprise of Methodism at Chapel Hill opened again hopefully at the close of the var. But In 1866 yellow fever swept jp from the coast and In a few lays Soule closed its doors. Another institution is said to have lost lalf of Its students to the scourge if smallpox. There was still another lecimating rider—the iron horse. With the coming of railroads into Texas a vast shifting of the popul- ition began. Schools Deserted Important towns that did not get on the railroad soon declined ind the most flourishing schools n Texas became roosts for bats. Port Sullivan. Salado, Rutersville, Itinerant Retreat, proud Independence, Washington, Concrete, Moul- .011, Gay Hill, Larissa, and dozens of others are now no longer on the nap. Of the two hundred or more universities, colleges, and academies that bedecked the map of Tex- •xs between 1836 and 1866 there re- nain the Ursaline Academy at Galveston, the Ursaline Academy at San Antonio, and Waco (now Bay- [ lor) university. These alone remain at their original location. Baylor university was moved from Independence and .consolidated with Waco university: Baylor female college was moved to Belton, and Austin college was relocated at Sherman after 25 years at Huntsville. "From 1871 to 1875 Texas was ruled by the most drastic educational system ever established in a free state. The republicans charged that the democrats had permitted two generations of children to grow up in ignorance; they had squandered on war the sacred public fund. The new system' of education was the most bitter experience. The system included compulsory attendance, drastic taxation, inspection by state officers, uniform textbooks written by northern authors, centralized control of a state superintendent, the building of local school houses by public funds, the secularization of the curriculum. This was far more galling than the defeat of the war and the political disabilities. It touched to the quick the most eternal and sacred rights of parenthood. In the Constitutional convention of 1875 the entire subject of education formed a red- hot subject of a thousand controversies. In the end the system was completely swept away. A mere shell of public education was left, not even as good as before the war. "In this sad plight two noble Yankee citizens helped despairing Texas, George Peabody, the princely merchant, who donated $3,000,000 to encourage public education in ,he South; Dr. Barnas Sears, formerly president of Brown university, was the wise and sympathetic agent of this Peabody Board. They introduced superintendents of public schools, the grading of school, the training of teachers, and the public high school. Yank System Returned "It is a curious fact in the history of government practically every feature of the drastic school system forced upon the Texas people In there 1371 and which they rejected with such vehemence in 1876 has returned during the past half century In 1884 by constitutiona amendment the districting of counties and local taxation was reaffirmed, the office of State Superintendent of Public Instruction was re-established. In 1887 county supervision was returned, in 1915, compulsory attendance was required uniform State-adopted texts, secularization of the curriculum, and about three years ago regional supervisions were retimed. The centralizing features are not as greaf and probably never will be. "In calling attention to this strange coincidence may I emphasize that there is a profound difference in the manner In which these two systems came about. In the first instance the people of Texas were coerced against their traditions. In the other case these measures have been voted by the people of their own free will after open discussion and reflection. The first was the method of tyranny; the second is _ the method of de"Local interests, private initiative, family interests, church interests, state interests, have all been harmonized In the fundamental policy of Texas edulation. The century has kept the faith of the fathers." REACTION ATLANTA—J. M. Townus boasted one of those rarer-than-a-hole- Tennis Player Answer to Previous Puttie 52 Kettle. 32 French coin. 54 Heartwood of 3 To grasp, a tree. 57 Bugle plant. 58 Virginia willow. 61 Kaolin. 62 He is the national clay court . beings. VERTICAL 1 To exist. 20 Less common. 23 Fire damage. 25 To carry. 27 And. 28 Body of water 29 Beer. 30 Sound. 31 Half an cm. 32 Chair. 34 Wheel hub. 36 Weight allow' ance. 38 Deity. 40 Coat of wheat. B] 42 Timber tree. ™ 44 Alluvial matter. 45 Narrative poem. 46 Fabric eating . . Insect. C Felt one s wuy 48 To curse 7 Branch. 5&Egg-shaped. 8 Entrance. 51 Mentions. 9 Insect's egg. 53 Afternoon 10 Toward. meal. 15 He is a player 55 Stream. on the 56 Myself. Cup team. 57 Sick. 18 He comes 59 Form of "be." from the . 61 Company, 2 Wrath. 4 To guide. 5 Warbler. Dusting The Covers Of Texas Hutofy For THE TEXAS CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION OF 103* AUSTIN, June 8 -^ During the first five years the Texas Republic was in existence, colonists obtained title to approximately 25,000,000 acres of land, it was reported by Arthur Bdn, -Texan consul from England, who sent back to his native country a "Guide to Emigrants," in which he explained general facts concerning almost every aspect of the new republic. His report was published in book form in London in 1841. Of the comparatively few copies which found their way back to Texas, one is now in the Texas collection In the University of Texas 11- >rary. Three different kinds ol titles land In Texas may be classed, primarily, into those obtained un- ler the Spanish or MexlcAn ffov- rnment, and those obtained uhder Lhe Anglo-TfiX-m." Ikin exolaln- ed. "Of the former, Including the grants made to colonists through lie empressarios, there are probably good titles to about twenty nillions of acres. "The titles obtained under the present government are supposed already to amount to twenty-five nillions of acres. They consist of— 1st, conditional grants of land made to settlers, In various quantities, at various times, during 1 and since the revolution; 2ndly, unconditional bounty lands to volunteers, and ;he heirs of deceased soldiers, and to soldiers who. were In certain battles; Srdly, special grants of congress, and titles created by the Issuing and sale of government land scrip. Minter To Drop Suit, Is Report LOS ANGELES, June 8, (IP}— With their attorney reported absent on an indefinite vacation, Mary Miles Minter and her mother, Mrs. Charlotte Shelby, were expected today to drop their suit for $750,000 against a brokeage firm. Both the former screen actress and Mrs. Shelby refused to discuss published reports that the suit, naming Blyth and company as defendants, had been settled out of court and referred inquirers to their absent attorney, Joseph Lewinson. Reports of the settlement said the brokeage company agreed to pay Miss Minter and her mother between $100,000 and $125,000. They sued to recover on admit- ed defalcations of Leslie B. Henry fromer representative of the broke- age firm, now serving a sentence in Son Quentin prison. Blyth anc company contended Henry was no acting as their agent in the investment of the Minter funds. News' Want-Ads bring results "To the purchaser of land in Texas, the most important distinction next to that of the title being valid, or Invalid, is whether it be 'located,' or 'unlocated.' If the former, it should be represented by the original Mexican title-deeds or, when obtained since the revolution, and perfected, by the patent of the present government. If unlocated, as a great number of 'headrlghts' or grants to settlerf since the revolution, and of government scrip still, the first object of the holder will be to 'locate' it which is done by indicating the selected tract of vacant land, sufficiently clear to define it in the register of the county surveyor who, on being assured of the validity of the claim to locate, wil further proceed to have the trac surveyed more exactly, and, for a small fee, enter a plan of it in thi county map accordingly. The char ges of surveying ore three dollar for every linear mile that it run A board of land commissioners who sit fo reach county, shoul next be applied to, in order to approve and confirm the title and location; upon their doing which, nd upon all dues being paid, the ^omtrUssioner of the General liancl Office will issue the patent title. In the survey of lands, the Mexican measure is observed; 3 eometrlcal feet are equal to 1 ara; 5,000 varas are a linear lea- :ue, the square of which, consist- ng of 4,428 acres and a fraction, jr 25 million square varas, is a itio; 4 sitios make ft Texan town- hip; 5 sitios make a hacienda. The labor, which, when each set- ler received the munificent dona- ion of a league, was added to it as arable land, consisted of 177 cres and a fraction, or one mil- i mion square varas. In surveying and which fall on water-courses, not more than half of the square af the survey may He on the tream, if that stream be navigable; if not navlgalbe, Uie Whole , square may front the stream. . Except in the case of govern- • ment land scrip, and special grants of Congress, aliens cannot directly lold real estate in the Republic; but, as in the United States, lands * nay be conveyed to an alien by ; xnid. stipulating to make a legal conveyance to the vendee or his • assigns, on he or they becoming • citizens; which bond, when recorded in the county where the •, and is situated, will prevent any subsequent transfer. Alien heirs of : citizens are allowed ample time to ," obtain estates bequeathed them, and ... . to dfspose of it. - ' "The public land of Texas, which '• amounts to considerably more than 150 millions of acres, is not at • present offered for sale. ' ' "Homogeneous Interests, and a simple, unique form of govern-! ment, are the great political advah- ' Luges which Texas possesses over Ihe United States. Scarcely less is i the comparative smalless of her ' territory, which,'with all Its nat- '; ural advantages, will evidently, if the Texans keep within the limits ' they have assigned themselves, rapidly fill us, so as to form .a really consolidated and densely settled country; unlike the United States, which, as a nation, ap- ' pears to have been ever wasting its energies on too wide a field, and seldom to have efficiently filled up the bold outlines of its undertakings. . . " END OF RAINBOW CHESTNUTRIDGE, N.' C- -E. D. Swann plowed .up a pot of $10 "gold pieces" on his farm here. Ex- " citedly he began digging around for more, and there, they 'were'by the dozens. ~ r: '-.' His fond hopes of retiring, however, were short-lived. Taking his fortune to Asheville, he learned the coins were counterfeit, pr6b;-, ably buried by a counterfeit ring- broken up in this section 30 years ago. ,•••' I In-one double eagles today. Towns ' walloped a brassie about 300 yards into the cup on the 471- vard, par five 14th at the Bobby rones municipal course yesterday. Asked if he fainted after this •.ma/ins feat he grinned and re- ilied. "Np. The reaction didn't ;atch me until the 17th. I had an eight there on an easy par four." HIGHWAYS and BUYWAYS THE advertising columns of this paper are the highways of commerce. There you will find the products and services of firms who are glad to place their goods on display where the greatest number of people can find out im the shortest possible time whether those goods are worthy or not. True, sometimes you can find good values off the highway — among the "unknowns" and the "just-as- goods." But why take the risk—when you can use the advertisements as a dependable guide to value,, and save a lot of time in the bargain? When a manufacturer places himself oin record in the printed page, he is forced to guarantee you consistent quality and service—or the disapproval of millions quickly forces him out of the market. That's why you have such a friendly feeling for old and well- known advertised names—you know you can depend upon them. Read the advertisements regularly and kiftow what you want before you start out to shop. It pays to make the advertising highways your buyways,

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